ItPapHM

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Rudolph Cesaretti ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Papal States - High Medieval Period ♥ "The term 'Papal State' is a modern one, hardly used by contemporaries to refer to the papal patrimony in the long period with which this book is concerned."[1] The term "Papal States" was not adopted until around 1200.[2] "It is still a matter of contention at what period the term 'papal states' may be used to describe those areas where the pope was traditionally overlord, but certainly by the beginning of the thirteenth century popes were great feudatories in central Italy."[3] Eighth century popes called their state "The Republic of St. Peter". Terms such as "Papal States" are anachronistic when applied to the eighth and ninth centuries. Terms such as this only appear in late middle ages. [4]

♠ Alternative names ♣ Papal States; Pontifical States; Ecclesiastical States; Roman States; States of the Church; Christendom; Christianitas; High Middle Ages; High Christendom ♥ The term Christendom (Christianitas) reflects the supranational scope of the Papacy, which being also an international religion, had a degree of control beyond the territorial borders of the Papal State, particularly in the period from the Papacy of Innocent III.[5] "The term 'Papal State' is a modern one, hardly used by contemporaries to refer to the papal patrimony in the long period with which this book is concerned."[6] The term "Papal States" was not adopted until around 1200.[7] "It is still a matter of contention at what period the term 'papal states' may be used to describe those areas where the pope was traditionally overlord, but certainly by the beginning of the thirteenth century popes were great feudatories in central Italy."[8] Eighth century popes called their state "The Republic of St. Peter". Terms such as "Papal States" are anachronistic when applied to the eighth and ninth centuries. Terms such as this only appear in late middle ages. [9]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1240 CE ♥ Innocent III was the king maker of Christendom (e.g. Frederick, in 1214 CE): "In the eleventh century, emperors had appointed popes without consulting any Roman prelate. Now the pope had chosen an emperor." "This was not the last "political" conflict, or victory, during Innocent's pontificate. Innocent was involved in disputes with King Philip II of France .... and with King John of England .... He won resounding victories in both cases. ... King John gave England as a fief to the papacy, and Philip was forced to choose Ingeborg as queen. In a short time, Innocent had twice chosen an emperor and won battles with the other two major states in western Europe, as well as victories over smaller states, like Portugal and Castile. To a greater degree than any pontiff before or since, Innocent achieved the dream of Gregory VII and became, in fact as well as in theory, the undisputed leader of Christendom."[10] "If Gregory saw himself as the agent of Peter, with whom he had a sense of a powerfully intimate kinship, Innocent viewed himself explicitly as the vicar of Christ, priest and king, who possessed unrivaled temporal and religious authority."[11] "Papal power and control had reached its height" [12] - context of discussion Louis IX of France c1240 CE (?).


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1198-1309 CE ♥ In this period the Papacy, from Innocent III, extended its power over the temporal realm, and over Christendom. The period ends with the Angevin exile from 1309 CE.

"It would be the job of Roman canonists, legates, and Popes in the wake of Innocent's pontificate to develop just that machinery, to seize traditional local and episcopal power, and even to create business for the pope, thereby making Innocent's dreams real in practice. (Some of these activities were under way by the time of Innocent's pontificate, but they grew after his death, sometimes by orders of magnitude.) Future cannons and popes achieved these dreams primarily by developing the canon law, by convoking western councils, by hearing thousands of cases in Rome from litigants streaming in from all over Europe, by seizing oversight in the canonization of saints, and by taking over appointments to ecclesiastical offices, and by providing other papal benefits. All of this would have been impossible without the general acceptance that the pope was the vicar of Christ and the growing sense of Christians, nourished by the reforms of the eleventh century, that they were part of a supranational entity, Christendom (Christianitas), and that their primary loyalty was to that body and to the pope as head of Christendom, rather than to any local, regional, or even national entity."[13]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ nominal; loose; confederated state; unitary state ♥ "The centralization of the church had also resulted in its bureaucratization. The church at its center seemed less like a religious body and more like a governmental institution; the pope was not the spiritual leader of Christendom but a man of business, a lawyer. His aims seemed less governed by a religious agenda than a political one. And, always, he was asking for more and more money."[14]

RC: The Papal states in this period fluctuated repeatedly between 3, or all 4 degrees of centralization. It had various factions of feudal noble vassals, ecclesiastical bureaucrats, and factions of Roman families, and the power dynamics between these forces and the papacy greatly affected the degree of centralization.


♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

Armies of the Papal States were a conglomeration of international allies, friendly towns and nobles, volunteer crusaders, and the forces directly raised by the pope. [15]

JFR: The papal alliance with the French began well before the fourteenth century, with the onset of Angevin hegemony in the peninsula following the 1266 victory of Benevento.[16]

RC: The papal state made many alliances with polities during this period, held the nominal allegiance of some polities (the Norman duchies to the south are just one good example of both of these), and held vassals of its own (who were notoriously difficult to control by this period). War with the HRE was simply one of many parts of the Papal State's supra-polity relations.

JFR: I coded this as "alliance" to reflect the enduring French-papal alliance, which characterized much of the mid-13th and fourteenth centuries; the brackets reflect the uneasy nature of this alliance, culminating in the papacy of Boniface VIII and the ensuing Babylonian Captivity

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Rome - Republic of St Peter II ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Rome - Republic Restoration Period ♥ Cola di Rienzo's Revolution in Rome. Nicholaus, severus et clemens, libertatis, pacis justiciaeque tribunus, et sacra Romana Reipublica liberator.
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Christendom ♥ This ended: "during the period 1300-1450 CE "the idea of Christendom as a supranational entity toward which all Christians felt supreme loyalty and affection slowly collapsed. With the evolution of independent political and physical territories, soon to be called national monarchies or states, Christians began to choose between allegiance to state and devotion to church, and many chose the former. By the fifteenth century, the papacy ceased to function as a universal power and more and more like another regional Italian prince jealously guarding his fiefdom." [17] The term Christendom (Christianitas) reflects the supranational scope of the Papacy, which being also an international religion, had a degree of control beyond the territorial borders of the Papal State, particularly in the period from the Papacy of Innocent III.[18]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Rome; Avignon ♥

♠ Language ♣ Latin ♥ JFR: Latin was the language of administration, but by this period various dialects of Italian (Romanesco in the city of Rome; Romagnola in Emilia-Romagna; and so forth) were emerging as written languages, besides being the languages of everyday speech.

General Description

In the 1198-1309 CE period the Papacy, from Innocent III, extended its power over the temporal realm, and over Christendom. The period ends with the Angevin exile from 1309 CE.

The term Christendom (Christianitas) reflects the supranational scope of the Papacy, which being also an international religion, had a degree of control beyond the territorial borders of the Papal State.[19] Whilst in previous times Rome was dominated by France and then German monarchs, under the rule of Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216 CE), 'the king maker of Christendom', papal authority, particularly in influence around Europe, was at its medieval height. He initiated several crusades and presided over the Fourth Lateran Council[20] that defined an important Catholic ritual, the Eucharist.

Innocent III "viewed himself explicitly as the vicar of Christ, priest and king, who possessed unrivaled temporal and religious authority"[21] and this combined with a "general acceptance that the pope was the vicar of Christ and the growing sense of Christians, nourished by the reforms of the eleventh century, that they were part of a supranational entity, Christendom (Christianitas), and that their primary loyalty was to that body and to the pope as head of Christendom, rather than to any local, regional, or even national entity."[22]

Armies of the Papal States were a conglomeration of international allies, friendly towns and nobles, volunteer crusaders, and the forces directly raised by the pope.[23] The papal state formed many alliances with during this period, held the nominal allegiance of some polities (the Norman duchies to the south are just one good example of both of these), and held vassals of its own (albeit ones that were notoriously difficult to control). War with the Holy Roman Empire characterised the Papal State's international relations.

Based at the Lateran Palace in Rome, the Papal bureaucracy consisted of scribes, archivists, tax collectors, papal messengers, and administrators charged with the upkeep of the city[24] which at this time was no greater than the size of a large town, with about 35,000 inhabitants.[25]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 44,000 ♥ km2. [26]


♠ Polity Population ♣ [300,000-1,500,000] ♥ Urban settlements were relatively small-scale (tens of thousands) whilst the land area also low. Land area held would not have supported highest population density for the Italy region (highest in Po valley), although part of the Po valley was held. The major cities Rome, Ravenna, Bologna, Ancona probably contained no more than 120,000. The "Latium: Medieval Era (500-1500 CE)" coding page currently estimates the population of the Latium region only as: 335000: 904 CE; 110000: 1422 CE. These estimates for Latium conflict with the crude estimates based on the McEvedy and Jones figures for the whole of Italy since the latter do not drop from 850-1450 CE, they rise.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 35,000 ♥

35,000 is Brentano's estimate for Rome's population ca. 1200.[27]

35,000: 1200 CE [28]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥

1. Capital, Rome

2. City in provinces/dutchies
3. Towns
4. Villages

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [5-6] ♥ Coded as a range to allow for flexibility. AD

1. Pope

By 781 CE (Charlemagne agreement) "what had been the Dutchy of Rome was, somewhat enlarged, recognised as St. Peter's and the Pope's own principality." Authority over Ravenna "shared in ill-defineded tandem." [29]
Pope was head of the senate. [30]
Pope, sovereign and "universal bishop", symbolically crowned with tiara. [31]

_Central government_

2. Administrative subdivisions - Chief of Papal chancery / Papal archives etc.
arcarius [32] - treasurer
Papal chancery [33]
Archives held in Lateran Palace with other paperwork. However, very important documents were kept in tomb of St Peter. [34]
High-ranking ecclesiastical officials (legates, papal representatives, etc.): The Papal state had administrative subdivisions, loosely conceived. Noble has argued that through its extensive landholding, charitable actions, and diplomatic role as a negotiator with the Lombards, the Roman Church significantly impacted most residents of Byzantine Italy.[35]
Regional elites "sought and gained grants of land and jurisdiction from the popes." [36] Described as feudal in the ninth century. [37]
The bureaucrats attached to the papacy itself, usually based in the Lateran palace in Rome. The bureaucracy consisted of scribes, archivists, tax collectors, papal messengers, and administrators charged with the upkeep of the city.[38]
3. Head of Sub-division within an administrative subdivision
Some scholars have claimed that it was the most effective government in Western Europe by the end of the seventh century (although this isn't saying much, given how small-scale papal administration was).[39]
Lower-ranking administrative officials: A nomenclator was probably assisted by ordinator. Vicedominus was steward of the papal Lateran palace. Vicedominus more involved in central administration than a major domus.[40]
Amoner (financial controller).
Major-domo (treasurer and controller of wardrobe).
Pilgrims to the city of Rome was a source of income for the popes. [41]
4. primicerius defensorum
Defensores defended "the rights of the Roman church ... and the oppressed. The formula of appointment was vague enough to allow them to undertake virtually any duty on behalf of the church." There was a college of defensores headed by a primicerius. [42]
Officials Constantine I took with him on his 710 CE visit to Constantinople included: 2 bishops, 2 priests, a deacon, a secundicerius notariorum, the primicerius defensorum, the sacellarius, the nomenclator, the scriniarius, and two subdeacons. Archdeacon, archpriest and primicerius notariorum were left behind. Other officials, vicedominus, arcarius, ordinator and abbot. [43]
5. defensorum
4. primicerius notariorum (head of college of notaries) [44]
Officials Constantine I took with him on his 710 CE visit to Constantinople included: 2 bishops, 2 priests, a deacon, a secundicerius notariorum, the primicerius defensorum, the sacellarius, the nomenclator, the scriniarius, and two subdeacons. Archdeacon, archpriest and primicerius notariorum were left behind. Other officials, vicedominus, arcarius, ordinator and abbot. [45]
5. secundicerius notariorum
A college of notaries headed by primicerius, later joined by college of defensores headed by primicerius, and a college of subdeacons. Notaries were the staff of the papal chancery, career bureaucrats. [46]
Clerical officers (acolytes and guardians) [47]
6. notariorum
By this period, the popes had been caring for orphans, widows, and others as part of their pastoral duties.[48]


_Regional government_

2. Regional governor of a Dutchy
After 756 CE, the duchies were officially controlled from Rome through Papal government administration. Every major city had a bishop. Regional governors. Bishops in joint session with provincial magnates elected the governor of each province and helped choose city officials. [49]
The popes became increasingly involved during the late first millennium in appointing the duke for the Dutchy of Rome. [50]
On several occasions, indeed, papal authority over the imperially-appointed dukes was demonstrated when popes had to save dukes from the irate Roman mob, or were able to defy the duke or Exarch of Ravenna with the aid of militia totius Italiae, "the entire army of Italy.[51]
Regionary guardians. Regional notaries.[52]
3. Bishop of a City
Every major city had a bishop. Bishops in joint session with provincial magnates elected the governor of each province and helped choose city officials.[53]
Under the Lombards, a system of episcopal immunities emerged that made the bishops virtually local temporal sovereigns and enabled them to preserve the local spirit of municipal independence and organization (e.g., consuls, guilds). The urban population was free, and the town walls (often built by the bishops) were refuges. [54]
The Roman bishop administered lands of the Church and lands of Roman basilicas, classified as tituli. [55]
4. Rectors of the Patrimony (in a Diaconate?)
Ecclesiastical government contained other important regional officials. Rectors of the Patrimony were appointed for each major territory. These were drawn from subordinate Roman officials: sub-deacons or notaries and guardians, among them whom could be laymen.[56]
Diaconates were established to store and distribute grain, and be centers of social welfare. [57]
5. Granary worker
5. Town / village leader
A more informal, often ad hoc, stratum but probably the most important on a day-to-day level. They included local landholders in particular. The aristocratic, land-holding stratum of Byzantine Italy emerged following Justinian's 6th-century reconquests.[58]
By the late seventh century, many sources speaks of this stratum, which Noble has described as forming "the key social class in late Byzantine Italy."[59] These landholders, often of eastern origin, acquired land through leasing them from bishops contractually.[60]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 6 ♥ levels.

At time of Concordat of Worms (1122 CE). "Now the clergy were organized in a hierarchical line under the direction of the pope, who could trump the power of local custom, tradition, and even episcopal power. Below the pope stood the bishop. Responsible for maintaining clerical discipline and for overseeing the property of the church, he was answerable only to the pope. Only he could perform all the sacraments; he alone performed the sacrament of confirmation and by the sacrament of ordination passed on his power to others. Theoretically, canon law held that he would be elected by the clergy and people of his diocese. In practice, he was elected only by the canon priests attached to the cathedral. Considered high clergy, the canons aided the bishop in furthering his agenda, administering the diocese and performing rituals at the cathedral church. At their head was the dean, the highest officer in the diocese. A diocesian chancellor supervised the cathedral school and issued licenses allowing clerics to teach and preach in the diocese. A treasurer oversaw finances, while a precentor managed the choir and organized the cathedral's musical program. Each diocese was divided into administrative districts, over which presided the archdeacons. Practically, these were powerful men; they were the bishop's legates, charged with enforcing discipline among the lower clergy, and therefore they were often quite unpopular. ... The parish priests were answerable to them."[61]

1. Pope

From Innocent III, title "Vicar for Christ" became standard. [62]
"the prestige of the papacy grew steadily in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Popes were now without doubt the heads of the churches and the entire body of Christians, called Christendom (Christianitas). More and more, Christians felt a primary allegiance to this supranational, supernatural corporate body, an allegiance that, many came to feel, superseded their fidelity and obligations to local or regional communities."[63]
2. Archdeacon, of a dianocal college
Archdeacons became popes, Archpriests did not. [64] Following the 1059 decree Decretum in Nomine Domini, only cardinals could elect a new pope.[65]. Furthermore, only cardinals could become popes. Silvester IV (1105-1111), an anti-pope, was the last pope who was not a cardinal before his elevation.[66] College of cardinals. [67]
3. Deacons, of a dianocal college
There were seven regional deacons of Rome.[68]
4. Subdeacon, of a college of subdeacons
There was a college of subdeacons.[69] Regionary sub-deacons.[70]
5. Acolytes
Rome's ecclesiastical structure contained a diaconal college with seven regional deacons of Rome, possessing in turn a staff of subdeacons and acolytes. These subdeacons dealt with property and relief for poor. The number increased as responsibilities of Papacy increased. 19 by Gregory I.[71]
2. Archpriest, of a college
Papal administration was collegiate: priests formed a college, headed by the archpriest, which was less important than dianocal college headed by archdeacon. Archdeacons became popes, Archpriests did not. [72]
3. Priests, of a college
2. Metropolitan
"Santiago was in 1120 made a metropolitan see by the pope." [73]
Metropolitan had authority over a province [74]
3. Bishops in diocese
"the slow monopolization of ecclesiastical benefices by papal provision, from the highest (archbishoprics) to the lowest (cures for village churches)."[75]
4. Dean
5. Canon priests attached to cathedral
5. Diocesian chancellor
6. Diocesian clergy
"After 2015 ... cathedral chancellors were required to furnish their diocesan clergy with some instruction in theology."[76]
5. Treasurer
5. Precenter
4. Archdeacons of administrative districts
5. Priests in Parish
There were multiple parishes in each episcopal diocese, and dozens or hundreds in larger dioceses such as the city of Rome.
"by the year 1000 it was the priest who really emerged as the religious and even educational leader of the local church." [77]
"the slow monopolization of ecclesiastical benefices by papal provision, from the highest (archbishoprics) to the lowest (cures for village churches)."[78]

♠ Military levels ♣ 5 ♥

1. Pope.

Armies were small-scale, when forces directly responsible to the Pope (rather than the Pope's allies who were fighting for the Papacy) the Papal State employed mercenary officers. Provincial Rectors were able to call up troops and could do this without authorisation from the Pope. Cavalry troops were lead by a Marshal.[79]
2. General?
3. Provincial Rector.
Accounts for Tuscan Patrimony 1304-2306 CE: Provincial Rector at HQ has 4-10 cavalry at any time, under the command of a marshal. Permanent garrisons in two fortresses each contained about 12 troops (mostly infantry). [80]
4. Marshal.
5. Mercenary soldier or individual soldier.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Mercenary officers. For example, Frenchman Jean d'Eppe 1282 CE. [81]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Mercenaries were the main fighting force of the Papal State's military from the thirteenth century. [82]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ The bureaucrats attached to the papacy itself, usually based in the Lateran palace in Rome. The bureaucracy consisted of scribes, archivists, tax collectors, papal messengers, and administrators charged with the upkeep of the city.[83]

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Mints for coinage. [84] The Basilica of St John Lateran. [85]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ In 1357 CE papal legate Cardinal Albornoz introduced the Constitutions of the Holy Mother Church (Constitutiones aegidianae). This public law code remained effective until Napoleon. The laws regulated the Papal-commune relationship, and codified the status of papal courts, which had been competing with rival authorities in the states. [86] “In 1357, Albornoz promulgated a set of laws for the lands he had conquered that was later known as the Constitutiones aegidianae. This became the basic legal code of the papal states and was not superseded under the Napoleonic era.” [87]

Canon law mentioned. [88]

Papal bulls in the 1200s mentioned. [89]

1730s: “...the papal states remained in fact a collection of provinces and cities rather than an organic political unit.” (263)[90]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ "The classic placitum romanum (a convenient modern phrase; our sources just say placitum) consisted of a court president, who was the ruler of Rome or his delegate; some or all of the palatine judges, assisted by dativi iudices who were chosen case by case; a variable number of named Roman nobiles, who could make up a high percentage of the city’s ‘old aristocracy’ in major cases; and numerous other unnamed adstantes, who might sometimes have been non-aristocratic."[91]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ Public court known as placita. "Pierre Toubert definitively analysed the structure of the Roman placitum up to 1080, taking the story on in less detail up to 1200, in a hundred pages of Les structures du Latium médiéval." [92]

"This sort of assembly politics was typical of early medieval Europe, and was regularized by the Carolingians; it was doubtless indeed the Carolingians who extended it to Rome, for Roman practices are so close to those of Carolingian northern Italy. By the eleventh century, such placita were rare in the Frankish world, but south of the Alps they were regular in most regions until the second half of the century. Rome fits this Italian pattern, then, although, as already noted, there are indications that placita were held even more often in Rome than they were in each county further north. It was clearly easy for Roman judges and aristocrats to come together frequently, and the more often they did so the more solid their political aggregation."[93]

In 1357 CE papal legate Cardinal Albornoz introduced the Constitutions of the Holy Mother Church (Constitutiones aegidianae). This public law code remained effective until Napoleon. The laws regulated the Papal-commune relationship, and codified the status of papal courts, which had been competing with rival authorities in the states. [94] Appellate courts. [95] Pope Gregory IX's decretal Ille humani generis" established a more formalized inquisitorial process in 1231.[96]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥ Several Popes during the thirteenth century, most notably Innocent III, were lawyers.

"The point about these placita was thus that they were standardized occasions, run by high-status legal experts, the palatine judges, and legitimated more widely by Rome’s aristocracy. The whole of the city’s political society came together regularly and frequently to run justice, that is to say, and the choreography of each case, while it was on one level unique every time because every case was different, on another level had considerable regularities as well."[97]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Commercialization of rural hinterland began 1050-1100 CE. "This was the date of similar signs of agrarian development in eastern Lombardy, too, the hinterlands of Bergamo, Brescia, and Cremona. Here, François Menant points to the late eleventh and twelfth centuries as the moment of take-off for systematic irrigation, the development of vineyards on cleared land, the development of transhumant pastoralism, and, later in the twelfth century in the Cremonese, linen." [98]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred present ♥ The papacy restored and maintained aqueducts (from c800), among other buildings, which at the time "certainly attest to the very great wealth of the papacy in the early Carolingian period, and to the preparedness of popes to spend that wealth very ambitiously." [99] Inferred present on basis some Roman aqueducts maintained until early modern period.
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ In the period preceding this one: "The Porticus was ... the location for nearly all Rome’s documented ergasteria or shops in our period."[100]
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ Domuscultae from the eighth century was excavated and showed "a church and a substantial set of outbuildings, presumably largely for the storage of products."[101] "Rome, always a large city, needed to be fed, principally with grain; and it was fed from its hinterland from the eighth century at the latest into the late Middle Ages."[102]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Roads had existed and been maintained since Roman times.
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ The popes maintained bridges across the Tiber; in other cities, such as Ravenna, the local bishops or secular officials did the same.
♠ Canals ♣ absent ♥ There is no mention of the papacy or other powers undertaking canal works during this period; Roman-era canals had, by this point, most likely silted up.
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ "Ripa was the name of the Tiber port area; to be exact, the east side was the Ripa Graeca, called Marmorata at its southern end under the Aventino, and the west side, in Trastevere, was the Ripa Romea."[103]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ inferred present ♥ use of mnemonic devices in Latin instruction in the late Middle Ages.
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ E.g. Christian calendar.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ The Bible, the patristic writings, and a wealth of other orthodox Christian material.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Arnold of Brescia wrote against the Church's ownership of property, and was involved in Commune of Rome. Joachim of Fiore (c. 1135-1202 CE)[104] Innocent III wrote "On the Mysteries of the Mass" which was very popular in the later Middle Ages and as a cardinal wrote "On the Misery of the Human Condition" in 1196 CE.[105]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Example: Piero de Crescenzi (c. 1233-1320) wrote a treatise on gardening and landscaping; he was Bolognese and spent much of his life in Bologna, part of the Papal States (in theory, at least).
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Chroniclers ( such as Salimbene de Adam or Dino Compagni at Florence) were active throughout the period, across the Peninsula. An anonymous Roman chronicler is our main source of information for the regime of Cola di Rienzi at Rome in the late 1340s-early 1350s.[106]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Thomas Aquinas. Natural theology. JFR: Aquinas was born at Roccasecca, which is in Lazio. His family was a baronial family, the d'Aquino.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Scholars such as Albertus Magnus and Ockham were active in what we would think of as natural science and physiognomy during this period.
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Dante Alghieri (1265-1321 CE, born Florence, died at Bologna) poet, Divine Comedy. Dante's family had loyalties to the Guelphs, a political alliance that supported the Papacy. (wikpedia).

JFR: Dante was exiled from Florence following the early 14th-c. schisms within the Guelf party, and he himself was a staunch monarchist, who wrote approvingly of Henry VII, the last of the German emperors to launch an Italian campaign to reclaim the peninsula for the Empire.


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ There were specialised units of measurement for precious gems, gold and silver.[107]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ any reason to change code from earlier periods such as enforcement of a single currency?
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ [108] From the 1180s, Rome copied the deniers of Champagne, minting them as provisini; the grosso was introduced in the 1250s.Spufford, 69-70 There was a papal mint at Viterbo from the pontificate of Nicholas IV.[109] Ravenna, Bologna, and Ancona also minted coins.[110]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ Pope sent out many letters, to regions as remote as Iceland 1198 CE. [111]
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from presence of bronze.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Bronze sculptures held important significance in this period as a link with rulership; “contemporary rulers could associate themselves with their predecessors through the commissioning of bronze objects.” (11) [112]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Guns cast in bronze, then by mid-fifteenth century cannons made of cast iron, with other cast iron objects becoming common. Move from the bloomery process to forging; “Italy and France were also in the forefront of improvements in iron manufacture.” (164-65) [113]

Hodgett, J. and Augustus, G. 2005. A Social and Economic History of Medieval Europe. Taylor & Francis.

♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Increased demand for iron and steel from rising nation states in late 15th century. (164-65) [114]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ General reference for this time period in Europe: before it got heavier in the 14th and 15th centuries the mounted knight's lance was light enough to be thrown.[115] The Papal State often used French mercenaries.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Slings ♣ [present; absent] ♥ Unlikely in use at this time.
♠ Self bow ♣ [present; absent] ♥ Unlikely in use at this time.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Archers. [116]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ Crossbowmen. [117] “In the Papal States Spoleto had developed a considerable arms industry and supplied crossbow bolts, shields and lances to the army.”[118]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ Catapults could be used to throw fire, diseased men or animals over walls. Don’t have access to enough of the following reference to know if the Papal States did this but certainly the technology was still available for use in some offensive capacity.[119]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ Simon de Montford's stone throwing trebuchets were present at this time - were they used by the Papal State?[120]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent: 1200 CE; suspected unknown: 1250 CE; [absent; present]: 1300 CE ♥ ”The exact moment of their invention is till a matter of dispute, but throughout the fourteenth century there is plenty of evidence of their use in Italy. Florence was already making cannon which fired iron balls in 1326, and the papal army in the fourteenth century was one of the best equipped in this respect." [121]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Papal States 1450s CE: "the large scale introduction of hand firearms. The earliest hand firearm was the schioppetto or hand-gun, and the introduction of these has been postulated as early as the late thirteenth century."."[122]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ Mace, club and flail common after 1300 CE. [123] The Papal State often used French mercenaries. General reference for this time period in Europe: other weapons included mace, war hammer, dagger, poleaxe and axe.[124]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ General reference for this time period in Europe: other weapons included mace, war hammer, dagger, poleaxe and axe.[125]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ General reference for this time period in Europe: other weapons included mace, war hammer, dagger, poleaxe and axe.[126]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ General reference for this time period in Europe: mounted cavalry used lance and sword. The sword was the primary weapon of the man-at-arms.[127] The Papal State often used French mercenaries.
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Early 13th century Brabancon mercenaries from modern Brabant, Belgium fought with pikes or long spears. [128] General reference for this time period in Europe: mounted cavalry used lance and sword.[129] The Papal State often used French mercenaries.
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ General reference for this time period in Europe: other weapons included the poleaxe.[130]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the presence of donkeys in previous and subsequent polities in Latium.
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ War horses were exported from Italy. [131] By c1100 CE the mounted warrior was typically required to own at least three horses - a specialist fighting horse, a riding horse and a pack horse.[132]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ General reference for this time period in Europe: shields were often leather covered wood (pine or linden) or leather-canvas-wood.[133]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Early 13th century Brabancon mercenaries often wore leather, quilted armour.[134] General reference for this time period in Europe: cuir-bouillio armour was made by boiling leather in wax.[135] General reference for this time period in Europe: all types of armour were worn with padding e.g. the aketon quilted tunic, which were reasonably functional armour in their own right.[136]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ General reference for this time period in Europe: shields were often leather covered wood (pine or linden) or leather-canvas-wood. Smaller for cavalry, all shields gradually decreased in size across the period. By the fifteenth century men-at-arms often did not use the shield.[137]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ General reference for this time period in Europe: iron helmets. Men-at-arms depicted fighting in soft coifs may have skullcaps.[138]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ General reference for this time period in Europe: cuirasses.[139]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ General reference for this time period in Europe: from the early 13th century CE poleyns and couters became commonly used to protect knees and elbows. There also were greaves and vambraces (forearms).[140]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ General reference for this time period in Europe: during the 12th century CE the mail hauberk began to cover the wrists and hands.[141] General reference for this time period in Europe: armour for horses very common from the late 12 century - early 14th century CE, mail most often used sometimes with plate armour.[142]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the presence of scaled armor from previous and subsequent polities in Latium.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ General reference for this time period in Europe: in the fourteenth century (next period) a 'coat of plates' like the roman lorica segmentata was worn over the mail hauberk.[143]
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ Approximate transition date 1250 CE. [144] General reference for this time period in Europe: by end of fourteenth century complete suits of plate armour were being used. With time the metal composition was improved from iron, eventually to high quality steel.[145]


Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ Present, because shipping was active on the Tiber and in the Tyrhennian throughout the period, and the papacy frequently used the fleets of allies such as the Angevins.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ present ♥ Present, because shipping was active on the Tiber and in the Tyrhennian throughout the period, and the papacy frequently used the fleets of allies such as the Angevins.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ Present, because shipping was active on the Tiber and in the Tyrhennian throughout the period, and the papacy frequently used the fleets of allies such as the Angevins.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred present ♥ General reference for the time period in Europe: tents were the form of accommodation for wealthier traveling soldiers. At least from the 13th century the tents of nobles were huge, showy constructions.[146] "The old Roman practice of preparing a fortified camp at the end of each day's march did not survive the empire's fall, though the practice was revived in one form or another in some fifteenth-century armies, often using specially made wagons to make temporary ramparts." [147] Crusades historian Guibert of Nogent (d. 1124 CE) said the Roman-type camp did not exist.[148] General reference for the time period in Europe: palisade and ditch were sometimes used for long stays or when night attack feared. Watchmen and guard patrols were commonly used.[149]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Castle building. [150] Garrisons and fortresses. [151]
♠ Long walls ♣ [50; 85] ♥ KM. Demolished at the end of the War of Caraffa (1558), the papacy demolished many of its fortifications by agreement with the Spanish (Mallet and Shaw, 278)
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Pope was appointed, so too bishops. Regional governships (vicars) appointed. Papal government? In 14th century the administrative government of Rome seemed to be in the hands of powerful Roman families, Orsini and the Colonna. A commoner did have a chance to become pope, but the majority came from noble families, and same for bishops. The noble families in Rome (e.g., Colonna) were also very strong.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “The popes are the direct, legal (Leo I) successors of the apostle Peter, who had obtained primacy among the apostles from Christ himself. The most famous of the Petrine passages is ‘You are Peter and on this rock (‘’petram’’) I shall build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against her. And I shall give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven. And whatever you shall bind upon earth will also be bound in heaven, and whatever you shall loose on earth will also be loosed in heaven’ (Matthew 16:18-19). However, even this passage was not free of ambiguity, especially in contrast with other New Testament passages that indicate equality in contrast with other New Testament passages that indicate equality among the apostles, or variations in the understanding of the term ‘rock’. For the historical development of the papacy and thus of papal primacy (implied in the western understanding), therefore, tradition precedes doctrine in importance.” [152]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ “The popes are the direct, legal (Leo I) successors of the apostle Peter, who had obtained primacy among the apostles from Christ himself. The most famous of the Petrine passages is ‘You are Peter and on this rock (‘’petram’’) I shall build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against her. And I shall give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven. And whatever you shall bind upon earth will also be bound in heaven, and whatever you shall loose on earth will also be loosed in heaven’ (Matthew 16:18-19). However, even this passage was not free of ambiguity, especially in contrast with other New Testament passages that indicate equality in contrast with other New Testament passages that indicate equality among the apostles, or variations in the understanding of the term ‘rock’. For the historical development of the papacy and thus of papal primacy (implied in the western understanding), therefore, tradition precedes doctrine in importance.” [153]

Normative ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ absent/present/unknown. Public Goods refer to anything that incurs cost to an individual or group of individuals, but that can be used or enjoyed by others who did not incur any of the cost, namely the public at large. They are non-excludable and non-rivalrous goods. Examples are roads, public drinking fountains, public parks or theatres, temples open to the public, etc.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [154] [155] [156]

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