TrLydia

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Rosalind Purcell ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Kingdom of Lydia ♥ Named after King Lydus, of the Atyad dynasty, who ruled before the Mermnad dysnasty according to Herodotus. [1] Homer said original name was Maionia or Maeonia.[2]

♠ Alternative names ♣ Mermnad dynasty; Maeonia; Luddi; Lydian Empire ♥ Maeonia was an earlier name for Lydia, mentioned by Homer. It is unclear whether it was still used during the Mermnad dynasty. The first king of the Mermnad dynasty was called "Gyges of the Luddi" in the Assyrian records of Assurbanipal. [3]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 560 BCE ♥

1. 619-560 BCE

Peak "development and stability" was the long reign of Alyattes.[4]

2. 560-546 BCE

The reign of Croesus, King of the saying "as rich as Croesus". Several campaigns during the previous reign of Alyattes and again during the reign of Croesus led to the expansion of Lydia. The Eastern border stretched to the Halys river in Central Anatolia, where eventually a peace treaty was acknowledge between the Lydians in the west and the Medians in the east. Perhaps Croesus' most significant contribution was to require that annual tribute be extracted from conquered states to the west, thus turning Lydia into an Empire. [5]

It became a powerful force in Anatolia during the Mermnad dynasty, where it expanded it's control to the majority of western Anatolia. A number of Mermnad kings also attacked Greek states, but Lydia never maintained control of Greek lands for long. [6]

Mermnad dynasty kings

Gyges (680 - 644 BCE); Ardys (644 - late 7th century BCE); Sadyattes (late 7th century - 610 BCE); Alyattes (610 - 560 BCE); Croesus (560 - 540's BCE)

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 670-546 BCE ♥

Began as a Neo-Hittite state. period earlier than 700 BCE covered by quasi-polity. 546 BCE: date of Persian conquest of Anatolia.

Founded by Gyges around 670 BCE.[7]

Herodotus says Gyges followed by Ardys, Sadyattes and Alyattes. These kings expelled the Cimmerians and built the kingdom, and conquered Greek cities in Asia Minor. Croesus was the last king before the Persians took Sardis.[8]

Mermnad dynasty kings Gyges (680 - 644 BCE); Ardys (644 - late 7th century BCE); Sadyattes (late 7th century - 610 BCE); Alyattes (610 - 560 BCE); Croesus (560 - 540's BCE)


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederated state ♥ The Kingdom of Lydia had mixed levels of centralization. In some areas control was strongly in the hands of the kings, for example, Alyattes appointed his son Croesus as governor of Adramyttetion, northwest of Lydia, when Cimmerians were causing trouble there. However, in the form of an Empire, much of Lydia's control was carried out throught the enforcement of annnual tribute. [9]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ personal union; alliance ♥ Lydia frequently utilised marriage as a form of peace treaty. When Alyattes expanded Lydia to the East, he met a Median army expanding their territory from Susiana. An indicisive battle was fought and a truce was declared with the Halys river as the border between the two empires. To seal the deal Alyattes' daughter was married to the son of Cyaxeres, the Median king. Alyattes himself married Ionian and Carian women and married another daught to the tyrant of Ephesus. [10]

Sought alliance with Assyrians against the Cimmerians.[11]

Alliance with Egypt against the Assyrians.[12]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Konya Plain - Cimmerian Period ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Achaemenid Empire ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared. By 650 BCE, the region of Asia Minor was integrated into a Mediterranean wide zone which had further increased in size (coast of southern France, more of the Libyan coast and northern Adriatic) by 500 BCE.[13] "Much of what tied this world together remained commercial transactions. Except in Levantine waters, the later 7th and 6th centuries saw a further burgeoning of trade, and the final realization of a Mediterranean-wide market, already partly interdependent and governed by the regime of cheap martime transport costs, specialist production and extensive importation"[14]

♠ Capital ♣ Sardis ♥ [15] Sardis.[16]

♠ Language ♣ Lydian ♥ There are two schools of thought about the origins of the Lydian language. One suggests that it arose in north-western Anatolia and its speakers entered and settled Lydia sometime after the 12th century CBE, before written Lydia arose in 7th century CBE. Other scholars suggest that Lydia was the language of the Bronze Age including the first settlers of Sardis and other urban centres of the time. [17]

General Description

One of a number of small kingdoms in Anatolia, the Kingdom of Lydia under the Mermnad dynasty (670-546 BCE), which began with the rule of king Gyges and ended with Croesus in the 540s BCE, came to dominate Anatolia after the conquest of Phrygia. Blessed with a rich supply of minable electrum, the natural alloy of silver and gold, Lydia is most famous for being the likely birthplace of coinage.[18]

Like Phrygia archaeologists lack detailed understanding of Lydian government but they believe the rulers ruled from a Palace citadel above the capital Sardis. Some areas under Lydian control were directly ruled through appointments made by the kings: for example, Alyattes appointed his son Croesus as governor of Adramyttetion, northwest of Lydia, when Cimmerians were causing trouble there. However, the Greek city states attacked by Mermnad kings, whom were required to pay tribute, were generally never under Lydian control for long.[19]

The 650 BCE and 500 BCE period was characterized by the expansion of an integrated Mediterranean trading zone[20] and it seems that pragmatic deal-making to preserve this economic system often characterized Lydian relations with other states.

The most immediate threat appears to have been the nomadic Cimmerians who initially were expelled[21] which at times lead to an alliance with Assyria[22] which also became an enemy that required an alliance with Egypt.[23]

Lydia kings often utilised marriages to secure alliances with many foreign powers, including the Persian Medians as well as Greek Ionians and Carians and the tyrant of Ephesus.[24]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 250,000: 600 BCE ♥ in squared kilometers

At peak eastern border was at the Halys River.[25]

Core area of Lydia Turkish province of Usak.[26]

Lydia was an Empire of c250,000 km2 by late 7th century.[27]


♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [6,000-24,000] ♥ Inhabitants.

Miletus 6,000-24,000 at a Seshat standard estimate of 50-200 persons per hectare.

Archaic Miletus, pre-494 BCE: "implied intra muros area 120 ha".[28]

Unlikely to be the capital, Sardis. At its "heyday (150 BC - AD 250)" something above 5000.[29]

How large were the Greek cities along the coast of Asia Minor?

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [3-5] ♥ levels. A very rough estimate.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels.

Was a neo-Hittite polity. Hittite New Kingdom had [4-5] levels and it is reasonable to suppose that the Lydian Empire had at least as many as this.

The tributary Greek city states may have had a number of government levels.


1. King

rulers ruled from a Palace/citadel above Sardis.
 ? Manager of a government mint
 ? Mint worker


♠ Religious levels ♣ [3-4] ♥ levels.

No data. There were likely a number of religious levels in the temples. Have not read anything to suggest the king was the top priest (as in New Kingdom Hittite) but there are no literary records from this period and this might have been the case. However, since Lydia was a neo-Hittite state, it may be reasonable to code [3-4] based on the 4 levels coded for the New Kingdom Hittites.

Croesus built the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.[30]


♠ Military levels ♣ [4-7] ♥ levels.

No data. Lydia was a neo-Hittite state and the New Kingdom Hittites had [6-7] levels including at the lowest levels Officers of 10, Officers of 100 and leaders of brigades of 1000. If Lydia inherited a similar system then there would be at least 5 levels

King 1000 100 10 Individual soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ {present; absent} ♥ "When Alyattes, father of Croesus the king of Lydians, was campaigning against Caria, he instructed his generals to bring their forces to Sardis on a day which he appointed." Account by Nicolas of Damascus. [31] "The Bronze Age army was an army of specialists and corvee soldiers. The army of the Early Iron Age was a 'military population' charged with enthusiasm, guided by the decisions of kin-based groups united in council and not by impositions from the state administration. Moreover, this army chose its charismatic leaders, who would return to their previous occupation once the danger was overcome."[32]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ "Croesus asked a rich Lydian, Sadyattes, for money to hire mercenaries." Account by Nicolas of Damascus. [33] "The Bronze Age army was an army of specialists and corvee soldiers. The army of the Early Iron Age was a 'military population' charged with enthusiasm, guided by the decisions of kin-based groups united in council and not by impositions from the state administration. Moreover, this army chose its charismatic leaders, who would return to their previous occupation once the danger was overcome."[34]

One hypothesis for Lydian coinage "is that these coins were intended for issuing pay to mercenaries, and for spending internally."[35]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ Croesus built the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.[36]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥ Rulers were likely helped by full time administrators. Production of Lydian coinage[37] must have required mints and implies existence of bureaucrats making and implementing technical decisions. Alliances such as against Assyrians[38] implies couriers who delivered messages and diplomatic staff who helped compose them.

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ Dio Chrysostom tells the story of Alcmeon given a gift from Croesus. "They say that the Lydian allowed him to open his treasuries and carry off all the gold he wanted. He, they say, went in and loaded himself with the king's gift with a will, filling the deep womanish folds of the lengthy tunic tht he wore and the large spacious boots which he had put on purposefully." [39] Lydian coinage [40] must have required government mints.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥

From the Aegean region, which includes Greek cities of Lydia on the coast of Western Asia Minor: "By the 6th century BC, writing was widespread there and, thanks to the later reverence for Greek culture, huge amounts survive in transmission beyond that on archaeologically durable media." This material included "law".[41]

♠ Judges ♣ ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ Likely maintained given the value of trade when it had to be carried inland. "Much of what tied this world together remained commercial transactions. Except in Levantine waters, the later 7th and 6th centuries saw a further burgeoning of trade, and the final realization of a Mediterranean-wide market, already partly interdependent and governed by the regime of cheap martime transport costs, specialist production and extensive importation"[42] Lydia had a reputation among Greek historians for its luxury and opulence and it is difficult to imagine this without the existence of some maintained roads.
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ inferred present ♥ "Much of what tied this world together remained commercial transactions. Except in Levantine waters, the later 7th and 6th centuries saw a further burgeoning of trade, and the final realization of a Mediterranean-wide market, already partly interdependent and governed by the regime of cheap martime transport costs, specialist production and extensive importation"[43] "Lydia's martime outlet of Ephesus".[44]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ Lydia had a significant amount of electrum, an alloy of gold and silver, that existed in the alluvial deposits of the rivers around Sardis. There was an extensive associated processing industry that purified the gold and silver. // Lydia was one of a number of small kingdoms in Anatolia. It was well positioned in the riverlands of western Anatolia and had a rich supply of electrum, the natural alloy of silver and gold.[45]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Alphabetic writing of Greek origins. [46]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Alphabetic writing of Greek origins. [47]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Alphabetic writing of Greek origins. [48]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred continuity with earlier periods in the region
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred continuity with earlier periods in the region
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Dedications? From the Aegean region, which includes Greek cities of Lydia on the coast of Western Asia Minor: "By the 6th century BC, writing was widespread there and, thanks to the later reverence for Greek culture, huge amounts survive in transmission beyond that on archaeologically durable media. In addition to poetry, dedications, laws, mathematics and philosophy ... historians"[49]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Laws. From the Aegean region, which includes Greek cities of Lydia on the coast of Western Asia Minor: "By the 6th century BC, writing was widespread there and, thanks to the later reverence for Greek culture, huge amounts survive in transmission beyond that on archaeologically durable media. In addition to poetry, dedications, laws, mathematics and philosophy ... historians"[50]
♠ History ♣ inferred present ♥ "Hecataeus, the first known name in a line of historians with a geographical bent, was born at Miletus around 530 BC."[51] 530 BCE is just a few years after the end date of this polity. Miletus on the coast of Western Asia Minor was one of the Greek cities within the Lydian Empire.
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Philosophy. From the Aegean region, which includes Greek cities of Lydia on the coast of Western Asia Minor: "By the 6th century BC, writing was widespread there and, thanks to the later reverence for Greek culture, huge amounts survive in transmission beyond that on archaeologically durable media. In addition to poetry, dedications, laws, mathematics and philosophy ... historians"[52]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Mathematics. From the Aegean region, which includes Greek cities of Lydia on the coast of Western Asia Minor: "By the 6th century BC, writing was widespread there and, thanks to the later reverence for Greek culture, huge amounts survive in transmission beyond that on archaeologically durable media. In addition to poetry, dedications, laws, mathematics and philosophy ... historians"[53] Writings on mathematics, philsophy and the ordering of celestial and earthly space"[54]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Poetry. From the Aegean region, which includes Greek cities of Lydia on the coast of Western Asia Minor: "By the 6th century BC, writing was widespread there and, thanks to the later reverence for Greek culture, huge amounts survive in transmission beyond that on archaeologically durable media. In addition to poetry, dedications, laws, mathematics and philosophy ... historians"[55]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ Lydia had a reputation among Greek historians for its luxury and opulence.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred absent: 600 BCE ♥ "By the early 6th century BC, the east Aegean Greek towns bordering Lydia were issuing their own mainly silver coins, as was maritime Aegina. City-states in southern Italy were soon active too, ad in the late 6th century some on Cyrpus and coastal, metal-rich Populonia in Etruria followed suit, the latter with large units rather than small change."[56]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Lydian coinage. "True coins started to be minted with a decade or two on either side of 600 BC, by Lydia to judge by their emblem of lion's head and paws, the first known were found alongside stamped weights at Lydia's martime outlet of Ephesus, a city-state where Anatolian and Greek traditions mingled around a famous shrine to Artemis."[57] Lydia was one of a number of small kingdoms in Anatolia. It was well positioned in the riverlands of western Anatolia and had a rich supply of electrum, the natural alloy of silver and gold. Lydia is thought to be the birthplace of coinage.[58]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Rosalind Purcell; Thomas Cressy ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ present as used in bronze
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ bronze had long been in use and bronze swords have been uncovered in Anatolia during this time[59]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ iron knife found[60]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Not known to have been in use here yet

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ "He removed the javelins and spears and all the weapons men use in war from their rooms and heaped them up in the women's quarters lest any of them suspended above Atys should fall on him" Account of Croesus attempts to protect his son by Herodotus. [61]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ weapon of the Americas
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ [62] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[63] Bows were used by the Greeks and Romans but they didn't place much emphasis on the bow as a weapon preferring instead infantry combat.[64]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ "The ancient Hewbrews considered the Lydians accomplished archers."[65] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[66] Bows were used by the Greeks and Romans but they didn't place much emphasis on the bow as a weapon preferring instead infantry combat.[67]
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not at this time: "the hand-held crossbow was invented by the Chinese, in the fifth century BC, and probably came into the Roman world in the first century AD, where it was used for hunting."[68] The crossbow also developed after the Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE.[69]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records.[70] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone".[71] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE.[72] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did.[73] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE.[74] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons.[75] There is no direct evidence for catapults for this time/location. The aforementioned evidence we currently have covering the wider ancient world suggests they were probably not used at this time, perhaps because effective machines had not been invented yet.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet.

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ iron knife found[76]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier's primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken."[77]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "His was not that kind of strength and fecklessness of spirit, as I gather from my forebear, who saw him drive the thick columns of Lydian cavalry into confusion along the plain of Hermus, and he a spear-bearing mortal" Account by Minnermus [78] Spear-using phalanx first used in Sumer 2500 BCE. The phalanx was in use until the 1st century BCE.[79]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ present ♥ "When the Cimmmerians, who have strange and beastly physiques, campaigned against him, Alyattes with the rest of his army led out to battle the fiercest war-dogs. They fastened on the barbarians as if they were wild beasts, killed many of them and compelled the remainder to flee shamefully." Account by Polyaenus. [80] The Lydian king Alyattes used hounds against the Cimmerians in the sixth century BCE, apparently to great effect.[81]
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ "His was not that kind of strength and fecklessness of spirit, as I gather from my forebear, who saw him drive the thick columns of Lydian cavalry into confusion along the plain of Hermus, and he a spear-bearing mortal" Account by Minnermus [82]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Horse bridle ornaments decorated in a nomadic animal style might reflect the impact on Lydian horsemanship of Cimmerians and Scythians, who were present at Sardis in the seventh and early sixth centuries b.c.e[83]
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Bactrian Camels' first used in battle 853 BC by the nearby Assyrians, but no evidence of use in Tabal [84]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for use in warfare yet

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ It can be inferred from testimonials of ceremonial shields. "A gold shield and spear were sent to Amphiaraus" by Croesus. [85]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Egypt probably worn by charioteers by the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE.[86] Earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer. After this time use of helmets became widespread.[87]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Closest reference in Anatolia is the Hittite period.[88] In Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply."[89] Mesopotamia (the Assyrians) c800 BCE?: iron plates used for shin protection.[90]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples.[91]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Possible. Already introduced by the Assyrians.
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ By 600 BCE early Greeks and Romans had introduced the bronze cast bell muscle cuirass.[92]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ boats had been in use for thousands of years in this NGA
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ citadel mentioned below
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ 'By the end of Croesus’s reign, Sardis was a city of monumental architecture that included: a fortification wall twenty meters thick (figure 52.3) that enclosed a lower city area of about 108 hectares; terraces of white ashlar masonry that regularized natural slopes and contours of the acropolis (figures 52.4, 52.5; Ratté 2011); probably the triple-wall defenses of the acropolis—if they are not Persian—that later impressed Alexander the Great (Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri 1.17.5; Lucian, Charon 9); three huge tumuli at Bin Tepe—the largest more than 350 m in diameter (figure 52.6)—that were visible from afar and heralded the city to those approaching it (Roosevelt 2009).'[93]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ 'By the end of Croesus’s reign, Sardis was a city of monumental architecture that included: a fortification wall twenty meters thick (figure 52.3) that enclosed a lower city area of about 108 hectares; terraces of white ashlar masonry that regularized natural slopes and contours of the acropolis (figures 52.4, 52.5; Ratté 2011); probably the triple-wall defenses of the acropolis—if they are not Persian—that later impressed Alexander the Great (Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri 1.17.5; Lucian, Charon 9); three huge tumuli at Bin Tepe—the largest more than 350 m in diameter (figure 52.6)—that were visible from afar and heralded the city to those approaching it (Roosevelt 2009).'[94]
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in literature
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Cannon equipped reinforced star forts are not yet in use

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

"Simultaneously, Anatolian cities and temple towns transformed themselves into poleis so that the Hellenic city became the primary cultural, political, and religious center of western Anatolia by 200 b.c.e. The cities of Lydia, Caria, Lycia, and Cilicia adopted Greek arts, language, and public institutions. " [95]

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ "Even then, remnant Cimmerian populations near coastal Adramytteion, just northwest of Lydia proper, may have prompted Alyattes to install his son Croesus there as governor." [96][97]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [98] [99] [100]

References

  1. Roosevelt, C.H. 2012. Iron Age Western Anatolia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Near East. London: Blackwell. p. 897-913
  2. (Rich 2012) Rich, Kurt M V. 2012. Chasing the Golden Hoard: A Tale of Theft, Repatriation, Greed & Deceit. Authorhouse.
  3. Roosevelt, C.H. 2012. Iron Age Western Anatolia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Near East. London: Blackwell. p. 897-913
  4. (Leverani 2014, 544) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  5. Roosevelt, C.H. 2012. Iron Age Western Anatolia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Near East. London: Blackwell. p. 897-913
  6. Roosevelt, C.H. 2012. Iron Age Western Anatolia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Near East. London: Blackwell. p. 897-913
  7. (Leverani 2014, 533) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  8. (Leverani 2014, 544) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  9. Roosevelt, C.H. 2012. Iron Age Western Anatolia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Near East. London: Blackwell. p. 897-913
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