MnMngKh

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Farrell ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Mongol Empire ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Mongolian Empire ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1251-1259 CE ♥ The reign of Möngke saw Mongol rule at its most unified and including all of China, the South-east Asia peninsula, in addition to large parts of the Islamic world, India, and Europe. [1]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1206-1270 CE ♥

1206 CE. Date at which Genghis Khan (originally known as Temujin or Temuchin) became the leader over all the Turkic tribes of Central Asia at a meeting next to the Onon river. This began the expansion of Mongol rule. [2]

1270 CE. Series of Civil Wars between dependents of Temuchin for control of different parts of Mongol Empire. After a series of military campaigns, Kublai Khan took control of China and established a new Mongolian dynasty based in the territory of the former Jin empire. This polity, ruling from China, was to be known as the Yuan Dynasty, and lasted from 1271 CE until its eventual demise in 1368.[3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ ♥ "During his lifetime Čengiz Khan had allotted to his kinsfolk specific grazing-grounds, together with the nomadic troops and bodies of the subject people—the units called ulus (olus) in the sources." [4]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥ An independent empire.

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Early Mongols ♥ Saljuq kingdom of Rum; the Nezāri Esmāʿilis; the Abbasid caliphate the Nezāri Esmāʿilis = 'the Assassins'. The Mongol Empire covered territory that had been ruled by many different polities from the Saljuq kingdom of Rum to the .. [5]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ cultural assimilation; elite migration ♥ "Hülegü took with him an enormous army, supposedly two out of every ten Mongol soldiers, who were accompanied by families and herds. This, then, was not just a military campaign but also the mass migration of a large portion of the Mongol nation to Persia and the surrounding countries." [6]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Great Yuan ♥ GOLDEN HORDE; Chagatai Khanate; Great Yuan; Ilkhanate
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥ Mongols; Steppe peoples; Steppe shamanism
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Karakorum; Khanbaliq ♥ Karakorum [1206- 1259]; Khanbaliq [1260-1368] Kublai Khan (Khubilai; r.1260-94) moved the capital of Mongol empire to Khanbaliq (Beijing) when he had completed the conquest of China. [7]

♠ Language ♣ Mongolian; Persian; Chinese; Latin; Russian; Georgian; Armenian ♥ Mongolian the spoken, and later written, language of the Mongols. The extent of the empire meant a range of other languages were in use, including within administrative structures. [8]

General Description

The Mongols began as one of a group of nomadic tribes living on the Central Asian Steppe. Temujin or Temuchin (later called Chinggis Khan) became Khan (king), united the different Mongol families and incorporated other tribes such as the Tatars into the 'Mongols'. He was acknowledged as the leader of all the Central Asian tribes in 1206 CE. With this force he moved out of the Steppe in search of new territory. First, the Mongols attacked northern China between 1211 and 1215 CE. In 1218 they moved west into Iran, attacking the main cities of the region. They attacked southern Russia in 1240 and the German lands in 1241. The empire did not expand any further into Europe, but turned its attention back to China and the Middle East. Khubilai Khan moved into southern China; Hulegu captured Baghdad and destroyed the Abbasid caliphate. This represented the height of the Empire in terms of territory and achievement. Indeed, so vast was this empire that the Mongols split it into four regions under four Khans: the Golden Horde in Russia, the Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia, the Great Yuan in China and the Ilkhanate in Iran and Iraq, c. 1300. Over time this became independent dynasties and states. [9] The Mongols were able to mobilise large numbers of troops for their armies. All adult males under 60 were eligible for mass mobilization. All were required to provide their own horses and equipment. This meant that even though Mongol soldiers may not have been the best troops in terms of ability or equipment, they had advantages of size and discipline over their opponents. This was strengthened by Chinggis Khan reforms which introduced a decimal system of organising the army - diving up troops up into units from ten to 10, 000.[10]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Farrell ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 25,221,806 ♥ The Empire at its largest extent.[11]

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ 4,250,000 nomads + settled agricultural populations

"Around 1260 the total nomadic population of Central and Inner Asia, all of which was included in the Mongol empire at that time, would have been about 4,250,000. Two fifths of this, or 1.7 million people, would have been found in Outer or Inner Mongolia; one fifth, or 850,000 people, in the Chaghatay realm of Transoxania, Semerichiye and parts of Jungaria and the Tarin Basin; one-fifth in the Juchids' domains in northern Central Asia and the North Caucasian and South Russian steppe; and the remaining fifth in the Middle East with Hulegu."[12]

"No reliable figures exist, but judging from the number of military units (mingan, q.v., or thousands) mentioned, the sizes of migrations taking place in the early Mongolian age, and recent Mongolian population patterns, it is estimated that there were probably no less than one million Mongols and others living within the confines of the Mongolia of the early 13th century. There may even have been more. After that, the population seems to have declined rapidly and reached a low point in the 14th and 15th centuries." [13]


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

1)Capital in Mongolia

2) Regional capitals e.g. of Persia or Korea

3) Cities

4) Towns

5) Villages


The basic economic unit of Mongols was the nomadic camp [ayil], "normally consisting of a single extended family with its own tent (ger) and herds".[14]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

“Patrimonial in nature, Mongol administration grew out of the ruler’s household.” Positions in the household such as ‘cook’ (ba’urchi) actually responsible for testing for poisoning, provisioning for retainers. Mongke: central secretariat in Mongolia. Titles: ‘chief judge’ ‘chief scribe’. “Khubilai’s orders to rulers of Annam and Korea made clear that was expected from dependent rulers; they had to pay court in person, register their populations, raise militia units, establish postal relay stations, and have a Mongol resident to take charge of affairs. Tributary rulers also had to send sons or younger brothers as hostages - another way to expand the ruler’s household into a system of control for a complex empire” [15]

1) Khan. The Khan had sovereign power over the empire. [16]

2) Royal household, containing chamberlains, stewards, quiver bearers, doorkeepers, grooms. There was strong overlap with his body guard, in terms of personnel. Both came form his retinue of military commanders. They travelled wherever the Khan went.[17] Also Chinggis Khan appointed a chief judge (yeke jarghuchi) "to supervise and coordinate the activities of the recently expanded administrative system" [18] Allsen says that both the household and the guard came from the nokod - companions or warrior commanders.

3) Dependent and tributary rulers, e.g of Annam and Korea. [19]

4) Darugha or darughaci - “all-purpose Mongol official in conquered territory" or provincial governor. [20] They oversaw census taking, tax collection, military recruitment. Initially came from the Khan's retinue of commanders. [21]

5) Local administrators - There is evidence that the Mongols absorbed the existing bureaucrats and structures in areas they conquered such as Persia. [22]

♠ Religious levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

1) Khan - He was "declared to have a mandate from Möngke Tengri (Everlasting Heaven). [23]

2) The chief shaman - The office of beki, the highest religious authority. Instructed ‘to ride on a white horse, wear white raiment’ and ‘choose a good year and moon’. [24]

3) Shaman. Inferred from there being a chief shaman. [25]


♠ Military levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

1) Khan. Both the personal guard and the tribal soldiers owed allegiance to the Khan. [26]

2) Khan’s personal guard, or kesigten. The were appointed initially from the Khan's retinue. Chingis raised their strength to 10,000 men. made up of kebte’ul (night guards), qorchin (day guards) and turgha’ud (bodyguards). [27] "it was also a sort of military school which allowed the Khan personally to test the future leaders of his military forces." [28]


3) Commander - regular army, larger unit [29] “Chinggis adopted the decimal system of organization … creating military units whose notional size ranged from ten to 10, 000 although the larger units were never fully up to strength.” [30]


4) Commander - regular army, smaller unit [31] “Chinggis adopted the decimal system of organization … creating military units whose notional size ranged from ten to 10, 000 although the larger units were never fully up to strength.” [32]

5) Soldier. Those men who had to serve through tribal obligations [all males under 60 had to serve in the army if mobilised] or local auxiliary troop employed in particular campaigns. [33]

Professions

There were full time soldiers, both officers and men, in the Khan's personal guard. Military governors appointed to oversee newly conquered territory could also be included here. [34] There full time priest such as Buddhist shaman, and in Islamic societies that the Mongols conquered, imams.

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ e.g. in the Khan's personal guard. [35]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ e.g. in the Khan's personal guard. [36]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Buddhist shaman [e.g. the beki, the highest religious authority] and in the Islamic societies conquered by the Mongols, imams. [37]

Bureaucracy characteristics

Outside of the Khan's royal household, the Mongols acquired a bureaucratic apparatus as they conquered sedentary regions. This meant that was some diversity in bureaucratic practice across the empire with local written languages being used e.g. Persian, Chinese. The Chinese examinations system was eventually revived under the Mongol's although not used elsewhere. [38]

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ In Persia "the Mongols increasingly entrusted the day-to-day administration of government to Persian bureaucrats" [39]

♠ Examination system ♣ present ♥ The Mongols initially stopped the examinations to enter the Chinese bureaucracy. These were revived in 1315 although they were not used in other parts of the empire. [40]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ e.g. royal treasury.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ absent ♥ Morgan argues that the evidence does not support that claim that the Mongols had a written legal code - Chingiz Khan's 'Great Yasa'. He argues instead that they had "a body of unwritten Mongol customary law" and that Chingis' maxims or utterances were recorded and used in customary law. [41] There is also disagreement about how Mongol customary law and Shari'ia law may have co-existed in Muslim territories. Successful coexistence seems to depend on the particular Khan.[42]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Chief Judge (yeke jardhuchi) who had two roles: "to oversee the apportionment of subject peoples and to preserve Chinggis Khan's legislative pronouncements, known as jasaghs."[43]

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ "In northwestern Mongolia irrigation systems existed with channels and even simple aqueducts made of hollow logs (onggocha/ongots). Many of these irrigation systems were ancient, dating back to the military farms created under the Mongol Empire (see CHINQAI; QARA-QORUM; SIBERIA AND THE MON- GOL EMPIRE)." [44]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ In Karakorum: "Markets were in the Muslim sector and outside the four gates." [45]
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ “To levy taxes in these new administrative units, each was also to receive a tax office managed by two officials recruited from among traditional Chinese scholars. These officers are noticed in the Secret History where they are called balaqaci (q.v.), "storehouse managers," and amuci (q.v.), "granary officers." Some of the tax offices may have been in existence before Ögödei, but the main system was of his making." [46]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ "To prepare for his arrival, Mas'fid-beg, Arqan-aqa, and other Mongol officials situated along Hule'u's line of march were instructed to prepare. They repaired roads, bridged rivers, and established ferries where there were no bridges. They also had to find and reserve pasturage of the flocks following Hule'u's army." [47]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ "To prepare for his arrival, Mas'fid-beg, Arqan-aqa, and other Mongol officials situated along Hule'u's line of march were instructed to prepare. They repaired roads, bridged rivers, and established ferries where there were no bridges. They also had to find and reserve pasturage of the flocks following Hule'u's army." [48]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ "During and after the conquest of the Song, Bayan Chingsang (Grand Councillor Bayan) achieved legendary status. Chinese songs and folklore spoke of him as “Hun- dred Eyes” (bai yan in Chinese), and his red banner could incite panic in Song troops by its sudden appearance. Even so, Qubilai’s chief mandate to Bayan was to kill no more than necessary, and Changzhou was the only city where he ordered wholesale massacre. In 1311 a temple was dedicated to him in Lin’an by imperial decree. During his stay in the south, the development of water transport, both inland and overseas, had impressed him, and in 1282 he advocated both the construction of canals in the north and the overseas transportation of southern grain to the capital. These proposals bore fruit, however, only after he had been dispatched to the Mongolian frontier." [49]
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥ It is important to note that “Mongolian was not a written language before the time of Chingiz Khan”.[50] The only substantial Mongolian written sources is The Secret History a chronology of the Mongols down to 1240 CE; alongside a few fragments this makes for a small corpus. We do know that there was also the Altan Debter ]the ‘Golden Book’] - an official history kept at the royal court, and a taboo document which no non-Mongol could read. [51] If the Mongolians had a central state archive it does not survive. The majority of written sources are in fact Chinese and Persian, including those produced by administrators after they had been incorporated into the Mongolian Empire.[52] Much of what is coded below reflects on the continuation of mathematics and astronomy had some aspects of measurement systems particularity relating to mathematics and astronomy under the Mongols, and the commissioning of The Secret History.
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ e.g 'Manghal un Niuca Tobca'an (The Secret History of the Mongols). A Chinese version the Sheng-wu ch’in-chneg lu was also produced. [53]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ The Mongolian script. Chingiz Khan had a Mongolian script “adapted from the Uighur variety of Turkish” [54]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ e.g. star tables produced at the astronomy in Maragha. [55]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Chinese astronomers "used Middle Eastern astronomical tables to revise Chinese calendars and produce a new calendar for the Mongol rulership."[56]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Astronomical and star tables were intended for practical use. [57]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Manghal un Niuca Tobca'an (The Secret History of the Mongols). [58]
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Tsi's influential work on planetary astronomy" [59]
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Used in the tribute paid to the Mongols by the Seljuks for example, who paid partly with items.. [60] Articles were used when tribute was paid to the Mongols. As taxation increased within the empire there was a movement from payment in kind to payment to cash, encouraging expansion of the coinage. Gold and silver dinars were minted and used.[61] The Mongols also had a sophisticated postal network [the Yan system], including runners and postal stations around a days journey part from each other. This was used to send royal communications around the empire.[62]
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ Gold and silver dinars minted. [63]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ Through trade and through tribute, for example from the Seljuks who paid partly in cash. [64]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Taxation within the empire moved from payment in kind to payment to cash, this encouraged expansion of the coinage. [65]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent♥ Chinese paper currency was present, but no indigenous [66]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ Mongols required non-fighting people to perform labour duties, including service in postal relays. [67]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ Post stations were erected at distances of one day's journey between them. Marco Polo said that this was 25-30 miles distance. [68]
♠ General postal service ♣ present ♥ The extensive Yam system was used to communicate royal orders and royal envoys across the empire.[69]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Farrell ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ [70]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ [71]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Used for the scaled body armour. [72]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Used for helmets. [73]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ Depictions of Mongol soldiers with javelins. [74]
♠ Atlatl ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ The main weapon of the Mongol cavalry. [75]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ “Large framed mounted crossbows" used in sieges. [76]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ Catapults.[77] Mangonels used in siege warfare. [78] Mongols recruited 1, 000 Chinese catapult operators in 1253. [79] "The Mongols made extensive use of traction trebuchets during their campaigns in Korea, notably at the sieges of Kuju and Chukju."[80]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent: 1206-1271 CE; present: 1272-1368 CE ♥ The propulsion mechanism of Mongolian siege engines utilized tension not gravity until "the extent of the Mongol conquests allowed them to bring new siege weapons to China, of which the most important was the Muslim counterweight trebuchet, first used at Xiangyang in 1272."[81] "Of the date of the introduction of the counterweight trebuchet to China there can be no doubt. It occurred in 1272, during one of the greatest sieges of Chinese history, at Xiangyang, where the Mongols besieged the Southern Song for five years." [82]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent: 1206-1273 CE; present: 1274-1368 CE ♥ Exploding bombs used in the failed 1274 CE invasion of Japan.[83] Often said that Chinggis "used gunpowder in siege warfare, sapping and mining operations, during his western campaigns.” [84] Although Raphael disputes the evdience for this. [85]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ "Firearms appeared in Siberia and Mongolia in the 17th century in the form of flintlock rifles. Flintlocks were the only firearms used in most areas until the turn of the 20th century." [86]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ Mongol soldiers used maces. [87]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Depictions of Mongol soldiers with axes. [88]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Depictions of Mongol soldiers with daggers. [89]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Mongol soliders had sabres. [90]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Depictions of Mongol soldiers with spears [91]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ Depictions of Mongol soldiers with hooked 'spears' for pulling riders from their horses. [92]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Never used in warfare. [93]
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ Possibly used in warfare as pack animals. [94]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ As used by Mongol cavalry, the main fighting force. [95] As with other armies of the Steppe the main force of the Mongol army was mounted cavalry. Not all Mongol horsemen were heavily armoured, but a variety of armour and weapons can be seen in the sources. The Mongols also absorbed local influences in military technology as their empire spread. So they employed Chinese siege engineers, used gunpowder and made use of naval forces when they needed to. They were not great builders however, often destroying fortresses in areas they moved into.[96]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred present ♥ Possibly used in warfare as pack animals. [97]
♠ Elephants ♣ inferred present ♥ Possibly used in warfare as pack animals. [98]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ e.g. Willow-wood shields. [99]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Helmets had flaps made of leather. Some Mongol armour was made of hide, which "consisted of six layers tightly sewn together and shaped, after being softened by boiling,to fit the body." [100]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Willow-wood shields were carried by some soldiers. Tortoise shell shields used assaults on fortifications. [101]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Made of steel and leather. [102]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Arm defences made of flaps of metal armour. P.243 [103]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Attached to helmets as neck protection only. [104]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ Iron scaled body armour worn by some soldiers. [105]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Full-length lamellar cuirass of central Asian style shown in Ilk-Kanid manuscripts. [106]
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ The Mongols recruited Chinese and Song sailors to serve in a navy to defeat the Southern Song [107] " Korea was finally vanquished in 1273, suffering the indignity of having its entire navy requisitioned for Khubilai Khan’s first attempt at an invasion of Japan."[108]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Khirkhira town had a citadel surrounded by a rampart and a moat. [109]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ [110]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ Khirkhira town had a citadel surrounded by a rampart and a moat. [111]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ "The emperor urged his relatives to build residences nearby and settled the deported craftsmen from China near the site, thus starting the city of Qara-Qorum. Its mud walls were completed in summer 1251." [112]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ [113]
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ inferred present ♥ One of the most important measures undertaken by Chinggis Khan in the field of the civil administration was the codification of laws under the title of Yeke Jasa (The Great Law). Although this work has not yet come to light, data from various sources prove beyond doubt the existence of a written version. According to an authoritative source, the history of cAta ̄’ Malik Juwayn ̄ı: In accordance and agreement with his [Chinggis’s] own mind, he established a rule for every occasion and a regulation for every circumstance, while for every crime he fixed a penalty. And since the Tatar peoples had no script of their own, he gave orders that Mongol children should learn writing from the Uighurs, and that these Yasas and ordinances should be written down on rolls. These rolls are called the Great Book of Yasas and are kept in the treasury of the chief princes. Whenever a khan ascends the throne, or a great army is mobilized, or the princes assemble and begin to consult together concerning affairs of state and administration thereof, they produce these rolls and model their actions thereon, and proceed with the disposition of armies or the destruction of provinces and cities in the manner therein prescribed.14 In general, the Great Jasa represented a code of laws which is said to have been prescribed by Chinggis Khan for the various spheres of social life and in military, organizational and administrative affairs. It also dealt with religious beliefs, court ceremonial, civil rules, general conduct and justice, and so on. Thus it laid down the juridical basis for the newly born Mongol state. Moreover, with the creation of the Mongol empire, it eventually became the most authoritative handbook of Mongol jurisprudence, to be strictly followed throughout the expanse of the empire. [114]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ “As regards Mongol rule over the great sedentary societies of Persia and China, it should be noted that the Mongols invented several institutions and offices which not only functioned efficiently, but left a noticeable imprint on the civil administration and the government of the conquered countries. One of the key institutions in local administration was the office of the darughachi. This system was set up in all the Mongol-ruled regions of Inner Eurasia, i.e. Persia, China and Russia, with the purpose of controlling the conquered territories. The term darughachi (in Russian, darugha or its Turkic equivalent baskak; in Persian, daru ̄gha ̄) was widely known all over the empire. The Mongol preference for the hereditary transfer of the office of darughachi was valid in all the parts of the empire. But in most cases, for instance in China, where problems arose due to the insufficient numbers of Mongols capable of holding the office, the Mongol Khans enlisted the services of Western Alans and Central Asians in order to guarantee Mongolian and non-Chinese predominance in the local civil bureaucracy.25 This made it easier for Uighur, Persian and other Asian Muslims to gain high positions in the Mongol bureaucracy in various parts of the empire. Although the office of darughachi was first entrusted by Chinggis Khan with mostly military tasks, its main function gradually developed into that of the chief civil official stationed in the conquered territories; thus one of the primary duties of darughachis in Persia, Russia and Central Asia was the collection of tribute. » [115] "In the MONGOL EMPIRE the title darqan was also a title of honor, but with a somewhat different connotation. In the famous SECRET HISTORY OF THE MONGOLS the range of possible rights and exemptions associated with the word darqan or its derivatives include: the right to nomadize freely over wide territory, the right to hold women captured in war without forwarding them to the khan, immunity to prosecution for up to nine transgressions, the right to serve as quiver bearers for the khan, and the right to drink the ötög, a special ceremonial liquor (probably a milk liquor) offered at the great assemblies (QURILTAI). All these rights were hereditary, being granted “unto the seed of the seed.” Rewards of subjects and goods inevitably accompanied them, too. While many in the Mongol elite received these exemptions, the actual title of darqan was mostly reserved for those outside the ruling inner circle." [116]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “It is recorded that, later, on the occasion of Chinggis’s confirmation as a ruler of a group of Mongol clans, a proclamation was made by the powerful shaman Khorchi (who, it was believed, could speak for heaven) that Chinggis Khan took his position by virtue of ji’arin, the ‘will of heaven’.” [117]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥ absent/present/unknown
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥ absent/present/unknown

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥ absent/present/unknown. Religious doctrine, philosophical statements, or practice makes claims about engaging in activity for the benefit of a wider community, for instance Christian traditions of alms-giving or Islamic sadaqah

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ absent/present/unknown. Public Goods refer to anything that incurs cost to an individual or group of individuals, but that can be used or enjoyed by others who did not incur any of the cost, namely the public at large. They are non-excludable and non-rivalrous goods. Examples are roads, public drinking fountains, public parks or theatres, temples open to the public, etc.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [118] [119] [120]

References

  1. Findley, Carter V., The Turks in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), p.78.
  2. Kennedy, Hugh, ‘Mongols or Moghuls’, The Oxford companion to military history, ed. by Richard Holmes (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).
  3. (Atwood 2004, 603) Christopher P. Atwood. 2004. Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. New York: Facts on File.
  4. Peter Jackson, 'MONGOLS' in Encyclopædia Iranica http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/mongols
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  6. REUVEN AMITAI, 'IL-KHANIDS i. DYNASTIC HISTORY' http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/il-khanids-i-dynastic-history
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