TjSaraz

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Sarazm ♥ "Before the arrival of Iranian peoples in Central Asia, Sogdiana had already experienced at least two urban phases. The first was at Sarazm (4th-3rd m. BCE), a town of some 100 hectares has been excavated, where both irrigation agriculture and metallurgy were practiced (Isakov). It has been possible to demonstrate the magnitude of links with the civilization of the Oxus as well as with more distant regions, such as Baluchistan." [1]

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 3500-2000 BCE ♥

Sarazm "is an archaeological site bearing testimony to the development of human settlements in Central Asia, from the 4th millennium BCE to the end of the 3rd millennium BCE." [2]

"Sarazm probably was abandoned around 2000 BCE, just at the Namazga V/VI transition. On the lower Zeravshan, the smaller villages of the Zaman Baba culture probably were abandoned about the same time as Sarazm."[3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Andronovo ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Sarazm ♥ "Before the arrival of Iranian peoples in Central Asia, Sogdiana had already experienced at least two urban phases. The first was at Sarazm (4th-3rd m. BCE), a town of some 100 hectares has been excavated, where both irrigation agriculture and metallurgy were practiced (Isakov). It has been possible to demonstrate the magnitude of links with the civilization of the Oxus as well as with more distant regions, such as Baluchistan." [4]

♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [750,000-1,000,000] ♥ km squared. "Before the arrival of Iranian peoples in Central Asia, Sogdiana had already experienced at least two urban phases. The first was at Sarazm (4th-3rd m. BCE), a town of some 100 hectares has been excavated, where both irrigation agriculture and metallurgy were practiced (Isakov). It has been possible to demonstrate the magnitude of links with the civilization of the Oxus as well as with more distant regions, such as Baluchistan." [5]

♠ Capital ♣ Sarazm ♥ most important known site


♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

This polity is named after an ancient settlement site at Sarazm, located in modern Tajikistan. The period runs from its initial settlement around 3500 BCE to the site's abandonment c. 2000 BCE.[6] This period at Sarazm represents the first urban phase in Sogdiana and has yielded evidence of ceramic production, agriculture, irrigation and metallurgy.[7] Ceramic evidence, along with the presence of seashells, suggests that contacts were maintained with different areas of Central Asia.[8][9]

Population and political organization

Due to the nature of the remaining evidence, the political organization of Sarazm is not known. While 100 hectares have been excavated at the site, the settlement area expanded and contracted throughout its existence, making a definite population estimate difficult for this period.[10]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [1750-7000] ♥ Inhabitants.

35ha at Seshat conversion 50-200 per ha would give a range of 1750-7000 people.

Sarazm was a mudbrick city that eventually covered 35ha.[11]

"This was a long-lasting and prosperous proto-urban metropolis, at the north-eastern extremity of a vast area stretching from Mesopotamia to the Indus and the Iranian plateau"[12]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.

"Proto-urban Site of Sarazm" [13] "The ruins demonstrate the early development of proto-urbanization in this region."[14]

There were other settlements in addition to Sarazm.[15]

"All those findings prove that Sarazm, following the first nucleation of the mid-to-late fourth millennium BC, developed into a proto-urban centre supplying manufactured goods to its own population as well as those of a vast hinterland." [16]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Buildings remains are numerous at Sarazm. They comprise housing, workshops for craftsmen, storage (granaries), as well as palatial and cult buildings. All are mainly built with earth-brick (adobe) that allowed flexibility in the architecture with a variety of uses, sizes and shapes." [17] Three types of monumental buildings were found at Sarazm: a religious building, a palatial complex and a communal granary.[18]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ "This centre of settlement, one of the oldest in Central Asia, is situated between a mountainous region suitable for cattle rearing by nomadic pastoralists, and a large valley conducive to the development of agriculture and irrigation by the first settled populations in the region."[19] "perhaps at other settlements, eating bread made from wheat grown in irrigated fields (Isakov 1994, Isakov et al. 1987, Lyonnet 1996)."[20]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ "Sarazm also demonstrates the existence of commercial and cultural exchanges and trade relations with peoples over an extensive geographical area, extending from the steppes of Central Asia and Turkmenistan, to the Iranian plateau, the Indus valley and as far as the Indian Ocean."[21] "Sarazm demonstrates the existence of inter-regional trade and cultural interchanges over long distances across Central Asia. This was a long-lasting and prosperous proto-urban metropolis, at the north-eastern extremity of a vast area stretching from Mesopotamia to the Indus and the Iranian plateau."[22] "The Proto-urban Site of Sarazm is one of the places that gave birth to and saw the development of the major trans-Eurasian trade routes."[23]
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ "Buildings remains are numerous at Sarazm. They comprise housing, workshops for craftsmen, storage (granaries), as well as palatial and cult buildings. All are mainly built with earth-brick (adobe) that allowed flexibility in the architecture with a variety of uses, sizes and shapes." [24]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥ "The town played a regional role over a long period and on a very large scale in the working of metals, particularly tin and copper, and the associated development of handicrafts to produce tools, ceramics, and jewellery."[25]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [26]
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [27]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [28]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [29]
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [30]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [31]
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [32]
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [33]
♠ History ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [34]
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [35]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [36]
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥ "The Achaemenids brought writing to Sogdiana, and the written language long remained the Aramaic of the Achaemenid Empire." [37]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥ "The Proto-urban Site of Sarazm had connections with the steppes of Central Asia, and in addition with the Turkmenian, proto-Elamite, Mesopotamian, and Indus worlds."[38] "The Proto-urban Site of Sarazm is one of the places that gave birth to and saw the development of the major trans-Eurasian trade routes."[39]
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ required for bronze
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ "At any rate the Ferghana valley has yielded up a rich store of bronze and silver objects of clearly southern origin. The trove includes a pin with a double-helical head and a mace with a sculptural group representing the milking of a cow and the suckling of a calf. The residents of the southern oases may have been attracted to the Ferghana valley by its tin deposits so vital for metalworking in the Bronze Age." [40]
♠ Iron ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Steel ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ "More than 150 metal artefacts (bronze: axes, arrowheads, knives, spears, hair pins, needles, lead blocks for export, lead stamps; silver and gold jewels) and numerous artefacts made of stone (grinding grains, leather, wood, showcases, bow and arrows, tools, marble cups and goblets) were found."[41]
♠ Composite bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[42]
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[43]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ absent before the gunpowder era
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ absent before the gunpowder era

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ "At any rate the Ferghana valley has yielded up a rich store of bronze and silver objects of clearly southern origin. The trove includes a pin with a double-helical head and a mace with a sculptural group representing the milking of a cow and the suckling of a calf. The residents of the southern oases may have been attracted to the Ferghana valley by its tin deposits so vital for metalworking in the Bronze Age." [44]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ "More than 150 metal artefacts (bronze: axes, arrowheads, knives, spears, hair pins, needles, lead blocks for export, lead stamps; silver and gold jewels) and numerous artefacts made of stone (grinding grains, leather, wood, showcases, bow and arrows, tools, marble cups and goblets) were found."[45]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "The unusually rich metal inventory recovered from Sarazm [...] include daggers".[46]
♠ Swords ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Helmets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Sintashta culture is also in Central Asia (essentially follows the Sarazm 2100-1800 BCE) but I don't think there is enough here to infer present as Sarazm was not between the northern steppe and the forest zone:"One of the signature innovations of the Sintashta culture was the appearance of heavily fortified permanent settlements, with ditches, banks, and substantial palisade walls, in the steppes southeast of the Urals, beginning a shift from mobile to settled pastoralism that was adopted soon afterward across the northern steppe zone both to the east and the west. The late 3rd milennium BC was a time of intensified conflict and intensified interchange between the people of the northern steppes and the forest zone. Conflict and competition for shrinking marsh resources essential for wintering-over pastoral herds probably led to the sedentarization of the formerly mobile pastoralists of the steppes."[47]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Sintashta culture is also in Central Asia (essentially follows the Sarazm 2100-1800 BCE) but I don't think there is enough here to infer present as Sarazm was not between the northern steppe and the forest zone:"One of the signature innovations of the Sintashta culture was the appearance of heavily fortified permanent settlements, with ditches, banks, and substantial palisade walls, in the steppes southeast of the Urals, beginning a shift from mobile to settled pastoralism that was adopted soon afterward across the northern steppe zone both to the east and the west. The late 3rd milennium BC was a time of intensified conflict and intensified interchange between the people of the northern steppes and the forest zone. Conflict and competition for shrinking marsh resources essential for wintering-over pastoral herds probably led to the sedentarization of the formerly mobile pastoralists of the steppes."[48]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Sintashta culture is also in Central Asia (essentially follows the Sarazm 2100-1800 BCE) but I don't think there is enough here to infer present as Sarazm was not between the northern steppe and the forest zone:"One of the signature innovations of the Sintashta culture was the appearance of heavily fortified permanent settlements, with ditches, banks, and substantial palisade walls, in the steppes southeast of the Urals, beginning a shift from mobile to settled pastoralism that was adopted soon afterward across the northern steppe zone both to the east and the west. The late 3rd milennium BC was a time of intensified conflict and intensified interchange between the people of the northern steppes and the forest zone. Conflict and competition for shrinking marsh resources essential for wintering-over pastoral herds probably led to the sedentarization of the formerly mobile pastoralists of the steppes."[49]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred absent for defensive stone walls. A stone wall has been found surrounding a funerary enclosure but this may be considered part of a building: "No large necropolis has yet been found at Sarazm, but excavation IV led to the discovery of a funerary enclosure with a round plan (15 m in diameter) surrounded by a stone wall. (see general plan of the excavation IV)."[50]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The reasons for the abandon of Sarazm by its inhabitants have not yet been identified. Hypothesis include migration of the population, epidemic disease, attack of this prosperous settlement which wasn’t fortified, ..., but none could really be verified."[51]
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [52] [53] [54]

References

  1. De la Vaissière, Encyclopedia Iranica online, http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/sogdiana-iii-history-and-archeology
  2. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1141
  3. (Anthony 2010, 420) Anthony, David W. 2010. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton University Press.
  4. De la Vaissière, Encyclopedia Iranica online, http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/sogdiana-iii-history-and-archeology
  5. De la Vaissière, Encyclopedia Iranica online, http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/sogdiana-iii-history-and-archeology
  6. (Anthony 2010, 420) Anthony, David W. 2010. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7MNNVQRA.
  7. (de la Vaissière 2011) Vaissière, É. de la. 2011. “Sogdiana III: History and Archeology.” Encyclopædia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/sogdiana-iii-history-and-archeology. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/9AS4QQVB.
  8. (Masson 1992, 232) Masson, V. M. 1992. “The Bronze Age In Khorasan and Transoxania.” In History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume I: The Dawn of Civilizations: Earliest Times to 700 B.C., edited by A. H. Dani and V. M. Masson, 225-46. Paris: UNESCO. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JZ5DSUEB/q/masson.
  9. (Isakov 1994, 4-5) Isakov, A. 1994. “Sarazm: An Agricultural Center of Ancient Sogdiana.” Bulletin of the Asia Institute 8: 1-12. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/NWVCFNW7.
  10. (de la Vaissière 2011) Vaissière, É. de la. 2011. “Sogdiana III: History and Archeology.” Encyclopædia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/sogdiana-iii-history-and-archeology. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/9AS4QQVB.
  11. (Anthony and Brown 2014, 63) Anthony, David W. Brown, Dorcas R. Horseback Riding and Bronze Age Pastoralism in the Eurasian Steppes. in Mair, Victor H. Hickman, Jane. eds. 2014. Reconfiguring the Silk Road: New Research on East-West Exchange in Antiquity. University of Pennsylvanian Press.
  12. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1141
  13. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1141
  14. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1141
  15. (Anthony and Brown 2014, 63) Anthony, David W. Brown, Dorcas R. Horseback Riding and Bronze Age Pastoralism in the Eurasian Steppes. in Mair, Victor H. Hickman, Jane. eds. 2014. Reconfiguring the Silk Road: New Research on East-West Exchange in Antiquity. University of Pennsylvanian Press.
  16. (Sarazm Management Plan 2005, 22)
  17. (Sarazm Management Plan 2005, 17)
  18. (Razzokov and Kurbanov 2005: 19) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/IDTTJNJT.
  19. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1141
  20. (Anthony and Brown 2014, 63) Anthony, David W. Brown, Dorcas R. Horseback Riding and Bronze Age Pastoralism in the Eurasian Steppes. in Mair, Victor H. Hickman, Jane. eds. 2014. Reconfiguring the Silk Road: New Research on East-West Exchange in Antiquity. University of Pennsylvanian Press.
  21. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1141
  22. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1141
  23. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1141
  24. (Sarazm Management Plan 2005, 17)
  25. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1141
  26. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  27. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  28. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  29. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  30. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  31. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  32. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  33. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  34. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  35. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  36. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  37. (De la Vaissière 2005, 17)
  38. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1141
  39. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1141
  40. (Masson 1992, 242-244)
  41. (Razzokov and Kurbanov 2005: 22) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/IDTTJNJT.
  42. Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.
  43. (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.
  44. (Masson 1992, 242-244)
  45. (Razzokov and Kurbanov 2005: 22) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/IDTTJNJT.
  46. (Isakov et al 1987: 90) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/EF2N2FE2.
  47. (Anthony and Brown 2014, 66) David W Anthony. Dorcas R Brown. Horseback Riding and Bronze Age Pastoralism in the Eurasian Steppes. Victor H Mair. Jane Hickman. eds. 2014. Reconfiguring the Silk Road: New Research on East-West Exchange in Antiquity. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Philadelphia.
  48. (Anthony and Brown 2014, 66) David W Anthony. Dorcas R Brown. Horseback Riding and Bronze Age Pastoralism in the Eurasian Steppes. Victor H Mair. Jane Hickman. eds. 2014. Reconfiguring the Silk Road: New Research on East-West Exchange in Antiquity. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Philadelphia.
  49. (Anthony and Brown 2014, 66) David W Anthony. Dorcas R Brown. Horseback Riding and Bronze Age Pastoralism in the Eurasian Steppes. Victor H Mair. Jane Hickman. eds. 2014. Reconfiguring the Silk Road: New Research on East-West Exchange in Antiquity. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Philadelphia.
  50. (Sarazm Management Plan 2005, 20)
  51. (Razzokov and Kurbanov 2005: 12) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/IDTTJNJT.
  52. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  53. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  54. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html

Masson, V. M. 1992. The Bronze Age in Khorasan and Transoxania. In A. H. Dani and V. M. Masson (eds) History of civilizations of Central Asia. Volume I: The Dawn of Civilizations: earliest times to 700 B.C., pp. 225-246. Paris: UNESCO.

Penjikent Historical and Archaeological reserve of Sarazm. 2005. Sarazm Management Plan (2006-2010). Paris: UNESCO.