PkIndGr

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Stephen Dean; Alice Williams; Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Indo-Greek Kingdom ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Graeco-Indian Kingdom ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 155-130 BCE ♥ greatest territorial extent. [1]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 180-10 BCE ♥ An independent offshoot of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, eventually conquered by nomads.

"O. Bopearachchi, who has produced what probably remains the most reliable Bactrian chronology (see Table I) ... suggests two kings who may have ruled around 185 B.C.E., Demetrius I and Agathocles, as potential founders. Reluctantly, he dismisses the important Menander as too late for this date."[2] However, Jakobsson (2009) believes "the exact date 186/5 B.C.E. may not be so important, and that a later king, such as Menander, may well have been instrumental in the creation of the era."[3]

The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into northern India from 180 BCE established the Indo-Greek Kingdom, which was a number of various dynastic polities traditionally associated with a number of regional capitals. These dynastic polities were ruled by more than 30 kings, often in conflict with each other. The Greco-Bactrians were originally a Greek colony under the Seleucid Syrian Kingdom of Selecus I. At the beginning of 250 BCE, the Greco-Bactrian state became independent and occupied the former Persian provinces of Bactria and Sogdiana. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians led to the political dominance of a portion of India by the Greek invaders. Successive nomadic invasions by Scythians and other nomads isolated the Indo-Greeks from the wider Hellenic world after 145 BCE. By the beginning of the first century CE, the Greco-Bactrian state was extinguished as an independent entity. However, the Greek alphabet survived until the Islamic conquest as the script of the Bactrian language, and the conversion of a Indo-Greek King to Buddhism became a part of the zeitgeist of the Indian collective historical memory. [4]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ nominal ♥ The two and a half centuries between Diodotus I and the last Indo-Greek king Strato II (10 CE) the names of more than thirty kings have been in recorded the region. Power seems to have been collaborative. The lack of consistent or reliable sources from either Western or Chinese sources means that any answer is largely speculative. As with so much with central Asian history, this is largely as a result of a reliance on numismatic evidence. [5]

Numismatic evidence suggests kingship was collaborative but there are few reliable sources to provide details.[6] It is likely the rulers, who simultaneously produced their own coinage, ruled different parts of the Indo-Greek polity and employed their own administrators. That few of the rulers who succeeded Menander "could easily be named as his relatives, and the Indo-Greek realms were scarcely united after his death"[7] suggests the Indo-Greek region was for the most part not a united state and organization extended only to the limits of a particular king's power. "Hellenistic kingship was personal, not defined by exact borders."[8]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Parthian Empire I ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Taxila (Sirkap) ♥ Demetrius built a new capital at Sirkap, and transferred the population from 'old Taxila' to 'new Taxila' (Sirkap). [9]

♠ Language ♣ Greek; Sanskrit; Prakrit; Bactrian; Aramaic ♥ Coins were minted with Greek, Prakrit and Brāhmī script on them. [10]

General Description

The Indo-Greek 'kingdom' was created after the Greco-Bactrians invaded northern India from 180 BCE. It consisted of a number of dynastic polities that ruled from regional capitals and formed a single entity only to the extent their rulers were able to collaborate. More than 30 kings are known, who were often in conflict with each other.[11]

Bopearachchi suggests the period was founded by two kings, Demetrius I and Agathocles, who ruled around 185 BCE, but Jakobsson (2009) believes that a later king known as Menander was "instrumental in the creation of the era."[12] The lack of consistent or reliable sources from either Western or Chinese sources means that much of what we know is speculative and reliant on numismatic evidence.[13]

It is likely the rulers, who simultaneously produced their own coinage, ruled different parts of the Indo-Greek polity and employed their own administrators.[14] Governance of the Indo-Greek region was for the most part through personal kingship and organization extended only to the limits of a particular king's power.[15]

After 145 BCE, Successive nomadic invasions by Scythians and other nomads isolated the Indo-Greeks from the wider Hellenic world. By the beginning of the first century CE, the Greco-Bactrian state was extinguished as an independent entity.[16]

Of the legacy of the civilization, the Greek alphabet survived until the Islamic conquest as the script of the Bactrian language, and the conversion of a Indo-Greek King to Buddhism became a part of the zeitgeist of the Indian collective historical memory.[17]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Stephen Dean; Alice Williams; Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 105,226 ♥ squared kilometers.

Note on the rulership of the Kachi Plains: The duration of rule over the Kachi plain is uncertain. Strabo, quoting Apollodorus of Artemita, states that the Indo-Greek territory, "took possession, not only of Patalena, but also, on the rest of the coast, of what is called the kingdom of Saraostus and Sigerdis"[18] (the provinces of Sindh and possibly Gujarat). However, "with archaeological methods, the Indo-Greek territory can however only be confirmed from the Kabul Valley to the eastern Punjab, so Greek presence outside was probably short-lived or less significant". [19] And Dr Tarn, "pleads for literal Greek rule over country extending from Kabul in a straight line nine hundred miles south to Broach...He speaks of the coastal provinces south of Patalene (Indus Delta) remaining Greek".[20] This would include the Kachi Plain but no dates are provided.

♠ Polity Population ♣ 60,000 ♥ people. Taxila. Estimate for 200 BCE.[21] Evidence of irrigation and the flourishing trade network seems to indicate a growth of population in the region controlled by the Indo-Greek Kingdom. However, this is largely speculative based on the current archaeological record.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [2-3] ♥ There has been very little excavation of verified Greek settlements, with only one Greek site directly excavated. If this one example typified the situation in the Indo-Greek Kingdom, the Greek polis was the administrative, ritualized, and monumental heartland of the territory, but not the dominant population centre and represented a new construction. Below this newly urban space were the existing infrastructure of towns and villages. [22]

1. Greek Polis

Peucelaotis (Shaikhan Dheri) measured 1.8 x 1.5 km. [23]

2. Surrounding towns
3. Villages

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [4-5] ♥ Based on the structure in place in the Seleucid empires.[24]

Seleucus and his successors had maintained the policy of Alexander in appointing a satrap to oversee a province. Below this level, the hyparchy was a subdivision. Below this level, the direct supporters of the ruler were the 'friends'based on favor or eunoia. The power was further strengthened by vast land holding, villages, slaves and other wealth. Below this level was the topoi and overseen by dioikites or oikonomos.[25]

The Seleucid Empire did have full time bureaucrats, and this system in the Greco-Bactrians also seems to have existed. It is therefore inferred that some element of this system was preserved.[26] [27]

1. King

2. Topio overseen by the dioikites[28]
(Note that under the Seleucids the title Dioketes denoted the individuals responsible for finances, royal land, revenue and expenditure and whom possibly also supervised royal mints and registry offices.[29])
3. Epistates[30]
Note: if it translates directly as the Ancient Greek term, an overseer or superintendent.
4. Scribes inferred


5. Panchayat (council of elders.) [31]


♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ There seems to have been a fusion of Greek polytheism and Buddhist practices in at least some areas of the Indo-Greek Kingdom. There is no good evidence on whether this was made into a formalized practice, or on the structure of religious practice.

"Menander or Milinda (165-145 BC) ... was converted to Buddhism by Nagarjuna. The dialogue that took place between the two is recorded [in] the book Milinda Panha."[32]

♠ Military levels ♣ 4 ♥ The ranks below are based on the organization of the Seleucid army. These ranks were not permanent and command of individual units shifted with the campaign or battle. Civic volunteers and mercenaries would also have operated outside the structure indicated below. [33]

1. King
2. Senior officers of the army: Strategoi
3. Officers: Hipparchoi/Hegemones
4. Common soldiers


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ In the Greco-Bactrian Kingdoms, Iranian aristocrats were members of a permanent elite cavalry. The military officers seem to have been recruited from both native and Greek settlers. As the Indo-Greeks were originally from the Greco-Batrians, the same structure could have been present. [34]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ The soldier-settler, or kleruch, was awarded land and a hereditary obligation to serve in the army under a system known as Kleros. The size of the land grant varied with the rank of the soldier-settler. In addition, soldiers were recruited from native people, especially in the light cavalry. [35]

Amphipolis skin text "a brief receipt concerning payments for Scythian soldiers" of unclear origin which could be dated 157/6 B.C.E.[36]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ The wider cultural zone of the Eranshahr stretching from Alexandria to Kandahar was a fusion of Mazdaism, Hellenism and Buddhism as well as syncretic admixtures of different practices. [37]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥

The evidence is unclear. The Indo-Greeks were on a cultural frontier between Iranian and Indian core territories, but seem to have maintained a distinct and enduring identity. Whether this was extended to a full time bureaucracy is unclear but likely. The Seleucid Empire did have full time bureaucrats, and this system in the Greco-Bactrians also seems to have existed. It is therefore inferred that some element of this system was preserved. [38]

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥ Unknown.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Evidence of a street layout with the possibility of specialized governmental buildings in the Indo-Greek cities. [39]


Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥ The Greek legal code seems to have been in practice in the other Greek successor states. [40] In terms of the details of how this would have been administered, we have little information.[41] Scholarship since the 1960s has not clarified this assessment.

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ "In the towns Greek judges would dispense Greek law, but in rural districts the Hindu codes probably continued with little interference."[42]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥ The Greek legal code seems to have been in practice in the other Greek successor states. [43]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred present ♥ The Greek legal code seems to have been in practice in the other Greek successor states. [44]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ The wealth of the Greeks and the number of cities were based on extensive irrigation and a wetter climate. These were based on the maintenance of Persian networks and expansion under the Greeks. [45]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ Public fountains. [46]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Archaeologists have discovered spaces that could have served as markets based on uncovered Greek town layouts. [47]
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ Town roads.[48] The Persian road network had served as an example of the importance of a large scale transport infrastructure, and was a network maintained by the Greek successor kingdoms. There was also the precidence of royal roads under the Mauryan empire. However, very little evidence of Indo-Greek infrastructure, apart from the street plans of some urban centers, has been found during this period.
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥ Unknown.
♠ Canals ♣ ♥ Unknown.
♠ Ports ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred, based on the classical accounts of fleets heading towards India and the discovery of the monsoons. Trade increased dramatically by the end of the Indo-Greek period, and the Indo-Greeks seem to have, at least briefly, controlled the Sindh and river access to the ocean. [49]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ The Indo-Greeks straddled a crossroads of writing systems and written language traditions. Inscriptions written with the Greek alphabet, use of cuneiform in legal documents and exposure to records in Prakrit are all recorded. Further evidence is found in the Kharosthi inscriptions and the Asokan edicts. Further evidence exist of a transmissions of writing systems to other groups in the North Indian area. [50]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ The Indo-Greeks straddled a crossroads of writing systems and written language traditions. Inscriptions written with the Greek alphabet, use of cuneiform in legal documents and exposure to records in Prakrit are all recorded. Further evidence is found in the Kharosthi inscriptions and the Asokan edicts. Further evidence exist of a transmissions of writing systems to other groups in the North Indian area. [51]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ The Indo-Greeks straddled a crossroads of writing systems and written language traditions. Inscriptions written with the Greek alphabet, use of cuneiform in legal documents and exposure to records in Prakrit are all recorded. Further evidence is found in the Kharosthi inscriptions and the Asokan edicts. Further evidence exist of a transmissions of writing systems to other groups in the North Indian area. [52]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥ Unknown. The Greek cultural world endured beyond the collapse of the successor states. Lexicography, astrological diaries, market prices and records also existed within the wider Greek world. Evidence from inscriptions indicate interaction with the wider literary traditions. This was especially true in regard to the Seleucids and later Arsacid literary traditions. There is also evidence of exposure and conversion by at least one King to Buddhism in the Indian literary tradition. However, given the scarce records of the Indo-Greeks no proof has been found to indicate indigenous literary works. [53]Even the chronology of the period is in question by some scholars. [54]
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥ Unknown. The Greek cultural world endured beyond the collapse of the successor states. Lexicography, astrological diaries, market prices and records also existed within the wider Greek world. Evidence from inscriptions indicate interaction with the wider literary traditions. This was especially true in regard to the Seleucids and later Arsacid literary traditions. There is also evidence of exposure and conversion by at least one King to Buddhism in the Indian literary tradition. However, given the scarce records of the Indo-Greeks no proof has been found to indicate indigenous literary works. [55]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred present ♥ Buddhist scriptures.
♠ Religious literature ♣ ♥ Unknown. The Greek cultural world endured beyond the collapse of the successor states. Lexicography, astrological diaries, market prices and records also existed within the wider Greek world. Evidence from inscriptions indicate interaction with the wider literary traditions. This was especially true in regard to the Seleucids and later Arsacid literary traditions. There is also evidence of exposure and conversion by at least one King to Buddhism in the Indian literary tradition. However, given the scarce records of the Indo-Greeks no proof has been found to indicate indigenous literary works. [56]
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥ Unknown. The Greek cultural world endured beyond the collapse of the successor states. Lexicography, astrological diaries, market prices and records also existed within the wider Greek world. Evidence from inscriptions indicate interaction with the wider literary traditions. This was especially true in regard to the Seleucids and later Arsacid literary traditions. There is also evidence of exposure and conversion by at least one King to Buddhism in the Indian literary tradition. However, given the scarce records of the Indo-Greeks no proof has been found to indicate indigenous literary works. [57]
♠ History ♣ ♥ At least in terms of being visited and written about, see the work of Appollodorus,Parthika [58]
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥ Unknown. The Greek cultural world endured beyond the collapse of the successor states. Lexicography, astrological diaries, market prices and records also existed within the wider Greek world. Evidence from inscriptions indicate interaction with the wider literary traditions. This was especially true in regard to the Seleucids and later Arsacid literary traditions. There is also evidence of exposure and conversion by at least one King to Buddhism in the Indian literary tradition. However, given the scarce records of the Indo-Greeks no proof has been found to indicate indigenous literary works. [59]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥ Unknown. The Greek cultural world endured beyond the collapse of the successor states. Lexicography, astrological diaries, market prices and records also existed within the wider Greek world. Evidence from inscriptions indicate interaction with the wider literary traditions. This was especially true in regard to the Seleucids and later Arsacid literary traditions. There is also evidence of exposure and conversion by at least one King to Buddhism in the Indian literary tradition. However, given the scarce records of the Indo-Greeks no proof has been found to indicate indigenous literary works. [60]
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred present ♥ Given the scarce records of the Indo-Greeks no proof has been found to indicate indigenous literary works. [61] However, this was a literature society. The Bactrian Greek city of Ai Khanoum is much better preserved than the Indo-Greek capital Sirkup and may serve some indication of what was there. Ai Khanoum had an impressive administrative center, gymnasium, theater, and Greek statuary.[62] The presence of a theatre would suggest specialist entertainers and writers.


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ Cowrie Shells [63]
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ The pre-existing Indian currency with a legend of Indian Kharosthi script continued to be present. [64]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ A denominational system of coinage was introduced during the reign of King Menander. The system used symbols and letters to denote value.[65] "The Indo-Greeks were the first rulers to issue coins having the name, title and portrait of the ruler who issued them."[66]
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥ Unknown.
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥ Unknown.
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥ Unknown.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Stephen Dean; Alice Williams; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Copper present [67]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Bronze used for shields and helmets. [68] Bronze present [69]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Iron was in widespread use by the Seleucid period. [70]
♠ Steel ♣ [absent; present] ♥ This could be southern India (and/or Sri Lanka): Historical records show Indian steel was exported to Abyssinia in 200 BCE. (Biggs et al. 2013 citing Tripathi and Upadhyay 2009, p. 123).[71] Northern India as early as 1st CE was exporting iron and steel as far as East Africa.[72]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from depictions of Greek soldiers show them carrying javelins. [73]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ Inferred as the Bactrian Greeks were equipped in the tradition of the Macedonians.[74]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Inferred as the Bactrian Greeks were equipped in the tradition of the Macedonians. [75]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ The Parthian bow was in use by the Parthian nomads, and had been encountered by the Indo-Greeks. [76]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Absent.[77] Presumably 'absent' because it is not mentioned by this source?
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ Present in Alexander's army and successor states.[78] Inferred as the Bactrian Greeks were equipped in the tradition of the Macedonians. [79]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as came later in history. [80]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as came later in history. [81]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ The Indo-Greeks were most likely to have been influenced and equipped in the tradition of the Macedonian style adopted by their Bactrian-Greek forbearers. They presumably wore the muscled breastplate made of metal scales and stripped with leather. Military adventurers and mercenaries from the Mediterranean took part in campaigns into India (attracted by India's rumored wealth) and were present in military colonies; and they may provide more circumstantial evidence of the types of military equipment used by the Indo-Greeks. In addition, depictions on coins provide evidence of plate armour and the Boeotian helmet of the Alexandrian cavalrymen. [82] One issue that remains unclear is how many, if any, of the reforms taking place were in reaction to Roman military innovations trickling into the Indo-Greek Kingdoms. Therefore, the coding reflects Greek military technology from an earlier period.[83] Helmet would provide defence against weapons such as a war club which may have been wielded by cavalry.
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The Indo-Greeks were most likely to have been influenced and equipped in the tradition of the Macedonian style adopted by their Bactrian-Greek forbearers. They presumably wore the muscled breastplate made of metal scales and stripped with leather. Military adventurers and mercenaries from the Mediterranean took part in campaigns into India (attracted by India's rumored wealth) and were present in military colonies; and they may provide more circumstantial evidence of the types of military equipment used by the Indo-Greeks. In addition, depictions on coins provide evidence of plate armour and the Boeotian helmet of the Alexandrian cavalrymen. [84] One issue that remains unclear is how many, if any, of the reforms taking place were in reaction to Roman military innovations trickling into the Indo-Greek Kingdoms. Therefore, the coding reflects Greek military technology from an earlier period.[85]
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ The Indo-Greeks were most likely to have been influenced and equipped in the tradition of the Macedonian style adopted by their Bactrian-Greek forbearers. They presumably wore the muscled breastplate made of metal scales and stripped with leather. Military adventurers and mercenaries from the Mediterranean took part in campaigns into India (attracted by India's rumored wealth) and were present in military colonies; and they may provide more circumstantial evidence of the types of military equipment used by the Indo-Greeks. In addition, depictions on coins provide evidence of plate armour and the Boeotian helmet of the Alexandrian cavalrymen. [86] One issue that remains unclear is how many, if any, of the reforms taking place were in reaction to Roman military innovations trickling into the Indo-Greek Kingdoms. Therefore, the coding reflects Greek military technology from an earlier period.[87] Coded present for the Seleucids.
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ The Indo-Greeks were most likely to have been influenced and equipped in the tradition of the Macedonian style adopted by their Bactrian-Greek forbearers. They presumably wore the muscled breastplate made of metal scales and stripped with leather. Military adventurers and mercenaries from the Mediterranean took part in campaigns into India (attracted by India's rumored wealth) and were present in military colonies; and they may provide more circumstantial evidence of the types of military equipment used by the Indo-Greeks. In addition, depictions on coins provide evidence of plate armour and the Boeotian helmet of the Alexandrian cavalrymen. [88] One issue that remains unclear is how many, if any, of the reforms taking place were in reaction to Roman military innovations trickling into the Indo-Greek Kingdoms. Therefore, the coding reflects Greek military technology from an earlier period.[89] Coded present for the Seleucids.
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ The coins from the period show lancers of the Greek style. [90] Yuezhi (Kushan) find at Tillya-Tepe: "decorative gold clasp depicted a Greek infantryman in a cuirass breastplate carrying a spear and an oval shield."[91]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The Indo-Greeks were most likely to have been influenced and equipped in the tradition of the Macedonian style adopted by their Bactrian-Greek forbearers. They presumably wore the muscled breastplate made of metal scales and stripped with leather. Military adventurers and mercenaries from the Mediterranean took part in campaigns into India (attracted by India's rumored wealth) and were present in military colonies; and they may provide more circumstantial evidence of the types of military equipment used by the Indo-Greeks. In addition, depictions on coins provide evidence of plate armour and the Boeotian helmet of the Alexandrian cavalrymen. [92] One issue that remains unclear is how many, if any, of the reforms taking place were in reaction to Roman military innovations trickling into the Indo-Greek Kingdoms. Therefore, the coding reflects Greek military technology from an earlier period.[93]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ The Achaemenids who used pack donkeys controlled this region.
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ The coins from the period show lancers of the Greek style. [94]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred present ♥ Baggage or cavalry. "Bactrian camels began to be used for cavalry between 500 and 100 BC."[95]
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ The area they occupied was the natural habitat of the Indian elephant, and they supplied other areas with the animal. Elephants used by Demetrius in 190 BC. [96]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ The Indo-Greeks wore the muscles breastplate typical of Greek armament, made of metal scales and stripped with leather. The pasturage and access to the steppe horses provided sturdy mounts. There is also evidence that the horses were armored in iron in the central Asian fashion, at least in the initial period when the Indo-Greeks had access to the Bactrian-Greek trade networks. [97] The degree to which innovations from either the East or the West affected the equipment of the armies of the Indo-greeks is unknown. [98]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Leather straps used in armour. [99]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ Shields used by Greek soldiers. [100] Yuezhi (Kushan) find at Tillya-Tepe: "decorative gold clasp depicted a Greek infantryman in a cuirass breastplate carrying a spear and an oval shield."[101]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Helmets used by Greek soldiers.[102]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ The coins from the period show muscled cuirass, scaled corsets, metal grieves and thigh protectors made of leather. [103] There is also some limited archaeological evidence. [104] Yuezhi (Kushan) find at Tillya-Tepe: "decorative gold clasp depicted a Greek infantryman in a cuirass breastplate carrying a spear and an oval shield."[105]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ The coins from the period show muscled cuirass, scaled corsets, metal grieves and thigh protectors made of leather. [106] For a wider view of equipment of the period, see the Osprey works on typical equipage. [107]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ Coded present for the Seleucids.
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ The coins from the period show scaled corsets. [108]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ The coins from the period show muscled cuirass.[109] Yuezhi (Kushan) find at Tillya-Tepe: "decorative gold clasp depicted a Greek infantryman in a cuirass breastplate carrying a spear and an oval shield."[110]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred. As a landlocked kingdom, naval forces were restricted to river craft.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred absent ♥ inferred. As a landlocked kingdom, naval forces were restricted to river craft.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥ inferred. As a landlocked kingdom, naval forces were restricted to river craft.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Mud wall at the city of Taxila. [111] Reference for use of the mud rampart in ancient India.[112]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Reference for use of the moat as a form of fortification in northern India around 3rd century BCE - 300 CE.[113]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ Reference for use of the moat as a form of fortification in northern India around 3rd century BCE - 300 CE.[114]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Used during the spread of walled villages. A development considered very important in this period. [115]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ [116]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "when the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius invaded the Indus region in 180 BC, he established a Greek centre called Sirkap near the Indian city. Sirkap was a Greek walled city built on the river bank opposite Taxila, but the two centres shared administrative duties and the royal mint remained in the Indian capital."[117]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Hellenistic kingship was personal, not defined by exact borders."[118]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Hellenistic kingship was personal, not defined by exact borders."[119]
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Hellenistic kingship was personal, not defined by exact borders."[120]

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ "The use of eras highlights how important ancestry was for the legitimacy of Hellenistic kings."[121] "the very existence of an era is an indication that some sort of dynasty existed."[122]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ ♥ Deification of rulers is common in other Greek-ruled polities at this time[123][124], but it is not at all clear whether this was the case in this specific polity.

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ “The philosophers taught a universalizing frame of reference so they encouraged people to look on each other as equals. But as we saw with slavery, this did not translate into actual social change or even recognizing a need to break down categories. The only example I can think of is again Musonius Rufus who advocated a version of male and female equality (in education, for example). He was against double standards of sexual morality for men and women. Traditional Greek religion reinforced all kinds of social distinctions. Foreigners could not worship in most civic cults of another city without a special permission, women were restricted to certain well-defined roles in certain cults, and on and on. There was no doctrinal or ritual drive toward universal equality, though rituals were used to emphasize the equality of individuals within a given social group (e.g. Athenian male citizens). There is only one exception but it is an important one: mystery cults, very popular in Hellenistic times, were surprisingly open to initiating all comers. The Eleusinian Mysteries accepted women, slaves and foreigners, and so did many other mysteries (but not all).” [125]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “The philosophers taught a universalizing frame of reference so they encouraged people to look on each other as equals. But as we saw with slavery, this did not translate into actual social change or even recognizing a need to break down categories. The only example I can think of is again Musonius Rufus who advocated a version of male and female equality (in education, for example). He was against double standards of sexual morality for men and women. Traditional Greek religion reinforced all kinds of social distinctions. Foreigners could not worship in most civic cults of another city without a special permission, women were restricted to certain well-defined roles in certain cults, and on and on. There was no doctrinal or ritual drive toward universal equality, though rituals were used to emphasize the equality of individuals within a given social group (e.g. Athenian male citizens). There is only one exception but it is an important one: mystery cults, very popular in Hellenistic times, were surprisingly open to initiating all comers. The Eleusinian Mysteries accepted women, slaves and foreigners, and so did many other mysteries (but not all).” [126]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “The philosophers taught a universalizing frame of reference so they encouraged people to look on each other as equals. But as we saw with slavery, this did not translate into actual social change or even recognizing a need to break down categories. The only example I can think of is again Musonius Rufus who advocated a version of male and female equality (in education, for example). He was against double standards of sexual morality for men and women. Traditional Greek religion reinforced all kinds of social distinctions. Foreigners could not worship in most civic cults of another city without a special permission, women were restricted to certain well-defined roles in certain cults, and on and on. There was no doctrinal or ritual drive toward universal equality, though rituals were used to emphasize the equality of individuals within a given social group (e.g. Athenian male citizens). There is only one exception but it is an important one: mystery cults, very popular in Hellenistic times, were surprisingly open to initiating all comers. The Eleusinian Mysteries accepted women, slaves and foreigners, and so did many other mysteries (but not all).” [127]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The philosophers taught various versions of the Golden Rule, whereas traditional Greek morality said it was best to help one’s friends and harm one’s enemies. The only philosopher I can think of who specifically advocates “helping people” over “living luxuriously” is the Stoic Musonius Rufus from the first century CE, but he may have been an innovator in that respect. In general the Greeks had no religious or philosophical teachings to compare with Jewish and Christian teachings about almsgiving, gleaning, or caring for “widows and orphans.” Greek cities sometimes gave stipends to orphans if their fathers had died in battle defending the city. The most important traditional religious teaching on this subject was that the gods required people to treat “strangers and suppliants” well. That is, you should assist strangers who come to your door in need (and definitely not harm them). You can see this when Odysseus disguised as a beggar receives hospitality (Homer was a basic school text in the Hellenistic period) or in the Hellenistic myth of Baucis and Philemon, a very poor elderly couple who received two strangers and gave them hospitality. The strangers turned out to be Zeus and Hermes, who rewarded the couple. The belief that the gods “tested” humans by coming down to earth was common Hellenistic Asia Minor, where Paul and Barnabas were mistaken for Zeus and Hermes in disguise (Acts 14). Hellenistic philanthropy was closely tied to piety because the benefactions were usually things like sponsoring a festival or enhancing a sanctuary. Sponsoring a festival meant entertainment and free food distribution, but the main goal was not necessarily to help the poor - it was more to enhance the public good. I think it is very likely that the teachings of philosophers encouraged these sorts of activities, but of course the donors also benefited from increased prestige.” [128]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The philosophers taught various versions of the Golden Rule, whereas traditional Greek morality said it was best to help one’s friends and harm one’s enemies. The only philosopher I can think of who specifically advocates “helping people” over “living luxuriously” is the Stoic Musonius Rufus from the first century CE, but he may have been an innovator in that respect. In general the Greeks had no religious or philosophical teachings to compare with Jewish and Christian teachings about almsgiving, gleaning, or caring for “widows and orphans.” Greek cities sometimes gave stipends to orphans if their fathers had died in battle defending the city. [...] Hellenistic philanthropy was closely tied to piety because the benefactions were usually things like sponsoring a festival or enhancing a sanctuary. Sponsoring a festival meant entertainment and free food distribution, but the main goal was not necessarily to help the poor - it was more to enhance the public good. I think it is very likely that the teachings of philosophers encouraged these sorts of activities, but of course the donors also benefited from increased prestige.” [129]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [130] [131] [132]

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