UzKok01

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Koktepe I ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Burguluk culture; Yaz I civilization ♥ "Durant cette première phase, le site s'inscrit dans le contexte de la ceramique modelee peinte caracteristique de la culture de Burguluk (oasis de Tashkent), qui fait elle-même partie de la civilisation qui, du Turkmenistan au Xinjiang, s'etend dans la periode de transition entre l'age du bronze et l'age du fer, du dernier tiers du IIe millénaire au début du Ier millénaire av. n. e. (epoque dite de Yaz I) (Lhuillier 2010 ; Lhuillier, Isamiddinov, Rapin 2012 ; Lyonnet, ce volume)." (Rapin and Isamiddinov 2013, 124-125)</ref> During its first phase, Kok Tepe was part of the Burguluk culture, which corresponds to the Yaz I civilization from Turkmenistan to Xinjiang (last third of the second millennium BCE - beginning of the first millennium BCE)

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1400-1000 BCE ♥

Earliest: c1400 BCE Of samples taken, earliest C14 date c1400-1200 BCE, latest C14 date 810-760 BCE[1]

Latest: c1000 BCE? "After an apparent chronological gap around the first third of the first millennium BC, the first real monumental architecture appeared on the terrace of Koktepe"[2]

"The transition between the period of the painted pottery (Koktepe I) and the period of the monumental courtyards (Koktepe II) needs further research, as the differences betwen the north-eastern and south-western trends of the early Iron Age cultures still need explanation."[3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Andronovo ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Koktepe II ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Burguluk culture; Yaz I civilization ♥ "Durant cette première phase, le site s'inscrit dans le contexte de la ceramique modelee peinte caracteristique de la culture de Burguluk (oasis de Tashkent), qui fait elle-même partie de la civilisation qui, du Turkmenistan au Xinjiang, s'etend dans la periode de transition entre l'age du bronze et l'age du fer, du dernier tiers du IIe millénaire au début du Ier millénaire av. n. e. (epoque dite de Yaz I) (Lhuillier 2010 ; Lhuillier, Isamiddinov, Rapin 2012 ; Lyonnet, ce volume)." [4] During its first phase, Kok Tepe was part of the Burguluk culture, which corresponds to the Yaz I civilization from Turkmenistan to Xinjiang (last third of the second millennium BCE - beginning of the first millennium BCE)
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Koktepe ♥


♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

"Pre-Achaemenid period. Before the arrival of Iranian peoples in Central Asia, Sogdiana had already experienced at least two urban phases. The first was at Sarazm (4th-3rd m. BCE), a town of some 100 hectares has been excavated, where both irrigation agriculture and metallurgy were practiced (Isakov). It has been possible to demonstrate the magnitude of links with the civilization of the Oxus as well as with more distant regions, such as Baluchistan. The second phase began in at least the 15th century BCE at Kok Tepe, on the Bulungur canal north of the Zarafsan River, where the earliest archeological material appears to go back to the Bronze Age, and which persisted throughout the Iron Age, until the arrival from the north of the Iranian-speaking populations that were to become the Sogdian group. It declined with the rise of Samarkand (Rapin, 2007). Pre-Achaemenid Sogdiana is recalled in the Younger Avesta (chap. 1 of the Vidēvdād, q.v.) under the name Gava and said to be inhabited by the Sogdians. [5]

"Archaeologists are now generally agreed that the Andronovo culture of the Central Steppe region in the second millennium BC is to be equated with the Indo-Iranians. However, no matter how pastorally oriented these people's culture probably was, they were no nomads. They lived in permanent houses, not on wagons or in tents as the earliest nomads are known to have done."[6]


According to Claude Rapin, for "the complex question relating to the Early Iron Age in Central Asia" read this (and another 2001 work)

Francfort, H. -P. 1989. Fouilles de Shortugai. Recherches sur l'Asie central protohistorique, Memoires de la Mission archeologique francaise en Asie centrale 2, Paris.


"it can be provisionally assumed that the two earlier Iron Age phases distinguished at Koktepe could represent the first manifestations of local agricultural development. Maurizio Tosi has proposed that for the southern slopes of the Zerafshan valley, along the Dargom canal, this economic system could have developed from an earlier period, when irrigation was limited to the natural flows of water from the foothills (Koktepe I period), to a later irrigation system, mainly exemplified by the excavation of the great canals deriving from the Zerafshan, the Bulungur and the Dargom (Koktepe II period)."[7]


"As was the case for various earlier constructions, both monuments were abandoned during a period of nomad invasions, possibly in the sixth century BC. (We know, for instance, that east of the Caspian Sea Darius I had to fight Scythian nomads like those represented by their king Skunkha illustrated as a defeated prisoner on the relief of Behistun)."[8]

 ??? - 1000 BCE Koktepe I
1000 - 750 BCE Chronological gap
750 - 550 BCE Koktepe II "sacred courtyard area" "strongly fortified courtyards" [9]
550 - ??? BCE Scythians? "nomadic establishment" [10]
 ??? - ??? BCE Koktepe IIIa "totally different expression of monumental urbanism"[11] - could be Archaemenid


Koktepe IIIa

"The next period is represented at Koktepe by the construction of two platforms with religious and political functions ... and by a huge fortification wall built in the plain around the site."[12]
"this rampart seems to have been built at the same time as the fortification that surrounds the plateau of Afrasiab ... Both walls not only protected monumental buildings, but also encircled a large open area, probably for the surrounding population to shelter with their cattle when necessary. This conception is characteristic of Central Asian urbanism near the steppe areas (Francfor 2001), and is also apparent in later cities, such as Ai Khanum or Taxila-Sirkap."[13]
"The sacred function of the monument, probably related to early Zoroastrianism (or at least to a local cult affiliated to the Indo-Iranian complex), is confirmed by the evidence of a ritual of foundation performed just before its construction."[14]


Early Iron Age settlement C14 dated to second-half of second and beginning of first millennium BCE.[15]

Koktepe site excavated by C. Rapin and M. Kh. Ismaddinov between 1994 and 2008 by the French Uzbek Archaeological Mission of Sogdiana.[16]
Site about 17ha.[17]
Of samples taken, earliest C14 date c1400-1200 BCE, latest C14 date 810-760 BCE[18]
"we can now suggest dividing the Early Iron Age in Sogdiana into two sub-periods characterized by a strong continuity."[19]

Köktepe I:

" L’objet le plus ancien de Koktepe est un poids discoïdal en pierre muni d’une anse datable du XVIIIe siècle av. n. è. Cette trouvaille isolée d’un instrument cultuel suppose le voisinage d’un site du bronze moyen que l’on ne peut identifier pour le moment, car les périodes les plus anciennes de l’occupation de la plaine du Zerafshan ne sont pour l’essentiel représentées aujourd’hui que par le site de Sarazm (Lyonnet 1996) et des trouvailles funéraires isolées (Avanesova 2010).

Le milieu urbain au début de l’occupation de Koktepe est celui d’une agglomération relativement dense composée de maisons à pièces multiples construites en pisé au-dessus du sol, plus rarement creusées dans le sol naturel, mais vers la fin de cette période, l’habitat n’est plus représenté que par des huttes légères (figures 6-7). Le développement économique repose alors encore sur une agriculture sèche qui pourrait avoir été périodiquement secondée par les eaux d’un torrent de montagne (communications orales de B. Rondelli et M. Isamiddinov). Durant cette première phase, le site s’inscrit dans le contexte de la céramique modelée peinte caractéris-tique de la culture de Burgulûk (oasis de Tashkent), qui fait elle-même partie de la civilisation qui, du Turkménistan au Xinjiang, s’étend dans la période de transition entre l’age du bronze et l’age du fer, du dernier tiers du IIe millénaire au début du Ier millénaire av. n. è. (époque dite « de Yaz I ») (Lhuillier 2010 ; Lhuillier, Isamiddinov, Rapin 2012 ; Lyonnet, ce volume)." [20] During its first phase, Kok Tepe was part of the Burguluk culture, which corresponds to the Yaz I civilization from Turkmenistan to Xinjiang (last third of the second millennium BCE- beginning of the first millennium BCE)

"Pre-Achaemenid period. Before the arrival of Iranian peoples in Central Asia, Sogdiana had already experienced at least two urban phases. The first was at Sarazm (4th-3rd m. BCE), a town of some 100 hectares has been excavated, where both irrigation agriculture and metallurgy were practiced (Isakov). It has been possible to demonstrate the magnitude of links with the civilization of the Oxus as well as with more distant regions, such as Baluchistan. The second phase began in at least the 15th century BCE at Kok Tepe, on the Bulungur canal north of the Zarafšān River, where the earliest archeological material appears to go back to the Bronze Age, and which persisted throughout the Iron Age, until the arrival from the north of the Iranian-speaking populations that were to become the Sogdian group. It declined with the rise of Samarkand (Rapin, 2007). Pre-Achaemenid Sogdiana is recalled in the Younger Avesta (chap. 1 of the Videvdad, q.v.) under the name Gava and said to be inhabited by the Sogdians. [21]


Transition period between Kok01 and Kok02: "Sur le plan stratigraphique, la fin de cette première période vers la fin du IIe ou le début du Ier millénaire est apparemment marquée par une interruption de la céra-mique peinte. D’après les vestiges d’une épaisse couche organique présente partout sur le site, cette période pourrait avoir été celle d’une population semi-sédentaire, peut-être assez nombreuse, qui se serait installée à Koktepe avec du bétail.[22]

transition period: starting in the late 2nd millennium BCE/early 1st millennium BCE
no more painted ceramic
thick organic layer found stratigraphically on the whole site: semi-sedentary population, living on Koktepe with their animals.

Edward Turner's interpretation of pre-Achaemenid Sogdiana (Koktepe in particular):

'The essential tension was the sedentary population needed (their irrigated) fields for growing crops, nomads needed land for grazing. so the "strongly fortified courtyards" is a manifestation of this tension.
another reason for fortification would be that wave/s of invasion/destruction had happened before:
"By 1600 BCE, peoples carrying the Andronovo cultural package had displaced, if not destroyed, the Bactrian/Margiana towns".
then the Yaz I replaced the Andronovo - UzKok01. (destruction then as well?)
if the inhabitants within the UzKok02 courtyards were Scythians they had probably invaded then settled c750 BCE, presumably causing some destruction of the previous culture.
an important line of evidence for invade/destroy/replace also is that it is likely that about 800 BCE the nomadic tribes around Central Asia began to use armies of horseback archers. the fact the sedentarized Scythians built fortifications must reflect the increased danger from the Steppe.
their identity lasted until either the Achaemenid or until another wave of Scythians destroyed their culture c550 BCE'.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels.

"C’est suite à cette mutation profonde qu’émerge l’âge du fer ancien (période Yaz I) aux alentours de 1500-1300 av. JC, avec l’apparition d’établissements ruraux disséminés en oasis, comportant quelquefois un petit batiment fortifié qui devait abriter une petite élite gérant la richesse produite par l’exploitation des terres et la maîtrise de l’irrigation." [23] In the Yaz I period: small rural settlements around oases, with sometimes a small fortified building which might have hosted local elites. 2 levels?

(1. Settlement with fortified building (elite stronghold?) )

2. Settlement without fortified building.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ absent ♥ "Le developpement economique repose alors encore sur une agriculture seche qui pourrait avoir ete periodiquement secondee par les eaux d’un torrent de montagne (communications orales de B. Rondelli et M. Isamiddinov)." [24] During its first phase, Kok Tepe relied on dryland farming, occasionally receiving natural irrigation from a mountain stream. "it can be provisionally assumed that the two earlier Iron Age phases distinguished at Koktepe could represent the first manifestations of local agricultural development. Maurizio Tosi has proposed that for the southern slopes of the Zerafshan valley, along the Dargom canal, this economic system could have developed from an earlier period, when irrigation was limited to the natural flows of water from the foothills (Koktepe I period), to a later irrigation system, mainly exemplified by the excavation of the great canals deriving from the Zerafshan, the Bulungur and the Dargom (Koktepe II period)."[25]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred absent ♥ at a later time: "Grain would be stored, at a domestic level, in silos dug below the floors of farms and in jars, thus taking care of daily requirements and of surpluses."[26] -- reference for general region

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ absent ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [27]
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [28]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [29]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [30]
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [31]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [32]
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [33]
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [34]
♠ History ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [35]
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [36]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [37]
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [38]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ In bronze
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Bronze had been used on the central steppes from 1500 BCE. [39]
♠ Iron ♣ inferred present ♥ First buildings with early agricultural system in Zerafshan valley associated with handmade pottery that provides "a provisional dating to the transition of the Bronze to the Iron Age after the middle of the second millennium BC (Francfort 2001)"[40]
♠ Steel ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Slings ♣ ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[41]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[42]
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[43]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ absent before the gunpowder era
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ absent before the gunpowder era

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Swords ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ inferred present ♥ Infomation found on Table 1 about Faunal spectra of the Iron Ages sites of southern Central Asia.[44]
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥
♠ Breastplates ♣ ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ "The study of these sites by the Uzbek-French expeditiondemonstrates that the process of erecting city walls in Samarkand and Kok-tepe and shrines in Kok-tepe included large-scale works [Rapin, Isamiddinovand Khasanov]."[45]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥


Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ suspected unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [46] [47] [48]

References

  1. (Lhuillier and Rapin 2013) Lhuillier, J. Rapin, C. Handmade painted ware in Koktepe: some elements for the chronology of the early Iron Age in northern Sogdiana. Wagner, Marcin ed. 2013. Pottery and Chronology of the Early Iron Age in Central Asia. Warszawa.
  2. (Rapin 2007, 34) Rapin, Claude. "Nomads and the Shaping of Central Asia: from the Early Iron Age to the Kushan Period." in Cribb, Joe. Herrmann, Georgina. 2007. After Alexander: Central Asia before Islam. British Academy.
  3. (Rapin 2007, 35) Rapin, Claude. "Nomads and the Shaping of Central Asia: from the Early Iron Age to the Kushan Period." in Cribb, Joe. Herrmann, Georgina. 2007. After Alexander: Central Asia before Islam. British Academy.
  4. (Rapin and Isamiddinov 2013, 124-125)
  5. (De la Vaissière, Encyclopedia Iranica online, http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/sogdiana-iii-history-and-archeology)
  6. (Beckwith 2009, 49) Beckwith, Christopher I. 2009. Empires of the Silk Road. A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton University Press. Princeton.
  7. (Rapin 2007, 35) Rapin, Claude. "Nomads and the Shaping of Central Asia: from the Early Iron Age to the Kushan Period." in Cribb, Joe. Herrmann, Georgina. 2007. After Alexander: Central Asia before Islam. British Academy.
  8. (Rapin 2007, 36) Rapin, Claude. "Nomads and the Shaping of Central Asia: from the Early Iron Age to the Kushan Period." in Cribb, Joe. Herrmann, Georgina. 2007. After Alexander: Central Asia before Islam. British Academy.
  9. (Rapin 2007, 36) Rapin, Claude. "Nomads and the Shaping of Central Asia: from the Early Iron Age to the Kushan Period." in Cribb, Joe. Herrmann, Georgina. 2007. After Alexander: Central Asia before Islam. British Academy.
  10. (Rapin 2007, 36) Rapin, Claude. "Nomads and the Shaping of Central Asia: from the Early Iron Age to the Kushan Period." in Cribb, Joe. Herrmann, Georgina. 2007. After Alexander: Central Asia before Islam. British Academy.
  11. (Rapin 2007, 36) Rapin, Claude. "Nomads and the Shaping of Central Asia: from the Early Iron Age to the Kushan Period." in Cribb, Joe. Herrmann, Georgina. 2007. After Alexander: Central Asia before Islam. British Academy.
  12. (Rapin 2007, 36) Rapin, Claude. "Nomads and the Shaping of Central Asia: from the Early Iron Age to the Kushan Period." in Cribb, Joe. Herrmann, Georgina. 2007. After Alexander: Central Asia before Islam. British Academy.
  13. (Rapin 2007, 36) Rapin, Claude. "Nomads and the Shaping of Central Asia: from the Early Iron Age to the Kushan Period." in Cribb, Joe. Herrmann, Georgina. 2007. After Alexander: Central Asia before Islam. British Academy.
  14. (Rapin 2007, 37) Rapin, Claude. "Nomads and the Shaping of Central Asia: from the Early Iron Age to the Kushan Period." in Cribb, Joe. Herrmann, Georgina. 2007. After Alexander: Central Asia before Islam. British Academy.
  15. (Lhuillier and Rapin 2013) Lhuillier, J. Rapin, C. Handmade painted ware in Koktepe: some elements for the chronology of the early Iron Age in northern Sogdiana. Wagner, Marcin ed. 2013. Pottery and Chronology of the Early Iron Age in Central Asia. Warszawa.
  16. (Lhuillier and Rapin 2013) Lhuillier, J. Rapin, C. Handmade painted ware in Koktepe: some elements for the chronology of the early Iron Age in northern Sogdiana. Wagner, Marcin ed. 2013. Pottery and Chronology of the Early Iron Age in Central Asia. Warszawa.
  17. (Lhuillier and Rapin 2013) Lhuillier, J. Rapin, C. Handmade painted ware in Koktepe: some elements for the chronology of the early Iron Age in northern Sogdiana. Wagner, Marcin ed. 2013. Pottery and Chronology of the Early Iron Age in Central Asia. Warszawa.
  18. (Lhuillier and Rapin 2013) Lhuillier, J. Rapin, C. Handmade painted ware in Koktepe: some elements for the chronology of the early Iron Age in northern Sogdiana. Wagner, Marcin ed. 2013. Pottery and Chronology of the Early Iron Age in Central Asia. Warszawa.
  19. (Lhuillier and Rapin 2013) Lhuillier, J. Rapin, C. Handmade painted ware in Koktepe: some elements for the chronology of the early Iron Age in northern Sogdiana. Wagner, Marcin ed. 2013. Pottery and Chronology of the Early Iron Age in Central Asia. Warszawa.
  20. (Rapin and Isamiddinov 2013, 124-125)
  21. (De la Vaissière, Encyclopedia Iranica online, http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/sogdiana-iii-history-and-archeology)
  22. (Rapin and Isamiddinov 2013, 126)
  23. (Bendezu-Sarmiento and Mustafakulov 2013, 208)
  24. (Rapin and Isamiddinov 2013, 124-125)
  25. (Rapin 2007, 35) Rapin, Claude. "Nomads and the Shaping of Central Asia: from the Early Iron Age to the Kushan Period." in Cribb, Joe. Herrmann, Georgina. 2007. After Alexander: Central Asia before Islam. British Academy.
  26. (Francfort 1982, 184) Francfort, Henri-Paul. The economy, society and culture of Central Asia in Achaemenid times. in Boardman, John. Hammond, N. G. L. Lewis, D. M. Ostwald, M. 1988. The Cambridge Ancient History. Second edition. Volume 10. Cambridge University Press.
  27. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  28. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  29. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  30. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  31. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  32. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  33. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  34. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  35. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  36. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  37. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  38. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  39. Grousset, Rene. The empire of the steppes: a history of Central Asia. Rutgers University Press, 1970. p. 4
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Rapin, C. and M. Isamiddinov. 2013. Entre sédentaires et nomades: les recherches de la mission archéologique franco-ouzbèke (MAFOuz) de Sogdiane sur le site de Koktepe. In Bendezu-Sarmiento, J. (ed) L’ARCHÉOLOGIE FRANÇAISE EN ASIE CENTRALE: Nouvelles recherches et enjeux socioculturels, pp. 113-134. Paris: De Boccard.