TrTabal

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Tabal Kingdoms ♥ "The term 'Tabal' is something of an Assyrian administrative convenience. A regional designator rather than a political one, Tabal encompassed a number of city-states, whose porous, shifting borders no doubt made the generalization expedient."[1] "Beyond the Taurus there was Tabal, a confederation of minor kingdoms, which at times managed to gain independence. All these states were concentrated in the valleys and the plains between the mountains, and were separated from each other by the Taurus Mountains. Therefore, the states were located in key positions, allowing control over cultivated areas, the necessary routes for communication, and access to those natural resources necessary for the manufacture of iron."[2] "Tabal is employed as a blanket designation in an Assyrian administrative note written sometime between 743 and 738 BC, which lists the tribute payments of nine kings of Tabal"[3]

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 900-730 BCE ♥

ruling line possibly dates to mid-9th century BCE but could be earlier [4]

Northern Tabal: probably an Assyrian tributary from 837 BCE?? until 730 BCE when Tiglath-Pileser deposed and replaced king Wasusarma. [5]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥

mid-9th century BCE Assyrian records suggest Tabal "consisted of a number of small independent states (which may have evolved several centuries earlier) whose rulers became tributaries of Assyria. Shalmaneser claims to have received gifts from twenty-four kings of Tabal during a campaign which he conducted in the region in 837 ... However, by the middle of the following century, many of the states were apparently consolidated into a small number of larger kingdoms." [6]

"from the time written records begin for the individual states that lay within the land called Hatti in Iron Age texts, it is clear that there was no sense of these states constituting a single political entity, or any form of political federation. Each was entirely independent from the others, each had its own autonomous ruler."[7]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ nominal allegiance; alliance ♥

mid-9th century BCE Assyrian records suggest Tabal "consisted of a number of small independent states (which may have evolved several centuries earlier) whose rulers became tributaries of Assyria. Shalmaneser claims to have received gifts from twenty-four kings of Tabal during a campaign which he conducted in the region in 837 ... However, by the middle of the following century, many of the states were apparently consolidated into a small number of larger kingdoms." [8]

Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III lists five kingdoms of Tabal "among his tributaries": Tabal ('Proper') ... Atuna, Tuhana (Luwian Tuwana), Ishtu(a)nda, and Hupishna ..."[9] "To this list of kingdoms in the Tabal region we can add a sixth, Shinuhtu, attested both in Luwian and Assyrian inscriptions dating to the reign of Sargon II. Shinuhtu's ruler at that time was a man called Kiyakiya (Assyrian Kiakki)." [10]

"...generally speaking, local rulers were free to rule their states in whatever manner they wished, without interference from the Assyrian king, unless they took actions which were prejudicial to Assyrian interests, such as participation in an anti-Assyrian alliance with other rulers."[11]

alliances negotiated between Neo-Hittite kingdoms against one another and against the Assyrians [12]

"What precisely was the nature of Assyrian authority in the west as a consequence of Shalmaneser's many campaigns there? At this stage, direct Assyrian rule over the local kingdoms had not yet been established. It would be another century or so before these kingdoms were absorbed into the Assyrian provincial system. By and large, the imposition of Assyrian authority over the local states meant that their kings accepted tributary status and made regular payments, in one form or another, into the Assyrian royal coffers, and (or else) conceded the Assyrians access to resource-rich regions, particularly the forested areas of the Levantine and northern Syrian coast. We do not know whether the relationship between a local ruler and the Assyrian king was formalized by a written pact - though in at least some instances there may well have been some form of agreement drawn up. But generally speaking, local rulers were free to rule their states in whatever manner they wished, without interference from the Assyrian king, unless they took actions which were prejudicial to Assyrian interests, such as participation in an anti-Assyrian alliance with other rulers."[13]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Neo-Hittite Kingdoms ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ Tabal region: "There is nothing in the material record to indicate that it was significantly affected by the upheavals at the end of the Late Bronze Age, or by the collapse of the Hittite empire. Certainly there is no evidence of a shift of peoples from it in this period." [14] Tuwana: "Conceivably, the kingdom arose in the wake of the Hittite empire's fall, with a population perhaps largely made up of Luwian elements from Tuwanuwa."[15]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Assyrian Empire ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Neo-Hittite ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Artulu; Tyana ♥ Northern Tabal: "Its capital may have been located on the site of modern Kululu, which lies 30 km north-east of Kayseri." c837 BCE the capital was probably the royal city, Artulu. [16] Tuwana: "Its capital is probably to be identified with Classical Tyana (Kemerhisar), 20 km south-west of modern Nigde, though at one time the royal seat ay have been located at Nahitiya, on the site of Nigde itself."[17]

"Tuhana is the best known of the Tabalean principalities. Its capital of the same name can be safely identified with the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine city of Tyana whose ruins lie in the modern Turkish village of Kemerhisar, south of Nigde, where a stela of king Warpalawas was found in 1860. Rock monuments in nearby Ivriz and Bulgarmaden mention this king of Tuhana, the latter as the overlord of a local ruler. Finds of Luwian inscriptions suggest the region of Kayseri as the location of Bit-Purutaš/Tabal; the site of Kululu, where monuments of a number of kings of Tabal have been found, is the most likely to correspond to its capital."[18]

♠ Language ♣ Luwian ♥ "According to a proposal recently made by I. Yakibovich, the core area of Luwian population was located in central Anatolia, in the region of the Konya Plain..." [19]

General Description

During the 900-730 BCE period the region of the Konya Plain was occupied by small independent states, that likely first evolved during the Neo-Hittite period. After the Assyrian invasion they became tribute-sending states to the Mesopotamian Empire but were otherwise "free to rule their states in whatever manner they wished, without interference from the Assyrian king".[20]

Known as the kingdoms of 'Tabal', the term an Assyrian administrative designation rather than a political one[21], there were, according to Assyrian records, 24 of them in the mid-9th century BCE. This number had reduced by the middle of the 8th century, which suggests that the states conquered each other or had otherwise joined together to become larger kingdoms.[22] Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III in the mid-late 8th century listed five tributaries he possessed in Tabal: Tabal, Atuna, Tuhana, Ishtu(a)nda, and Hupishna.[23] Bryce (2012) adds a sixth kingdom to Tabal, Shinuhtu, which is "attested both in Luwian and Assyrian inscriptions dating to the reign of Sargon II. Shinuhtu's ruler at that time was a man called Kiyakiya (Assyrian Kiakki)."[24]

The best-known Tabalean principality was Tuhana. Its capital was at the city later known as Tyana whose ruins lie in the modern Turkish village of Kemerhisar; here a stela of king Warpalawas was found in 1860.[25]


Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [4,000-6,000] ♥ in squared kilometers. Total area divided by 20 (approximate number of kings). 110,000 / 20 = 5,500 km2 for size of average polity.

Assyrian annals refer to about 20 kings paying tribute following the invasion of 836 BCE and this number roughly corresponds to the number of early Iron Age sites found in the region. "The large number of kings mentioned implies that the area was divided into city-states controlled by autonomous or semi-autonomous rulers. Since Tuatti is referred to by name and apparently held sway over several towns, one suspects that he was the most powerful of these kings."[26]

"The exact location and extent of the ancient polities remain stubbornly elusive, but sources indicate that greater Tabal was bounded in the north by the southern bend of the Halys River, in the west by Phrygia, in the east by Tilgarimmu, Melid, and Urartu, and in the south by Hilakku and Quwe."[27]

"The region called Tabal in the Iron Age extended over a large part of south-eastern Anatolia, southwards from the southern curve of the Halys river (Kizil Irmak) toward the Taurus mountains, westwards to the Konya Plain and eastwards towards the anti-Taurus range. The population of the region was very likely a predominantly Luwian one, as it had been throughout the Late Bronze Age and perhaps already in the early second millennium."[28]

"Tabal covered much of what was called the Lower Land in Late Bronze Age Hittite texts, including the territory of the Classical Tyanitis. Westwards, it extended to the Konya Plain, encompassing the sites now known as Kizildag and Karadag." [29]

"The Neo-Hittite states varied considerably in size, from a few to several hundred square kilometres. The smaller Tabalian kingdoms are examples of the former, Hamath and Bit-Burutash of the latter." [30]

Northern Tabal (Tabal 'Proper') was the largest of the Tabal kingdoms, probably contained sub-regions, "it corresponded roughly to the modern provinces of Kayseri and Nigde." [31] [32]


♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

data on Neo-Hittite settlements

"Following the general trends of the Iron Age, the typical Neo-Hittite settlement was a well-protected, but small, citadel. The only exception is Carchemish, which more than doubled in size compared to the already large Middle and Late Bronze Age settlement ... Therefore, the area within the new fortification wall surrounding the 'lower city' now reached around a hundred hectares. All the other capitals were far smaller in size."[33]

"Tuwana was the largest and most important kingdom of the southern Tabal region. Its capital is probably to be identified with Classical Tyana (Kemerhisar), 20 km south-west of modern Nigde..."[34]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

1. City

2. Town
"Since Tuatti is referred to by name and apparently held sway over several towns, one suspects that he was the most powerfulof these kings."[35]
3. Village


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [3-4] ♥ levels.

Assyrian annals refer to about 20 kings paying tribute following the invasion of 836 BCE and this number roughly corresponds to the number of early Iron Age sites found in the region. "The large number of kings mentioned implies that the area was divided into city-states controlled by autonomous or semi-autonomous rulers. Since Tuatti is referred to by name and apparently held sway over several towns, one suspects that he was the most powerfulof these kings."[36]


1. King

Rulers of Northern Tabal claimed the ruling titles "Great King" and "Hero" [37]

_Central administration_


2.
Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: "The focus of each state was an administrative centre where the royal seat was located." [38]
3.
4.

_Provincial government_

2. Sub-king
Northern Tabal (Tabal 'Proper'): the largest of the kingdoms, probably contained sub-regions [39]
Tuwana: "Tuwana's importance in the 8th century, if not also earlier, is indicated by the fact that it contained at least one sub-kingdom, as attested in the inscription CHLI I: X.45. BULGARMADEN (521-5)."[40]
3. Local leader

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ [3-4] ♥ levels.

The Assyrians in 836 BCE found the local settlements fortified "so it is likely that fortifications were built in response to local conditions, rather than foreign invasion."[41] The armed forces, likewise, might equally have been well-organized, albeit on a small scale.

1. King

2. Chief officer, general, or head retainer
3. Another level of command?
4. Individual soldier


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ unknown. The Assyrians in 836 BCE found the local settlements fortified "so it is likely that fortifications were built in response to local conditions, rather than foreign invasion."[42] The armed forces, likewise, might equally have been well-organized, albeit on a small scale. However, this does not mean the chief officers were full-time, specialist military officers, who did not also have other jobs.

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The Assyrians in 836 BCE found the local settlements fortified "so it is likely that fortifications were built in response to local conditions, rather than foreign invasion."[43] The armed forces, likewise, might equally have been well-organized, albeit on a small scale, but the evidence is not conclusive.

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: "The focus of each state was an administrative centre where the royal seat was located",[44] but this does not tell us whether bureaucrats were full-time professionals.

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥ City-states must have had small scale administrations and were unlikely to have needed examination system to sort candidates even if such a concept existed at the time, of which we do not know.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: "The focus of each state was an administrative centre where the royal seat was located",[45] but this does not tell us whether there were specialized government buildings.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥

♠ Judges ♣ ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥ early Iron age sites surrounded by mountains and natural resources.[46]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Location very close to Tabal kingdoms: "A unique document marking this final phase of independence is the bilingual inscription(in Phoenician and Luwian hieroglyphs) from Karatepe. It was written in the second half of the eighth century BC. The inscription belongs to a certain Asatiwata, who celebrated the construction of his fortress, Asatiwatiya (Karatepe) .. Asatiwata was not an independent ruler, but a vassal of Urikki of the 'House of Mopsos', a king of Que (known as Adana in Hittite and Danunim in Phoenician)"[47]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Luwian inscriptions[48] "shared cultural traditions that are best demonstrated by the numerous Luwian inscriptions and rock reliefs found in the Western Taurus."[49]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: "The focus of each state was an administrative centre where the royal seat was located." [50]
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred absent ♥ No coinage in region until Lydia.
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred absent ♥ No coinage in region until Lydia.
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Thomas Cressy ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ present as used in bronze
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ bronze had long been in use and bronze swords have been uncovered in Anatolia during this time[51]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ This code was previously omitted so I added it here and coded as present as bronze had been in use by the previous polity and iron swords have been uncovered in Anatolia during this time[52]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Not known to have been in use here yet

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Gaebel thinks it is "probable that the Hittite chariots carried javelin throwers and archers."[53]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in literature and extremely unlikely to be present, being a weapon of the Americas
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region.[54] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[55]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[56]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records.[57] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone".[58] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE.[59] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did.[60] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE.[61] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons.[62] There is no direct evidence for catapults for this time/location. The aforementioned evidence we currently have covering the wider ancient world suggests they were probably not used at this time, perhaps because effective machines had not been invented yet.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in literature
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in literature
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region.[63]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Swords had long been in use and have been uncovered in Anatolia during this time.[64] "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier's primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken."[65]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region.[66] Spear-using phalanx first used in Sumer 2500 BCE. The phalanx was in use until the 1st century BCE.[67]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in literature

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in literature
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ use as Pack Animals appears by around 7000 BC onward in the region [68]
♠ Horses ♣ inferred present ♥ Based on previous polities, it is clear horses were a large part of warfare in the region, particularly chariots
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Bactrian Camels' first used in battle 853 BC by the nearby Assyrians, but no evidence of use in Tabal [69]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for use in warfare yet

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region.[70]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Closest reference in Anatolia is the Hittite period.[71] In Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply."[72]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples.[73]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region.[74]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ boats had been in use in the region for thousands of years
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Urartu’s craftsmen used iron picks and hammers to forge horizontal planes out of bedrock on which to erect the empire’s numerous and imposing stone fortresses. [75]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ 'Urartu’s craftsmen used iron picks and hammers to forge horizontal planes out of bedrock on which to erect the empire’s numerous and imposing stone fortresses.' [76]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ the stone is shaped with iron picks and hammers, not bound together with mortar. 'Urartu’s craftsmen used iron picks and hammers to forge horizontal planes out of bedrock on which to erect the empire’s numerous and imposing stone fortresses.' [77]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in sources
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Based on previous polity fortifications and the stone fortresses built in this time, it seems safe to say the history of complex fortifications continue here
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km. Not mentioned in literature
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Cannon equipped reinforced star forts are not yet in use


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥ Unknown?
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥ Unknown?
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥ Unknown?

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ Several Tabal kings passed power on to their sons, such as Tuwati I to Kikki or Tuwati II to Wasusarma: we can infer that elite status was hereditary. [78]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred present ♥ "They are commonly referred to as the Neo-Hittite kingdoms, since they preserved a number of Hittite cultural traditions, including elements of Hittite religion, architecture and iconography." [79] Unfortunately, the authors of this quote do not then go on to explain which specific 'elements' of Hittite religion were preserved by the Neo-Hittites, but, for now, this seems sufficient to infer continuity. “As the protegé of the national deity, the Storm-God or, later, the Sun-Goddess of Arinna, the king acted as his or her chief priest. The Sun-Goddess was said to run before the king in battle, thus ensuring his victory. From the earliest records, the throne-deity Halmasuitt was a divine patron of the office she symbolized. In a ritual for the foundation of the king’s palace, she delivered the insignias of power to the king. The kings of the empire period also enjoyed the protection of a personal deity. In monumental reliefs as well as on seals, the personal deity is sometimes shown protectively embracing the king, as Sharruma embraces Tudhaliya IV at Yazilikaya.” [80]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ inferred absent ♥ "They are commonly referred to as the Neo-Hittite kingdoms, since they preserved a number of Hittite cultural traditions, including elements of Hittite religion, architecture and iconography." [81] Unfortunately, the authors of this quote do not then go on to explain which specific 'elements' of Hittite religion were preserved by the Neo-Hittites, but, for now, this seems sufficient to infer continuity. “The most common way of saying in Hittite that the king or queen had died was ‘the king became a god.’ And logically, if the king ‘’became’’ a god at death, he was not such during his lifetime.” [82]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ inferred absent ♥ "They are commonly referred to as the Neo-Hittite kingdoms, since they preserved a number of Hittite cultural traditions, including elements of Hittite religion, architecture and iconography." [83] Unfortunately, the authors of this quote do not then go on to explain which specific 'elements' of Hittite religion were preserved by the Neo-Hittites, but, for now, this seems sufficient to infer continuity. “In contrast to the intimacy that the Hittite king enjoyed with the divine sphere, his connection to his subjects was guarded. This relationship is expressed officially in the imagery of the shepherd protecting his flock: 'May the land of Hatti graze abundantly (?) in the hand of the labarna (i.e., the king) and tawananna (i.e., the queen), and may it expand!' In reality, however, outside of his family and principal advisors, the king probably had almost no contact with the people he ruled, living instead an isolated existence designed in part to preserve his life and in part to protect him from pollution. As priest of the gods, the king’s purity was a matter of considerable concern, and the lives of those whose carelessness jeopardized his higher state were forfeit. One cannot help but wonder what the average farmer or coppersmith privately thought of this remote figure.” [84]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ "They are commonly referred to as the Neo-Hittite kingdoms, since they preserved a number of Hittite cultural traditions, including elements of Hittite religion, architecture and iconography." [85] Unfortunately, the authors of this quote do not then go on to explain which specific 'elements' of Hittite religion were preserved by the Neo-Hittites, but, for now, this seems sufficient to infer continuity. “In contrast to the intimacy that the Hittite king enjoyed with the divine sphere, his connection to his subjects was guarded. This relationship is expressed officially in the imagery of the shepherd protecting his flock: 'May the land of Hatti graze abundantly (?) in the hand of the labarna (i.e., the king) and tawananna (i.e., the queen), and may it expand!' In reality, however, outside of his family and principal advisors, the king probably had almost no contact with the people he ruled, living instead an isolated existence designed in part to preserve his life and in part to protect him from pollution. As priest of the gods, the king’s purity was a matter of considerable concern, and the lives of those whose carelessness jeopardized his higher state were forfeit. One cannot help but wonder what the average farmer or coppersmith privately thought of this remote figure.” [86]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "They are commonly referred to as the Neo-Hittite kingdoms, since they preserved a number of Hittite cultural traditions, including elements of Hittite religion, architecture and iconography." [87] Unfortunately, the authors of this quote do not then go on to explain which specific 'elements' of Hittite religion were preserved by the Neo-Hittites, but, for now, this seems sufficient to infer continuity.

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "They are commonly referred to as the Neo-Hittite kingdoms, since they preserved a number of Hittite cultural traditions, including elements of Hittite religion, architecture and iconography." [88] Unfortunately, the authors of this quote do not then go on to explain which specific 'elements' of Hittite religion were preserved by the Neo-Hittites, but, for now, this seems sufficient to infer continuity.

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "They are commonly referred to as the Neo-Hittite kingdoms, since they preserved a number of Hittite cultural traditions, including elements of Hittite religion, architecture and iconography." [89] Unfortunately, the authors of this quote do not then go on to explain which specific 'elements' of Hittite religion were preserved by the Neo-Hittites, but, for now, this seems sufficient to infer continuity.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [90] [91] [92]

References

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