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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Dan Hoyer ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Western Roman Empire - Late Antiquity ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Roman Empire; Western Roman Empire ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 439 CE ♥ Theodosius II, institute Codex Theodosianus in 439 CE (which applied in the Western Empire).


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 395-476 CE ♥

"Odovacer's deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 marked the temporary end of direct Roman imperial rule in Italy and the beginning of a seventy-five-year experiment in non-Roman (or perhaps quasi-Roman) regional government. ... a series of barbarian leaders, many of whom hailed from a single dynasty (the Amals), oversaw the armies and administration of Italy, and at times even undertook imperial projects of their own (e.g. Theoderic's successful expansion into regions of Gaul and Western Illyricum ...)."[1]

Western imperial dynasty 364-455 CE

Palace conspiracy toppled emperor in 455 CE.[2] This ended the "Western imperial dynasty founded by Valentinian I in 364".[3] 455-476 Italy and other parts of Western Empire ruled by legitimate Emperors, recognized by the Eastern Emperor in Constaniple, but no dynasties formed after the Theodosian line ended with Emperor Valentinian III

"In 395 AD the Roman empire was divided into two parts with the Western Roman Empire with its capital at Rome, and the Eastern Roman Empire with its capital at Constantinople."[4]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

418 CE the Visigoths "finally left Spain and were settled permanently as an autonomous body on lands in southwestern Gaul, in the provinces of Aquitania secunda, Novempopulana, and Narbonensis prima."[5]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

"for all the real, and very significant, commitment to the unity of the Roman Empire, the reality was that, not of two separate Empires, but of twin Empires, in one of which, that which Theodosius ruled from Constantinople, the normal language of the vast majority of the population was Greek."[6]

"In principle, all legislation, whether generated in East or West, should be communicated to the other half of the Empire, and promulgated there."[7]

"The Roman alliance with the Visigoths forced the Huns to lift the siege of Aureliani (Orleans) which they had begun, and to withdraw northeastward to the province of Belgica. There a great battle was fought and at the locus Mauriacus, in which the Romans with their federates and their Visigothic allies were victorious."[8]

Son of Vandal king Gaiseric "betrothed to the emperor's oldest daughter."[9]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Roman Empire-Dominate ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Roman Empire - Late Antiquity ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Roman ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [5,500,000-6,500,000] ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Mediolanum; Ravenna; Rome ♥ "In 395 AD the Roman empire was divided into two parts with the Western Roman Empire with its capital at Rome, and the Eastern Roman Empire with its capital at Constantinople."[10]

At time of Constantine: "Rome was now only the nominal capital of the Roman Empire. Two new cities had emerged as the major political centres of the empire: Milan in the west and Constantinople in the east. In both cases this was in large part due to their strategic locations."[11]

"there is no sign that Theodosius ever thought of restoring the unified Empire of his grandfather, or still less of moving his base back to Italy. Instead, a separate court was reestablished in Italy, ruling mainly from Ravenna. As the evidence collected by Andrew Gillet demonstrates for the first time, the Western court did eventually move back to Rome - and in fact the letters from members of the Western Imperial family denouncing the 'Robber Council of Ephesus' which were instigated by Leo, bishop of Rome, and were sent in early 450, happen to mark the precise moment when a truly 'Roman' empire was reestablished, if with only a quarter century of life before it."[12]

♠ Language ♣ Latin ♥ "In Africa, Punic was widely spoken as well as Latin, and in a famous passage of The City of God Augustine reminds the reader that the imperious Roman capital had not only placed the yoke of dominion on defeated peoples; it had also imposed Latin as the official language (Augustine, The City of God, 19, 7)."[13]

General Description

The period of the Western Roman Empire begins in 395 CE, when it was divided from what became the Eastern Roman Empire.[14] After the Empire recovered from the crises of the 3rd century CE, a series of administrative and economic reforms inaugurated a second phase of imperial rule, known as the Dominate. The Dominate was split into two distinct administrative halves: a Western half with its capital at Rome and an Eastern one, ruled first from Nicomedia in Anatolia and then from Byzantium (re-founded as Constantinople, modern-day Istanbul, by the Emperor Constantine I the Great in 330 CE). Each half was ruled by a different emperor along with a junior colleague, titled 'Caesar'. This arrangement is known as the Tetrarchy ('rule of four'), which lasted until Constantine I managed to once again rule both halves together. The Empire was divided a few more times, until Theodosius (r. 379-392 CE) united it for the final time. In 393, Theodosius once more divided the Empire, naming Arcadius emperor in the east and Honorius emperor in the west. This marks the end of the Dominate period, leading to a period of instability and, ultimately, the collapse of the Roman state in the west, yet recovery and the continuation of Roman rule in the east (which became known as the Byzantine Empire, after Constantinople's original name).
Beginning with Honorius, the Western Empire experienced a continuous decline and a series of invasions at the hands of Germanic, Vandal, Alan, and Hun forces throughout the 5th century. In 476 CE, a Roman military officer of likely Germanic decent (though his exact ancestry is not certain) named Odoacer led a revolt against the western emperor Romulus Augustus (r. 475-476 CE), a child whose rule was overseen by his father, a high-ranking general named Orestes. Odoacer and his fellow soldiers killed Orestes and effectively deposed Romulus Augustus, and Odoacer's authority was recognized by the Eastern Roman emperor at the time, Zeno, although he was not proclaimed Emperor in the West. In 480 CE, after the death of Julius Nepos, whom Zeno recognized as the legitimate Western Emperor, Zeno abolished the co-emperorship, claiming to rule over both halves of the Empire, although much of the Western Empire had already been lost and Italy itself remained under the control of Odoacer, who ruled as king.[15][16]

Population and political organization

The Western Roman Emperor in principle maintained a formal alliance with the Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, which meant that all legislation generated in one half of the Empire was to be communicated to the other half and promulgated across the entire Empire.[17] In practice, the Western Roman Emperor was the slightly weaker party whose position depended on the acquiescence of the Eastern Empire; for instance, the term of the Western Emperor Valentinian III (r. 423-455 CE) required the agreement of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II.[18] Further, significant differences between the 'twin Empires' - the language of Latin in Rome, Greek in Constantinople - always strained the commitment to unity.[19]
The Western Emperor did not control the army. Instead, it was held by the magister equitum ('master of the cavalry') and the magister peditum ('master of the infantry'), a new military office that gradually gained seniority over the magister equitum. Legislation in both halves of the Empire was enacted by decree, in practice meaning letters addressed to officials or to the Senate.[20] Directly beneath the emperor were praetorian prefects who acted on the emperor's behalf, 'governing in his name with legal, administrative and financial powers'.[21] Overall, the Roman bureaucracy was comparable in size to that of Constantinople; by the end of the 4th century CE, the state provided civil positions for an estimated 40,000 people across the Empire.[22]
The Western Empire covered roughly two million square kilometres in 400 CE. The region was divided into large prefectures, which in turn were split into dioceses containing provinces, which were then further subdivided into cities and towns managed by civic councils.[23] ​The Roman aristocracy remained a powerful influence, at least until 439 CE, when invading Vandal tribes took Carthage and much of North Africa, depriving Rome of valuable North African revenue streams.[24]
Rome maintained a sizeable population, roughly 500,000 in 400 CE. However, a feature of the late Western Roman bureaucracy was that it 'shifted ... between four or five different imperial centres, dislocating with each change the networks of patronage and kinship, often regionally based, that supplied civil personnel'.[25]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 2,000,000: 400 CE ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 500,000: 400 CE ♥ Inhabitants.

Rome. Peak settlement of Rome generally thought to be c150 CE. By 300 CE still about 800,000 which had decreased to roughly 500,000 by 400 CE. [26]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 6 ♥ levels.

1. The capital (e.g. Ravenna)

2. Administrative centers (e.g. Rome)
3. Provincial capitals (Londinium)
4. Larger towns
5. village/vici
6. pagi (rural settlements)


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 8 ♥ levels.

The Western Emperor was advised by a proceres palati ('notables of the palace') in his court. These included the protectores et domestici ('corps of officer cadets').[27] A former body called a consistorum that 'consisted of any individual ministers that the emperor wanted to consult about a specific topic' became 'a formal body with specific duties'. The Western Emperor did not control the army. 'In the West, as time passed the command of the army moved away from the emperor and devolved upon the newly created magister peditum ('master of the infantry') and magister equitum ('master of the cavalry'). In the course of time the magister peditum became the more senior of the two posts.'[28] Laws came from imperial decree which 'were in form, with only the rarest of exceptions, letters, almost always addressed to officials, occasionally to the Senate. This is true of both western and eastern legislation'.[29] Below the Emperors were praetorian prefects who 'acted as the emperor's representatives, governing in his name with legal, administrative and financial powers.'[30]

The Roman bureaucracy was comparable in size to that of Constantinople. 'Viewed through the baroque rhetoric of a text like the Variae the bureaucracy appears hierarchically complex and numerous, and indeed gives the impression of being on par with the eastern civil service. The swelling of governmental apparatus and personnel was certainly one of the defining features of late antique society. By the end of the 4th century the state provided civil positions for an estimated 40,000 across the empire.'[31] The ministers of state included the magister officiorum ('master of offices'); the comes sacrarum largitionum ('count of the sacred largesses') who controlled finances, mines, mints, "and all revenue and expenditure in coin"; agents in rebus ('imperial couriers'), scholae ('imperial body guard'), officia dispositionum and admissionum (timetable and audiences for the emperor) under magister officiorum. These ministers also "commanded a large number of men who served as rei privatae ('private secretaries').[32]


NB: based on Roman Empire-Dominate

1. Emperor

2. Pretorian Prefect
3. Vicarii
4. Governors/praesides
5. Civitas
6. Vici and Coloniae
7. Municipia
8. Pagi

"The Tetrarchy had divided the empire in half, each half being ruled by an Augustus (emperor). Each Augustus had his own Caesar (deputy and successor) to help run his half of the empire. As part of the bureaucratic system, each of the four co-rulers had a Praefectus Praetorio (Praetorian Prefect) to help with the administration of his 'quarter' of the empire. Each Praefectus wielded great power and could readily influence military affairs, as he retained control of the main logistical system of the empire. Although abandoned on the death of Diocletian, the system of using four Praefecti was revived under Constantine. As time passed the position of prefect became more influential, especially that of the two prefects in charge of the two imperial capitals."[33]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 8 ♥ levels.

"Theodosius (r.379-395), made Christianity the legal or "official" religion of the empire."[34]

1. Bishop of a patriarchate

"The churches organized themselves along the lines laid down by the geography and political order of the empire. A city (civitas), along with its surrounding rural perimeter, the foundation of imperial organization, also formed the basic unit of ecclesiastical structure. Virtually every Roman city, many of them quite small, had its own bishop. He exercised his authority over a "diocese" that ordinarily coincided with the boundaries of the civitas. These dioceses were then grouped into provinces, over which a metropolitan, the bishop of a province's principal city, held sway. Eventually, provinces themselves were organized into large "patriarchates," each lead by one of the five preeminent bishops of the church: those in Rome, Constantinople (called "New Rome," second in prestige to the Old), Antioch, Alexandria, and Jerusalem."[35]
2. Metropolitan, with authority over a province
3. Bishop in civitas, with authority over a diocese
4. Presbyters or priests (elders)
"Evidence from the second century suggests that a wide variety of models for local clergy existed throughout the Roman Empire. Yet the one to prevail was a three-tiered, hierarchical. In this model, the bishop served as leader of the local community and was assisted by presbyters or priests (elders) and deacons. Again, this model was established in the Antioch of Ignatius, as he underscores emphatically the necessity of gathering for learning, ritual, and teaching around a single bishop. By the end of the century this three-tiered form of ministry had spread to most early Catholic communities throughout the empire, and it would soon become the sole authoritative manner of organizing local ecclesial communities." [36]
5. Deacons
6. Sub-deacon
7. Reader
8. Minor order (exorcists, cantors, doorkeeper, lamplighter etc.)


♠ Military levels ♣ [7-10] ♥ levels.

10 in Eastern Roman Empire

Population peaked with Augustus, declined from 3rd century. "By the time the Western Empire collapsed in 476 AD, the army was primarily a mercenary barbarian force."[37]

"In the West, as time passed the command of the army moved away from the emperor and devolved upon the newly created magister peditum ('master of the infantry') and magister equitum ('master of the cavalry'). In the course of time the magister peditum became the more senior of the two posts."[38]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ "In the West, as time passed the command of the army moved away from the emperor and devolved upon the newly created magister peditum ('master of the infantry') and magister equitum ('master of the cavalry'). In the course of time the magister peditum became the more senior of the two posts."[39]


♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Population peaked with Augustus, declined from 3rd century. "By the time the Western Empire collapsed in 476 AD, the army was primarily a mercenary barbarian force."[40]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Full-time specialists

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ The Roman bureaucracy was comparable in size to that of Constantinople. 'Viewed through the baroque rhetoric of a text like the Variae the bureaucracy appears hierarchically complex and numerous, and indeed gives the impression of being on par with the eastern civil service. The swelling of governmental apparatus and personnel was certainly one of the defining features of late antique society. By the end of the 4th century the state provided civil positions for an estimated 40,000 across the empire.'[41] The ministers of state included the magister officiorum ('master of offices'); the comes sacrarum largitionum ('count of the sacred largesses') who controlled finances, mines, mints, "and all revenue and expenditure in coin"; agents in rebus ('imperial couriers'), scholae ('imperial body guard'), officia dispositionum and admissionum (timetable and audiences for the emperor) under magister officiorum. These ministers also "commanded a large number of men who served as rei privatae ('private secretaries').[42]

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ [present; absent] ♥ "many appointments to the administrative institutions were made entirely by inheritance or patronage and not on merit".[43]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ Theodosius II instituted Codex Theodosianus.

"As the small Republic gradually extended its dominance over its neighbours, it was forced to find ways of conducting legal dealings with people who were not Romans, but whose laws could have something in common with Roman law. The imperial jurists distinguished the ius civile, the law of the civitas from the ius gentium, law of the peoples, and the ius naturale, the law of nature. The ius gentium did not refer to anything approximating to international law, but rather to the things that the Roman ius civile had in common with the usages of other peoples."[44]

Writing c200 CE "Papinian, perhaps the authority on law most respected in late antiquity, listed the sources of the ius civile as statutes (leges), popular resolutions (plebiscita), senatorial enactments (senatusconsulta), decrees of emperors (decreta principum) and the authoritative pronouncements of men learned in law, the jurists (auctoritas prudentium). To these was added the ius honorarium, the law contained in the Edict of the praetor, who, under the Republic and Early Empire administered law in Rome; this form of law derived its name from the praetor's magistracy (honos) and was held to 'assist, supplement or amend' the ius civile.".[45]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ ♥ "Like the early irrigation ditches in Italy, the gold and silver mines received considerable attention when they first started producing, but after the second century they are seldom mentioned."[46]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥
♠ markets ♣ present ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ "Like the early irrigation ditches in Italy, the gold and silver mines received considerable attention when they first started producing, but after the second century they are seldom mentioned."[47] "In the middle of the third century AD, Cyprian wrote that, 'the metals are nearly exhausted.' Gold production in Spain peaked in the second century AD, ... but continued with reduced output for several centuries. Dacia (Romania and Hungary) was abandoned by the Romans in 271. We can be confident that the ores there were depleted."[48]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ "The fourth and fifth centuries represent the golden age of what is termed 'patristic' literature, works written by the great Fathers of the Church, men who, released from persecution during the reign of Constantine, now often took on the public role of statesman as well as that of bishop."[49] "Augustine (354-430), bishop of Hippo Regius in North Africa from 395 to his death. He wrote his most influential work, the City of God, during 413-426 under the immediate impact of the Visigothic sack of Rome."[50]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥
♠ History ♣ present ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ "By the time of Diocletian (284-305) trade was conducted in barter. Coins were little used, and inflation was out of control."[51]
♠ Tokens ♣ absent ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred present ♥ Did the Circus Publicus still carry public post?

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ "The use of the hand-crossbow in Europe thus divides into two quite distinct periods, the first between about -100 and +450; the second beginning in the +10th century."[52]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ absent ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ absent ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ unknown ♥ "A further consequence of the loss of Africa to the Vandals was the fact that in capturing Carthage the Vandals also appeared to have taken control of the Roman fleet. ... concerning the nature of this 'fleet', ... most likely that the majority of the ships stationed at Carthage were merchant ships, although there may have been a few warships in Carthage as a precautionary measure against attack, and as encouragement to traders to maintain their belief in Roman domination of the Mediterranean."[53]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ "A further consequence of the loss of Africa to the Vandals was the fact that in capturing Carthage the Vandals also appeared to have taken control of the Roman fleet. ... concerning the nature of this 'fleet', ... most likely that the majority of the ships stationed at Carthage were merchant ships, although there may have been a few warships in Carthage as a precautionary measure against attack, and as encouragement to traders to maintain their belief in Roman domination of the Mediterranean."[54]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moat ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ present ♥ Ministers of state "tended to be fiercely competitive and protective of their powers, rights and privileges."[55] "In the West, as time passed the command of the army moved away from the emperor and devolved upon the newly created magister peditum ('master of the infantry') and magister equitum ('master of the cavalry'). In the course of time the magister peditum became the more senior of the two posts."[56] "In principle, all legislation, whether generated in East or West, should be communicated to the other half of the Empire, and promulgated there."[57] 423 CE negotiations with Eastern Emperor over recognition of Valentinian III as heir of Honorius: "the commander in Roman North Africa, Bonifatius, ... threatened to block grain shipments to Italy unless Valentinian was made emperor."[58]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ present ♥ Roman aristocracy: example, the Siege of Rome 408 CE instigated "A long series of negotiations ... among Alaric, the senate at Rome, and Honorius".[59] The negotiations concerned Alaric's rank within the empire's military structure. Alaric wanted to be master of soldiers.[60]
♠ Impeachment ♣ absent ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ "many appointments to the administrative institutions were made entirely by inheritance or patronage and not on merit"[61] preceding period coded present

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥

425 CE law "All theatres and circuses are to be closed on all Lord's Days [Sundays], Natal Day, Epiphany, Easter, and Pentecost... All Jews and Pagans must respect these days ... the emperors are best shown devotion when the entire empire worships the omnipotent God."[62]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ practice of deified rulers ceases with Christian Emperors

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Christian ethic of equality [63]. In spite of growing importance of Christian beliefs, rulers did much to distance themselves from rest of population through ritual activity for most of this period[64]Imperial Cult still acknowledged, although its religious character changed slightly under Christian emperors[65] Practical social/political differences were tolerated, but was ideological principle of equality.

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ Christian ethic of equality [66]. In spite of growing importance of Christian beliefs, rulers did much to distance themselves from rest of population through ritual activity for most of this period[67]Imperial Cult still acknowledged, although its religious character changed slightly under Christian emperors[68] Practical social/political differences were tolerated, but was ideological principle of equality.
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ {absent; present} ♥ Christian ethic of equality [69]. In spite of growing importance of Christian beliefs, rulers did much to distance themselves from rest of population through ritual activity for most of this period[70]Imperial Cult still acknowledged, although its religious character changed slightly under Christian emperors[71] Practical social/political differences were tolerated, but was ideological principle of equality.

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “Almsgiving and other forms of charity have played a central role in Muslim and Christian societies, especially in the Mediterranean world. [...] Indeed, one of the early markers of Christian identity was the explicit injunction among members of early Christian communities to provide alms for the poor, function taken up in the third and fourth centuries by large urban basilicas [...] These charitable functions multiplied during the urban economic crises of the fourth and fifth centuries." [72]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [73] [74] [75]

References

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