UzJanid

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Khanate of Bukhara ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Janid Dynasty; Astrakhanids ♥ "Jani Muhammad married the Uzbek khan’s sister, and he acceded to the vacated throne in Bukhara as the first ruler of a dynasty called Janid or Ashtarkhanid; the Janids too were Juchids, but not through Shiban but through Tuqay Timur, one of Juchi’s other sons (in fact, his thirteenth son), so that some historians prefer the name “Tuqay-Timurids” to the genealogically less revealing appellations Janids or Ashtarkhanids." [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1599-1747 CE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ nominal ♥ "Under their rule the city and khanate crystallized into an almost classical pattern of a Muslim polity of its time, cherishing and even enhancing traditional values while ignoring or rejecting the vertiginous changes initiated by the Europeans but now reaching other parts of the world." [2] "During his long reign (1611-41) Imam Quli maintained a fairly stable government at Bukhara. Generally, he let the Uzbek chiefs govern their appanages as they wished. His brother, Nadr Muhammad, enjoyed a semi-independent status at Balkh." [3]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Shaybanid Kingdom ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ "What Abdallah did not do, however, was to eliminate his brother-in-law Jani Muhammad, whose father Yar Muhammad had taken refuge with the Shaybanids of Bukhara after the conquest of the khanate of Astrakhan by the Russians in 1556. Jani Muhammad married the Uzbek khan’s sister, and he acceded to the vacated throne in Bukhara as the first ruler of a dynasty called Janid or Ashtarkhanid; the Janids too were Juchids, but not through Shiban but through Tuqay Timur, one of Juchi’s other sons (in fact, his thirteenth son), so that some historians prefer the name “Tuqay-Timurids” to the genealogically less revealing appellations Janids or Ashtarkhanids." [4]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Manghits ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Bukhara ♥ "Samarkand was not neglected either, but the center of political and religious activities had definitively shifted to Bukhara, so much so that the outside world came to think of Central Asia as Bukhara; to the Russians, Central Asian merchants who began to frequent their empire were known as “Bukharans,” and even Sinkiang received the nickname of “Little Bukhara." [5]


♠ Language ♣ Persian ♥

General Description

"Under their rule the city and khanate crystallized into an almost classical pattern of a Muslim polity of its time, cherishing and even enhancing traditional values while ignoring or rejecting the vertiginous changes initiated by the Europeans but now reaching other parts of the world. Most khans, especially the virtuous Abdalaziz (ruled 1645-81), were devout Muslims who favored the religious establishment and adorned Bukhara with still more mosques and madrasas." [6]

"(g) Janids or Ashtarkhanids (or Toqay-Timurids: descendants of Toqay-Timur, Juchi’s 13th son); Bukhara, 1599-1785; Bosworth, pp. 290-1) x. Yar Muhammad 1. Jani Muhammad (1599-1603) 2. Baqi Muhammad (1603-1606), his son, 2nd generation 3. Vali Muhammad (1606-12), Baqi Muhammad’s brother 4. Imam Quli (1612-42), their nephew, 3rd generation 5. Nazr Muhammad (1642-45), his brother 6. Abd al-Aziz (1645-81), Nazr Muhammad’s son, 4th generation 7. Subhan Quli (1681-1702), Abd al-Aziz’s brother 8. Ubaydallah I (1702-11), Subhan Quli’s son, 5th generation 9. Abu l-Fayz (1711-47), Ubaydallah’s brother 10. Abd al-Mu’min (1747), his son,6th generation 11. Ubaydallah II (1747-53), Abd al-Mu’min’s brother x. [Muhammad Rahim the Manghit, in the absence of Janid incum- bency] 12. Abu l-Ghazi (1758-85), from a lateral branch End of Genghisid rule in Transoxania" [7]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [150,000-300,000] ♥ in squared kilometers

219282.13 square km based on an estimate generated on Google Maps Area Calculator. The area was drawn based on the indications of the map referenced above [8] which looks as follows:


♠ Polity Population ♣ [500,000-1,200,000]: 1600 CE; [600,000-1,400,000]: 1700 CE ♥ People.

Populations of Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tadzikhistan, Kirghizstan [9]:

1600 CE: 4 million people
1700 CE: 4.5 million people

AD: The Khanate of Bukhara would only represent a small portion of that estimate, perhaps 1/5th of the population. Considering that this is an estimate based on an estimate (!) it should be double-checked by an expert. However a rough population number for the Bukhara Khanate could be comprised between 500,000 and 1.2 million people in 1600 CE and between 600,000 and 1.4 million people in 1700 CE. (arbitrary estimates, RA's guess!)

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Bukhara had between 110,000 and 140,000 inhabitants in 1900 CE. [10]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

1. Capital. Bukhara

2. Secondary town/provincial capital. Eg. Samarkand
3. Town
4. Village
5. Hamlet

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [5-7] ♥ levels. Complex administrative hierarchy

1. Khan

_Territorial hierarchy_

2. Provinces (wilayat) headed by hakim (governor)
3. Tuman


_Central government_

2. Grand emir
3. Ataliqs - experienced emirs
2. Diwan begi - head of state chancellery and treasury.
3. Diwan - state chancellery


"The Bukhara khanate was divided into wilayats (provinces), each headed by a ha ̄kim (governor). The wilayats were in turn divided into tumans. If a canal was dug from a river, and the water irrigated 100,000 tanabs (1 tana ̄b = approx. 40 m) of land, such land was known as a tuman. District offices were subordinate to heads of departments in the capital. To the name of the official governing the territories of an influential tribe was added the name of that tribe. At the head of the state was the khan, who in theory had unlimited power, although it was assumed that any intended measures should first be discussed with his chief nobles and ministers. In practice, many Janid khans were completely dependent on their grand emirs, who possessed their own troops. While the eldest member of the ruling house was traditionally chosen as khan, in practice it was the individual with the strongest support among the nobles who came to power. Usually the election of the khan was accompanied by a ceremony in which the successful candidate was raised up on a white felt blanket, the four corners of which were held by four influential members of the ruling house, nobility and clergy. A decisive role in the Janid state was played by the ataliqs, who received their pay in the form of an appanage. In theory, the title ataliq was conferred upon a respected, experienced and elderly emir, a ‘knowledgeable, loyal and well-informed person’. In practice, in the second half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century, the office of grand ataliq, which was considered a mainstay of the state, was claimed by the most powerful emirs. The next highest office of state was that of the diwan-begi, who was head of the diwan (state chancellery) and treasury. A significant role in state affairs was also played variously by the kukeldash (kukuldash), lit. ‘foster brother’, who gathered information from all over the empire and was also in charge of hunting accessories, ‘such as various hunting birds, hounds, and so on’ (later, under the Manghits, the role of the qush-begi, lit. ‘chief of birds’, ‘commander of falconers’, grew substantially); the mushrif (supervisor), whose duties included noting all grants made by the sovereign and maintaining records of khara ̄j (land tax) receipts in daftars (tax registers); the m ̄ır-shab (chief of night duty); the da ̄dkhwa ̄h, in charge of receiving complaints from the population; the m ̄ır-a ̄khur, or master of the stables; the dasta ̄rkhwa ̄nch ̄ı (court official, lit. ‘spreader of the banquet cloth’); the munsh ̄ı (chancery secretary), and others. Individuals belonging to the official hierarchy also participated actively in military campaigns. At government meetings and receptions, each official occupied a set place, according to his rank. Some sat and others stood; some were permitted to leave the palace on horseback, while others had to leave on foot. The ruling class included members of the ulama ̄’ (high clergy). Some of these were considered the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad, which allowed them to claim the honorary title of sayyid and seek a high status accordingly. Another group of privileged individuals, calling themselves khwa ̄ja, claimed to be descended from one of the four immediate successors of Muhammad. Beginning in the sixteenth century, a decisive role was played by the Juyba ̄r ̄ı shaykhs, some of the richest individuals in the country. It was usually from among their number that the guardian of the law, or shaykh al-isla ̄m, was chosen. The waqfs were managed by sadrs (‘eminences’), whose task was to supervise the activ- ities of the mutawall ̄ıs, the managers of waqf institutions. Justice was in the hands of qa ̄z ̄ıs (judges). From amongst the jurists a muft ̄ı was appointed, whose duties included ruling on religious and legal questions. An important place in the administration was occupied by the muhtasib (market inspector), whose task it was to ensure order in the market, to check the accuracy of weights and measures in the bazaar, to guarantee the quality and standard of goods, and also to ensure that the inhabitants observed practices enjoined by Muslim law." [11]

♠ Religious levels ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.

(1. Khan?)

2. Ulama (high clergy)
3. Imams

"The ruling class included members of the ulama, (high clergy). Some of these were considered the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad, which allowed them to claim the honorary title of sayyid and seek a high status accordingly. Another group of privileged individuals, calling themselves khwa ̄ja, claimed to be descended from one of the four immediate successors of Muhammad." [12]

♠ Military levels ♣ [5-7] ♥ levels. The quote below denotes a very hierarchical system without detailing the types of military ranks. Therefore, they have been coded as a range.

1. Khan

2. General
3. Captains
4.
5. Individual soldiers

"Individuals belonging to the official hierarchy also participated actively in military campaigns. At government meetings and receptions, each official occupied a set place, according to his rank. Some sat and others stood; some were permitted to leave the palace on horseback, while others had to leave on foot. [13]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Ubaydullah Khan sought to make some departure from the established conventions: rather than confine his choice to members of the distinguished, old-fashioned nobility, he began to recruit to his service the sons of craftsmen and merchants; as his contemporary Mir Muhammad Amin Bukhari noted in his Ubaydullah-nama [The History of Ubaydullah], people ‘of humble origin’ were promoted by him. ‘The son of a slave was made a court official,’ grumbles the indignant historian. Ubaydullah Khan offered ’the little man the places of great men’, made him ‘a ruler of state, a leading emir, and the ornament of the military caste, thereby deviating from the course of previous rulers and from the decisions and habits of his forefathers.’" [14] Even when promotion is not limited to nobles, no examination system is mentioned.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent: 1599-1702 CE; inferred absent: 1702-1747 CE ♥ "Ubaydullah Khan sought to make some departure from the established conventions: rather than confine his choice to members of the distinguished, old-fashioned nobility, he began to recruit to his service the sons of craftsmen and merchants; as his contemporary Mir Muhammad Amin Bukhari noted in his Ubaydullah-nama [The History of Ubaydullah], people ‘of humble origin’ were promoted by him. ‘The son of a slave was made a court official,’ grumbles the indignant historian. Ubaydullah Khan offered ’the little man the places of great men’, made him ‘a ruler of state, a leading emir, and the ornament of the military caste, thereby deviating from the course of previous rulers and from the decisions and habits of his forefathers.’" [15] Coded as inferred absent from Ubaydullah's reign because no regular, institutional procedures are mentioned. AD

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ mints.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ "An important place in the administration was occupied by the muhtasib (market inspector), whose task it was to ensure order in the market, to check the accuracy of weights and measures in the bazaar, to guarantee the quality and standard of goods, and also to ensure that the inhabitants observed practices enjoined by Muslim law." [16]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ "Justice was in the hands of qazis (judges). From amongst the jurists a mufti was appointed, whose duties included ruling on religious and legal questions." [17]

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ "Yet by his generally mild policies Imam Quli Khan acquired a considerable reputation for bringing peace to Transoxania. He had irrigation canals broadened and repaired, and undertook a number of other projects which helped to revive agriculture in some parts of the Bukhara khanate." [18]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ "Of great economic importance were trade relations with neighbouring nomads, who drove their flocks to the outskirts of the settled oases. In Bukhara there was a special bazaar for the sale of horses brought from what are today Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan. Also brought to Bukhara for sale were the distinctive craft items produced by semi-nomads." [19]
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ "Trade was carried on for the most part along heavily travelled land routes, but also along waterways, especially the Amu Darya. For instance, ‘from the Kelif quayside at Termez, where the corn grows well and ripens early’, boats left laden with corn for Khwarazm. As the Bukhara khanate split up into semi- independent principalities, trade was hindered by numerous toll stations on roads, bridges and ferries." [20]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ "Trade was carried on for the most part along heavily travelled land routes, but also along waterways, especially the Amu Darya. For instance, ‘from the Kelif quayside at Termez, where the corn grows well and ripens early’, boats left laden with corn for Khwarazm. As the Bukhara khanate split up into semi- independent principalities, trade was hindered by numerous toll stations on roads, bridges and ferries." [21]
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ "Trade was carried on for the most part along heavily travelled land routes, but also along waterways, especially the Amu Darya. For instance, ‘from the Kelif quayside at Termez, where the corn grows well and ripens early’, boats left laden with corn for Khwarazm. As the Bukhara khanate split up into semi- independent principalities, trade was hindered by numerous toll stations on roads, bridges and ferries." [22]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Arabic

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ madrasas
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ "Abdul Aziz was a patron of theologians and was himself a mufti (jurist) qualified to give theological opinions." [23]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ letters
♠ History ♣ present ♥ "One example is a history which Mahmud ibn Vali, a member of the Uzbek aristocracy, began to write in 1634 and which he called Bahr al-Asrar fi Manaqib al-Akhyar (“Ocean of Secrets about the Legends of the Best Ones”); it was commissioned at Balkh by the future khan Nadhr Muhammad (1641-45). This compendium is in line with the historiographic school that began with Rashid al-Din in Mongol Iran and flowered under the Timurids with such works as Hafiz Abru’s Zafername and Sharaf al-Din Yazdi’s book of the same title, or again with several biographies of Shaybanid khans such as the aforementioned Sharafname-i Shahi, a history of the rule of Abdallah II by Hafiz Tanish Bukhari." [24]
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ "Subhan Quli reigned at Bukhara from 1680 to 1702, and by and large, kept the inherited dominions under his authority. He was able to resist an invasion by Anusha Khan of Khiva in 1685. Himself the author of a large work on medicine, he built a hospital (dar al-shifa’) at Balkh after he had become the khan of Bukhara." [25]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ "Belletristic and musical culture is documented by tezkere books (biographical dictionaries) compiled by Qadi Badi-i Samarqandi and Mir Muhammad Amin-i Bukhari." [26]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ "The documentary (wasiqa and waqfnama) descriptions of tangas can be divided into two groups. Nine wasiqas from the reigns of the Janid khans Wali Muhammad (1605-11), Imam Quli (1611-41), Nadr Muhammad (1641-5) and cAbdu’l cAz ̄ız (1645-80) dating from 1606 to the last quarter of the seventeenth century refer to the tanga as equal to 30 copper dinars. In other words, the tanga exchange rate was equal to that of the ‘new’ tanga of the last of the Shaybanids. The words ‘new’ and ‘pure’ crop up only rarely in the descriptions, however. It is interesting that the mints had stopped issuing copper dinars by that stage (they had turned into units of account). As units of account these were not subject to the exchange-rate fluctuations of real copper coins, and so were a more stable peg against which to fix the exchange rate for silver coins." [27]
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Timurid times, perhaps maintained in succeeding khaganates.
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Timurid times, perhaps maintained in succeeding khaganates.
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥ Absent in Timurid times.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ "Between 1510 and 1540, the Ottomans aided the Uzbeks in manufacturing hand-held firearms that shot copper and iron balls. The Ottomans' strategy was to arm the Uzbeks as a counterweight to the Safavids."[28]
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous polities.
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ "Between 1510 and 1540, the Ottomans aided the Uzbeks in manufacturing hand-held firearms that shot copper and iron balls. The Ottomans' strategy was to arm the Uzbeks as a counterweight to the Safavids."[29]
♠ Steel ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous polities.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ "The Janid dynasty, which had fled from Astrakhan (for this reason also known as Astrakhanids), rose to power in the Bukhara khanate in 1599, and reigned until 1785."[30] The Janid Dynasty were considered to be "vassal amirs or khans of the Persian Empire."[31] "The Uzbeks were nomadic Turkic-Mongol tribes who invaded Transoxania from Siberia beginning in the late fifteenth century ... Tajik referred to nontribal sedentary peoples of the area, whether Iranian or Turkic speaking. During the history of the khanate, Uzbeks were the ruling nobility, and Tajiks made up the bureaucracy and merchant class."[32] Hazara infantry and Uzbek cavalry used against Mughals in the mid-seventeenth century.[33] "Since gunpowder weapons were not very useful against the dispersed, fast-moving Uzbek cavalry, which posed the principal threat to the Safavids, the latter did not have a strong incentive to create a firepower-rich, albeit lumbering, army."[34] At least in the early to mid-16th century "The Ottomans' strategy was to arm the Uzbeks as a counterweight to the Safavids."[35]These references suggest: the Janid dynasty was Uzbek origin; its army was predominantly cavalry in the nomadic traditions of this ruling class; for infantry they may have had to employ non-Uzbeks (e.g. the Hazara); the idea of a cavalry heavy army supported by the army of the Safavid Persians which was specialised to meet the Uzbek threat; Safavid MilTech codes may provide the best proxy for the weapons/armour used by the infantry employed by the Uzbek rulers and also for the Uzbek cavalry. The Safavids had 'combat spears' which were designed to be thrown in battle.[36]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The eighteenth century Durrani Empire used Uzbeks and other tribal groups who were still equipped with spears, battle axe and bow and arrow.[37]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Uzbek cavalry archers were the "masters of mobile battle" who used "Parthian tactics".[38]
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Probably as a result of defeat at the hands of the Safavids, the Uzbek chiefs acquired technicians who could cast guns. Between 1510 and 1540, the Ottomans aided the Uzbeks in manufacturing hand-held firearms that shot copper and iron balls. The Ottomans' strategy was to arm the Uzbeks as a counterweight to the Safavids."[39]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ inferred present ♥ "Probably as a result of defeat at the hands of the Safavids, the Uzbek chiefs acquired technicians who could cast guns. Between 1510 and 1540, the Ottomans aided the Uzbeks in manufacturing hand-held firearms that shot copper and iron balls. The Ottomans' strategy was to arm the Uzbeks as a counterweight to the Safavids."[40] Cavalry lacked firearms (but perhaps only cavalry is being referred too - other units may have had them?): "lacking handheld firearms, the Uzbek cavalry was unable to defeat a well-armed adversary (especially the infantry) taking advantage of terrain and field fortifications."[41] Does Roy (2014) mean to include the Hazara infantry they used in this battle with his statement? If he does then the Hazara fought with some other weapons.[42]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Hazara infantry used against the Mughals in the mid-seventeenth century.[43] - what weapons did they use? The cavalry may have carried a mace as a secondary weapon?
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ Hazara infantry used against the Mughals in the mid-seventeenth century.[44] - what weapons did they use? The eighteenth century Durrani Empire used Uzbeks and other tribal groups who were still equipped with spears, battle axe and bow and arrow.[45]
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ Hazara infantry used against the Mughals in the mid-seventeenth century.[46] - what weapons did they use? At Panipat 1761 CE the Afghans and Mahrattas "fought on both sides with spears, swords, battle-axes, and even daggers". [47]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ Hazara infantry used against the Mughals in the mid-seventeenth century.[48] - what weapons did they use? At Panipat 1761 CE the Afghans and Mahrattas "fought on both sides with spears, swords, battle-axes, and even daggers". [49]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ Hazara infantry used against the Mughals in the mid-seventeenth century.[50] - what weapons did they use? The eighteenth century Durrani Empire used Uzbeks and other tribal groups who were still equipped with spears, battle axe and bow and arrow.[51] Was this an infantry spear and was it a thrown weapon? The Uzbek cavalry are typically referred to as archers but did they also use the lance, as some of the Safavid cavalry did?
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Hazara infantry used against the Mughals in the mid-seventeenth century.[52] - what weapons did they use?

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Uzbek cavalry archers were the "masters of mobile battle" who used "Parthian tactics".[53]
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Probably for shields?
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Probably for shields and body armour?
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ Safavid and Mughal cavalry armour of the period included mail, cuirass (four breast-pieces, back and side plates), arm guards, circular shield, helmet.[54]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Safavid and Mughal cavalry armour of the period included mail, cuirass (four breast-pieces, back and side plates), arm guards, circular shield, helmet.[55]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ Safavid and Mughal cavalry armour of the period included mail, cuirass (four breast-pieces, back and side plates), arm guards, circular shield, helmet.[56]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Safavid and Mughal cavalry armour of the period included mail, cuirass (four breast-pieces, back and side plates), arm guards, circular shield, helmet.[57]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ Safavid and Mughal cavalry armour of the period included mail, cuirass (four breast-pieces, back and side plates), arm guards, circular shield, helmet.[58]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Safavid and Mughal cavalry armour of the period included mail, cuirass (four breast-pieces, back and side plates), arm guards, circular shield, helmet.[59]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Possibly used for transport?
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred absent ♥ Landlocked state, nomadic cavalry-based army.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥ Landlocked state, nomadic cavalry-based army.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ What were the condition/use state of Bukhara's fortifications in this period?
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Dynastic rulers.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [60]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [61]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[62]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[63]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[64]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [65] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [66]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [67]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [68] [69] [70]

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