KgWTurk

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Western Turk Khaganate ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 582-630 CE ♥

552 CE: "The end of the Juan-Juan Khaganate caused by the Turks (Göktürk). That is the beginning of the First Turkic Khaganate. The leaders of the Turks were Bumin and his younger brother, Istemi. The Turks were a member group of the Juan-Juan confederation, with their ancestral origins in the Altai Mountains."[1]

"Khagan Bumin founded the First Turkic (Göktürk) Khaganate that was de facto divided into an eastern and a western part. The ruler of the western part was Khagan Istemi."[2]

c582 CE: "The First Turkic Khaganate officially split into the Western and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. In the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the Sogdian language and script was used for chancellery purposes and inscriptions."[3]

627 or 630 CE: "The Eastern Turkic Khaganate was brought under Chinese supremacy. It is dated to 630 by Györffy et al. and to 627 by Rogers.

"To the west the situation was more stable, in spite of revolts, but after 630 the qaghanate disintegrated into several tribal confederations, with the On Oq in Central Asia and the Bulgars to the west." [4]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose; confederated state ♥ " Politically, the Türk Empire “grew out of a tribal confederation.” It had a core of “inner tribes” (the ruling clan and its allies, including “in-law” tribes), a second tier of tribes that joined freely (retaining their ruling houses), a third tier of tribes that joined under constraint (and whose ruling houses were usually replaced by state officials), and finally tribute-paying sedentary populations. Subject populations retaining their own kings included the Sogdians, with their major centers at Bukhara and Samarkand and farflung merchant colonies, willing collaborators with a nomadic state that possessed the military power to force open the Chinese markets.76" [5]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥ “The Western Qaganate, which was in and out of submission to China, was able to hold out longer, primarily because the Tang were no longer able to project their power that far to the west. » [6]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ First Turk Khaganate ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ "The half-century which followed is more confused: the western qaghanate became politically independent in 583, and dynastic rivalries emerged which were exploited on one hand by the Chinese, and on the other by certain subject tribes." [7]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Sogdiana - City-States Period ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Ch'ien-Ch'üan ♥ “According to the Chiu Tang-shu, Shih kuei Qagan (611-618/619), the younger brother of Tardu, expanded the lands under his control up to the Altay in the East and in the West "to the sea."104 His primary camp was in the San-mi mountains, north of Kuca.” [8] "Shih Kuei's activity paved the way for the brief efflorescence of Western Türk power under his younger brother, Tun/Tong Yabgu Qagan (Chin. Tung shê-hu [t'uong d'iiap-guo)618/619?-630). He brought the Tieh-lê to full submission, annexing their lands and extending his sway to Afghanistan as far as Gandhara. The Sui-shu calls him master of the ancient territory of the Wu-sun, i.e. the iii valley. As the ally of the Byzantine emperor, Herakleios (610-641) he warred with Iran in Transcaucasia, contributing significantly to the Byzantine victory and the collapse of the Sâsânid state. From his capital at Ch'ien-Ch'üan ("1000 Springs," east of the Talas), he established an orderly government, sending tuduns (or toôuns, Chin. t'u-t'un [tou-du;:,n] (tax officials105) to supervise the el/il-tebers (Chin. hsieh-li-fa [giet-lji-piwat (piwar)] a title given to governors of conquered peoples106) and established good relations with Tang China, which contributed, along with mutual raiding, in sorne measure to the destruction of the Eastern Qaganate." [9]


♠ Language ♣ Sogdian; Old Turkic; Iranian ♥ c582 CE: "The First Turkic Khaganate officially split into the Western and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. In the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the Sogdian language and script was used for chancellery purposes and inscriptions."[10] "The great Sogdian urban centers certainly remained Iranian-speaking, as did the countryside, but in certain remote regions the Türk element began to be ethnically important (as in the mountains of ’à‘, in Tukharistan and in Semire‘’e) even if it was culturally under Sogdian domination (the overstrikes on the coins of Tukharistan under Türk control were in Sogdian)." [11]

General Description

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [2,800,000-3,500,000]: 600 CE ♥ in squared kilometers 580 CE: 2,800,000; 630 CE: 3,500,000; 650 CE: 1,000,000 [12]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [1,500,000-2,000,000]: 600 CE ♥ People.

According to map above area very similar to Russian Turkestan in McEvedy and Jones, who estimate 2m for 600 CE.[13]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.

This is the code for the Hephthalites.

1. Fortified urban community

2. Village
3. Nomadic peoples


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [3-5] ♥ levels.

1. Khagan

"The Western Turks were composed of ten tribes; and their khagan had the dignitary name jabgu."[14]
2. Head official of administration inferred
3. Departments inferred
4. Scribes/Assistants
3. Diplomatic service
"Present in large numbers in the administration, the army and the diplomatic service, the Sogdians were also present as simple merchants." [15]


2. Vassal king e.g. of Samarkand or Bukhara
"Subject populations retaining their own kings included the Sogdians, with their major centers at Bukhara and Samarkand and farflung merchant colonies, willing collaborators with a nomadic state that possessed the military power to force open the Chinese markets.76" [16]
3. Chief official/assistant of the king
4. Head of Mint if coins were produced (present under Hephthalites)


"In the kingdom of Gaochang (Turfan) during the first half of the 7th century, the Türks had functionaries responsible for the supervision and taxation of commerce.38" [17]


♠ Religious levels ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels.


♠ Military levels ♣ [4-6] ♥ levels.

Decimal system - as with nomads generally?

1. Ruler

2. 10,000
3. 1,000
4. 100
5. 10
6. Individual soldier


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥ Nomadic warriors are full-time.

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Nomadic warriors are full-time.

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ "Together with writing, the Sogdians also brought Buddhism. Türk Buddhism was, in its oldest stratum, under Sogdian and Chinese influ- ence.12 The Bugut inscription shows that Buddhism was present in the empire at the time of the first sovereigns.13 Maniakh, the ambas- sador of the Türks at Constantinople, bore a Buddhist name14 and his family seems to have been well established at the court of Sizabul, since his son was raised there and while still young was given the sec- ond rank in a second Türk embassy: everything therefore indicates that this Sogdian family was strongly integrated into the framework of the Türk hierarchy, where it possessed rank and hereditary titles even thought the Türk Empire had only just been created." [18] "As the Türk Qaganate expanded and came into greater contact witb surrounding cultures, it was influenced by the religions of the conquered populations. Tbus, Mazdaism, other Iranian religious systems (e.g. Zurvanism) and Buddbist influences came to the fore during the era of the First Qaganate. Mugan and Taspar both fostered Buddbism. This is reflected in the Bugut inscription whicb dates to the second generation of Türk rulers (570's or 580's) and was written in Sogdian." [19]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥ "Present in large numbers in the administration, the army and the diplomatic service, the Sogdians were also present as simple merchants." [20]

"In the kingdom of Gaochang (Turfan) during the first half of the 7th century, the Türks had functionaries responsible for the supervision and taxation of commerce.38" [21]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ "Present in large numbers in the administration, the army and the diplomatic service, the Sogdians were also present as simple merchants." [22] "In the kingdom of Gaochang (Turfan) during the first half of the 7th century, the Türks had functionaries respon- sible for the supervision and taxation of commerce.38" [23]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥ unknown for previous polity.

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥ unknown for previous polity.

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ unknown for previous polity.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ unknown for previous polity.

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ "In the oasis of Otrar to the northwest, the origin of new methods of irrigation implemented in the 6th century should most likely be sought in the old agricultural civilizations of the south, in Sogdiana or Khorezm. These improvements were linked to the presence of the Türk Empire, which unified these areas and made such a diffusion possible by establishing at Otrar the tudun in charge of Cac.84 The empire simultaneously increased the need for greater food production, and thus set in motion a cycle in which irrigated areas were extended and population and urbanization increased, thanks to techniques brought from the south.85 " [24]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ "The Türk state aspired to make the roads safe and gave its backing to the Sogdian diplomats’ trade negotiations." [25]
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥ "The Türk state aspired to make the roads safe and gave its backing to the Sogdian diplomats’ trade negotiations."[26]
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ inferred absent ♥ landlocked

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ "The Sogdian contributions to the Türk Empire were important. Chief among them was unquestionably writing. In fact, the Sogdian alphabet, adapted progressively to Turkic phonology, was used throughout the history of the Türk and then Uighur Empires to write Turkic texts, aside from a rather brief period of national xenophobic reaction within the elites at the beginning of the 8th century, during which the runic alphabet was used." [27]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ c582 CE: "The First Turkic Khaganate officially split into the Western and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. In the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the Sogdian language and script was used for chancellery purposes and inscriptions."[28]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ The runic alphabet was used by the Western Turks as well as the Sogdian one. On the runic alphabet: “This writing system, it is now generally held, also derived from the Aramaic alphabet us.ed in the Eastern Iranian world. Oauson conjectures that this specifie alphabet (based on lrano-Aramaic, supplemented by Greek) was developed by istemi Qagan for use in his diplomatie missions to Byzantiurn. Its inventor was a cultured Hephthalite or Sogdian.221 This seems rather improbable as this new alphabet was unlikely to find readers in Constantinople. Von Gabain views it as an adaptation of the Aramaic cursive that had been in use in the Arsakid chancellery. It was developed by the Western Türks as a result of their contact with Iran in the late 6th century. It spread, together with the first wave of Manichaean missionaries among the Turkic peoples to the East.222 » [29]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ e.g. used by government
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Khwarazm region: "The Khwarazmian solar calendar, related to the Zoroastrian system, is known to us thanks to Biruni, who argued that it was in advance of most other ancient systems for measuring time." [30]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred present ♥ Christianity in the towns? Bible?
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred present ♥ e.g. Buddhism
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ e.g. used by government
♠ History ♣ inferred present ♥ present for preceding Hepthalites. literate class under Roman and Indian influence.
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ present for preceding Hepthalites. literate class under Roman and Indian influence.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ present for preceding Hepthalites. literate class under Roman and Indian influence.
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred present ♥ present for preceding Hepthalites. literate class under Roman and Indian influence.


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ under preceding Hephthalites coins and tokens, but not paper money, in circulation. [31]
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ under preceding Hephthalities Sassanian Empire, Chinese and Indian coinage were present. [32]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Some Sogdian coins produced under the Hephthalities.
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ required for bronze
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ bronze artifacts and coins all along the silk road
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Required for steel and must have been in use previously for weapons
♠ Steel ♣ [absent; present] ♥ At this time in Central Asia if high-quality steel was used it would have been imported. The following sources suggest later dates for fine steel. Reference for high quality of the steel (no beginning date provided): “In the context of this work, it is important to note that crucible steel of fine quality was made at Herat, in Bukhara and in northern India.”[33] Reference for high quality of the steel (this one dates from 900 CE): "Further east from Merv along the Silk Road is a region praised for its iron and steel production by Greek, Islamic, and Chinese writers. The Sogdian state of Ustrushana, a mountainous region east of Samarkand, and the Ferghana basin ... material related to the medieval iron and steel industry has been uncovered here. Most relevant ... is a workshop excavated at a city-site of the +9th-13th centuries in Feghana, at Eski Achsy, Uzbekistan. ..” Crucible fragments ”The excavators consider that the process used here was direct production of steel from ore, just as He Tangkun argues for the Luoyang crucibles. It is quite possible, however, that they were (also) used in co-fusion steel production as suggested by the Merv excavators."[34] Fine steel swords may have been produced at an earlier time than 900 CE with the technology coming from northern India or from this region via Persia: In Tibet c700 CE "steel swords were certainly available through trade with Sogdia and Fergana ... and many steel blades are known from Central Asia from the late first millennium until the arrival of Genghis Khan in the early thirteenth century."[35] "The Sogdian cities of Samarqand and Bukhara probably also manufactured iron and steel weapons that were exported to Tibet. We know that by the early eighth century, the Sogdians, having probably borrowed the technology from the Sasanians, were manufacturing mail armor and offered suits of the material as gifts to the Tang court in 718. ... The Sasasnians may themselves have developed knowledge of steelmaking from contacts with northern India."[36] "The principal centres for the manufacture of steel weapons in Central Asia were Khwarazm, Ferghana and northern India.”[37]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ "Lively contacts and easy communications promoted the rise and spread of a fairly uniform nomadic culture in the steppe zone. The same types of horse-harness (bridle, bit, cheek-piece, saddle, trappings), arms (bow, bow-case, arrow and quiver, sword, battle-axe, mail) and garments (trousers, caftan, waist-girdle, boots, pointed cap) were used in the steppe zone from Central Europe to Korea."[38] "There are a number of artistic depictions, from different eras, that show steppe warriors on horseback and armed with a javelin". [39] ET: Whilst searching for data for the Hephthalites I found this late 19th century quote from an encyclopaedia. I cannot confirm it refers to the Hephthalites but it mentions horsemen. Did the horse backed warriors also carry a javelin? Bone-tipped javelins are less likely to leave finds for archaeologists. "Like the Mongols they were a race of horsemen. They fought with bone-tipped javelins, with sabers, and with slings or lassoes. They ate herbs and half- raw meat, which they first used as saddles ; and they clothed themselves with the skins of wild animals”.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Weapon of the Americas, extremely unlikely to be in use here
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ "Lively contacts and easy communications promoted the rise and spread of a fairly uniform nomadic culture in the steppe zone. The same types of horse-harness (bridle, bit, cheek-piece, saddle, trappings), arms (bow, bow-case, arrow and quiver, sword, battle-axe, mail) and garments (trousers, caftan, waist-girdle, boots, pointed cap) were used in the steppe zone from Central Europe to Korea."[40]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ "It is no wonder that the skill required to produce steel swords over charcoal fires seemed supernatural. The same could be said for bow makers, who required great time and expertise to make the composite bows, which still set distance records exceeding those of European-style longbows “by humiliating margins.”83" [41]
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in preceding and succeeding polities.
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in preceding and succeeding polities.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[42]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ absent before the gunpowder era
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ absent before the gunpowder era

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in preceding and succeeding polities.
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ "Lively contacts and easy communications promoted the rise and spread of a fairly uniform nomadic culture in the steppe zone. The same types of horse-harness (bridle, bit, cheek-piece, saddle, trappings), arms (bow, bow-case, arrow and quiver, sword, battle-axe, mail) and garments (trousers, caftan, waist-girdle, boots, pointed cap) were used in the steppe zone from Central Europe to Korea."[43]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "Among the steppe riders a dagger was typically carried in all periods, and a number of dagger designs are encountered in the archaeological and artistic record." [44]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ "Lively contacts and easy communications promoted the rise and spread of a fairly uniform nomadic culture in the steppe zone. The same types of horse-harness (bridle, bit, cheek-piece, saddle, trappings), arms (bow, bow-case, arrow and quiver, sword, battle-axe, mail) and garments (trousers, caftan, waist-girdle, boots, pointed cap) were used in the steppe zone from Central Europe to Korea."[45]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in preceding and succeeding polities.
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in preceding and succeeding polities.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in preceding and succeeding polities.
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Steppe riders
♠ Camels ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in preceding and succeeding polities.
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in preceding and succeeding polities.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ "Shields were known in all periods and, though they are mentioned in the contemporary literature, they only occasionally appear in artistic representations. They were typically made of leather on a reed frame, and a few rare examples survive." [46]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ "Shields were known in all periods and, though they are mentioned in the contemporary literature, they only occasionally appear in artistic representations. They were typically made of leather on a reed frame, and a few rare examples survive." [47]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ "Helmets were widely used, although just as much evidence suggests soft, perhaps padded, headgear was also common. All types of helmets typical of the eras in this discussion found expression among the nomads, often with stylistic changes made to suit the tastes of the new nomadic owner. Often, especially among the Turkic and Mongolian tribes, metal helmets had leather neckflaps attached." [48]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in preceding and succeeding polities.
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in preceding and succeeding polities.
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in preceding and succeeding polities.
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in preceding and succeeding polities.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in preceding and succeeding polities.
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ absent ♥ [49] Inferred from Eastern Turk Khaganate of the same time
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ [50] Inferred from Eastern Turk Khaganate of the same time
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ [51] Inferred from Eastern Turk Khaganate of the same time

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ absent ♥ [52] Inferred from Eastern Turk Khaganate of the same time
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ absent ♥ [53] Inferred from Eastern Turk Khaganate of the same time
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ absent ♥ [54] Inferred from Eastern Turk Khaganate of the same time
♠ Ditch ♣ absent ♥ [55] Inferred from Eastern Turk Khaganate of the same time
♠ Moat ♣ absent ♥ [56] Inferred from Eastern Turk Khaganate of the same time
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ [57] Inferred from Eastern Turk Khaganate of the same time
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ [58] Inferred from Eastern Turk Khaganate of the same time
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ [59] Inferred from Eastern Turk Khaganate of the same time
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ [60] Inferred from Eastern Turk Khaganate of the same time
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ absent before the gunpowder era


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Politically, the Türk Empire “grew out of a tribal confederation.” It had a core of “inner tribes” (the ruling clan and its allies, including “in-law” tribes), a second tier of tribes that joined freely (retaining their ruling houses), a third tier of tribes that joined under constraint (and whose ruling houses were usually replaced by state officials), and finally tribute-paying sedentary populations. [61]

Religion and Normative Ideology

We are interested here in any systems of thought and behavior that can influence people's actions, which we term a Normative Ideology. Normative ideologies are thought-systems concerned with the correct behavior of people, governments/leaders, and other groups (and particularly the relationships between these groups).

Mainly, this will be a religious or ritual system. As usual, when we mention Religious or Ritual System our focus is on the 'official cult', defined the same way as in the Rituals section:

With the official cult we refer to the set of collective religious practices that are most closely associated with legitimation of the power structure (including elites, if any).

However, Normative Ideologies are not restricted to religious/ritual systems. They include other thought systems, such as philosophy or anything that prescribes a particular pattern of behaviour. An example is classical Greek philosophy, such as the works of Plato and Aristotle, who were concerned with correct or moral behaviour and whose thoughts influenced the actual practice of several societies (the empire of Alexander the Great, notably).

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

(‘gods’ is a shorthand for ‘supernatural agents’)

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ "Chinese sources and Turk inscriptions show that the Turk rulers constantly orientated themselves towards the east. These rulers would be called 'divine' (or 'celestial', tengri) and designated as 'heaven-like' or 'heaven-created'. Heaven was also credited with giving them their empire. This 'heaven-god' was called 'the Tengri of the Turks'. He was 'high' and 'blue', and gave men strength. Tengri punished with death refusal to obey the legitimate ruler." [62]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not entirely clear. Baldick writes that "rulers would be called 'divine' (or 'celestial', tengri) and designated as 'heaven-like' or 'heaven-created'", that the ruler was "descended from a wolf", but also that "they [did] not worship and call 'god' anyone except the creator of heaven and earth" [63].

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

These codes refer to acts undertaken without direct compulsion from or out of adherence to a religious system (religious aspects of prosociality are coded below)

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Buddhism is fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity [64].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ "Chinese sources and Turk inscriptions show that the Turk rulers constantly orientated themselves towards the east. These rulers would be called 'divine' (or 'celestial', tengri) and designated as 'heaven-like' or 'heaven-created'. Heaven was also credited with giving them their empire. This 'heaven-god' was called 'the Tengri of the Turks'. He was 'high' and 'blue', and gave men strength. Tengri punished with death refusal to obey the legitimate ruler." [65]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ Buddhism is fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity [66].

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The twofold benefit of living a morally good life is linked to a twofold motivation: ‘Protecting oneself, one protects others; protecting others, one protects oneself ’ - just as each acrobat in a balancing act protects his partner by concentrating on himself, and protects himself by concentrating on his partner (see SN 47:19). If we take care of our own spiritual development, we render a service to others; and if we develop love towards others, we thereby also help ourselves. Accordingly, it is explicitly stated, someone who pursues the path of salvation only for his or her own benefit is to be censured, while the one who follows the path for one’s own benefit and for the benefit of others is to be commended (see AN 7:64).” [67] “Three segments of the Noble Eightfold Path (3 - 5) are traditionally subsumed under the principle of morality (śīla): ‘right speech’ (3), ‘right action’ (4) and ‘right livelihood’ (5). [...] ‘Right action’ is explained as abstaining from harming and killing sentient beings - including animals (!), and further as abstaining from ‘taking what is not given’ and from sexual misconduct, which means avoiding sexual relations with women who are still under the protection of their families, or with those who are married, betrothed, or celibate for religious reasons. From monks and nuns complete sexual abstention is demanded. ‘Right livelihood’ means abstaining from those sources of income which involve harming other beings: trading in weapons for instance, or trading in living beings, meat, intoxicants or poison; also included is the avoidance of fraud and avarice.” [68]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “Leading a moral life is seen as having a wider social dimension as well. Establishing public parks, constructing bridges, digging wells and providing a residence for the homeless (see SN 1:1:47; similarly Jat 31) - all these are commended.” [69]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [70] [71] [72]

References

  1. (Hosszú 2012, 283) Hosszú, G. 2012. Heritage of Scribes: The Relation of Rovas Scripts to Eurasian Writing Systems. Rovas Foundation.
  2. (Hosszú 2012, 283) Hosszú, G. 2012. Heritage of Scribes: The Relation of Rovas Scripts to Eurasian Writing Systems. Rovas Foundation.
  3. (Hosszú 2012, 285) Hosszú, G. 2012. Heritage of Scribes: The Relation of Rovas Scripts to Eurasian Writing Systems. Rovas Foundation.
  4. (De la Vaissière 2005, 200)
  5. (Findley 2004, 43)
  6. (Golden 1995, 153)
  7. (De la Vaissière 2005, 200)
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