ItPapEM

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Joe Figliulo-Rosswurm ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Rome - Republic of St Peter II ♥ "The term 'Papal State' is a modern one, hardly used by contemporaries to refer to the papal patrimony in the long period with which this book is concerned."[1] The term "Papal States" was not adopted until around 1200.[2] "It is still a matter of contention at what period the term 'papal states' may be used to describe those areas where the pope was traditionally overlord, but certainly by the beginning of the thirteenth century popes were great feudatories in central Italy."[3] Eighth century popes called their state "The Republic of St. Peter". Terms such as "Papal States" are anachronistic when applied to the eighth and ninth centuries. Terms such as this only appear in late middle ages. [4]

♠ Alternative names ♣ Patrimony of St Peter; The Republic of St Peter; Papal State Early Middle Ages; Land of St Peter; ♥ Patrimonium Sancti Petri, Terras Sancti Petri, Respublica Sancti Petri.[5] Another common name for Rome and its hinterland was the territorium Sancti Petri[6] "The term 'Papal State' is a modern one, hardly used by contemporaries to refer to the papal patrimony in the long period with which this book is concerned."[7] The term "Papal States" was not adopted until around 1200.[8] "It is still a matter of contention at what period the term 'papal states' may be used to describe those areas where the pope was traditionally overlord, but certainly by the beginning of the thirteenth century popes were great feudatories in central Italy."[9] Eighth century popes called their state "The Republic of St. Peter". Terms such as "Papal States" are anachronistic when applied to the eighth and ninth centuries. Terms such as this only appear in late middle ages. [10]


♠ Peak Date ♣ 1030 CE ♥ {1050 CE; 1010-1030 CE} The German Emperor Henry III, de facto guardian of the papacy and the Patrimony, granted the city of Benevento to Pope Leo IX.[11] This marked the definitive end of an independent polity centered on the city of Benevento, which had threatened the Patrimony for several centuries from the south (this Lombard menace, from north and south, was the original reason for the Frankish descent into Italy and the Frankish conquest of the Lombard Kingdom of Italy). It also was the furthest extent of (nominal) papal power until Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216) began consolidating what would become the Papal States.[12] The period from 1036 to 1066 was characterized, however, by internal warfare and Salian invasions (despite the short-lived expansionist respite of 1049-1054 ending after Civitella). Thus, it could be argued that the real peak of the polity was under the Tusculan Reform Papacy c.1012-1036 CE because of internal and external stability, and socioeconomic and (even if limited) demographic expansion. For more, see Latium: Medieval History for Demographic Modeling, 904-1198 CE Latium: Medieval Era (500-1500 CE) -- Meso/Regional Scale Productive System Modeling Issues#Depression/inter-cycle, 904-1450 CE


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 904-1198 CE ♥ Beginning in 904, the Theophylacti (a noble family from Tusculanum) effectively monopolized political power in Rome, beginning a period in which the aristocratic families of Rome dominated the papacy.[13] In 1198, Lothario dei Conti dei Segni was elected pope as Innocent III. During his pontificate, the papacy began consolidating its control over Lazio and expanding its power through what would become the Papal States; simultaneously, Innocent III brought papal authority to its medieval height, initiating several crusades and presiding over the Fourth Lateran Council.[14]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose ♥ In general, this period was marked by a high degree of fragmentation and sub-regional autonomy, with various areas of the Patrimony of St. Peter virtually independent of the Papacy or subject to central powers in a very nominal way.[15] Papal sovereignty over central Lazio was rarely in question,[16] yet the papacy's ability to control subject cities and defend its territory from outside threats was often minimal, particularly in regard to territory on the fringes of papal control.[17] For example, the city of Gaeta, in the extreme south of Lazio, was de facto independent of the papacy by the early 10th century.[18] In the late eleventh and twelfth centuries, the papacy was frequently at war with the German emperors, causing serious destabilization of political authority in the Patrimony. I should emphasize, however, that it is difficult to pin down which of these terms is most accurate, since the papacy frequently entered alliances during this period, and significant parts of the Patrimony were de facto annexed by the Empire for decades at a time.[19]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ vassalage ♥ Papal relations with other polities fluctuated dramatically during this period; I coded it as "vassalage" to reflect the fact that the papacy during this period was often dominated by the German emperors.

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Rome - Republic of St Peter I ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Papal State I ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Latin Christendom ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 17,000,000 ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Rome ♥

♠ Language ♣ Latin ♥ Latin remained the sole language of administration, diplomacy, liturgy, and culture throughout the period. The population of the Patrimony would have spoken regional dialects, mostly within the Romance language group.[20] These dialects would in some places have been influenced by Greek; the Lombard language had disappeared by about 700 CE.[21]

General Description

The term "Papal States" was not adopted until around 1200 CE[22]; at this time the polity of the Papacy at Rome was called the Patrimony of St. Peter, Republic of St. Peter or Land of St. Peter. The population of Rome languished at a relative historical low of 35,000 people throughout this period, which was marked by a high degree of fragmentation and sub-regional autonomy. Various areas of the Patrimony of St. Peter were virtually independent of the Papacy or subject to central authority only in a very nominal way.[23]

Through the 904-1198 CE period the polity, with its capital at Rome, was dominated by powerful families and a powerful foreign state. The Theophylacti, a noble family from Tusculanum, were the first of a number of aristocratic families who dominated the papacy.[24] In the late eleventh and twelfth centuries, the papacy was frequently at war with the German emperors, which caused serious destabilization of political authority in the Patrimony.[25] The German Emperor Henry III, became the de facto guardian of the papacy and the Patrimony.[26]

When Henry III granted the city of Benevento to Pope Leo IX this marked the furthest extent of (nominal) papal power until Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216 CE) began consolidating what would be called the Papal States.[27] It could be argued that the peak of the polity was under the Tusculan Reform Papacy c.1012-1036 CE because of internal and external stability and socioeconomic and (even if limited) demographic expansion.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 14,000: 1000 CE; 6,000: 1100 CE ♥

14,000: 900 CE; 14,000: 1000 CE; 6,000: 1100 CE. This is Wickham's figure for the territorium Sancti Petri, the fundamental core of the Duchy of Rome.[28] The second figure is Wickham's estimate for Rome's territory after it had lost effective control of the rest of Lazio, during the crises of the late eleventh century.[29] We need to remember, however, that the claims of the papacy were far wider, extending as they did from Rome's territory (contado) all the way up to the Po River Delta. 14,000: 1000 CE = inferred data.

♠ Polity Population ♣ [300,000-1,250,000]: 1000 CE; [300,000-1,115,000]: 1100 CE ♥ Inhabitants.

ET: [30] Estimated from McEvedy and Jones "Italy" which had 5,000,000 in 1000 CE and 5,750,000 in 1100 CE. [31] Figures divided by three to roughly approximate population ruled by this polity would be 1,666,000: 1000 CE; 1,916,000: 1100 CE. The "Latium: Medieval Era (500-1500 CE)" coding page currently estimates the population of the Latium region only as: 335000: 904 CE; 110000: 1422 CE. These estimates for Latium conflict with the crude estimates based on the McEvedy and Jones figures for the whole of Italy since the latter do not drop from 850-1450 CE, they rise. Therefore I will assume the increase in population occurred outside of the region of this polity (Milan, Venice, Florence, Genoa?) and within this polity the population dropped, the initial McEverdy and Jones totals divided by 4 and 5 respectively. The population of the modern administrative region of Lazio currently stands at around 5,557,2756. This follows the massive improvement of living conditions after World War II.[32] I second the opinion expressed in the "Population" sub-section, however: there is virtually no information in the scholarship (English, French, even Italian) on the demographics of Lazio as a whole for the medieval period. Karl Julius Beloch's Storia della Popolazione d'Italia (1937-1961; Italian trans. 1994) remains the best account of Italian demographic patterns, but the section on the Papal States does not begin until around 1500.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 35,000: 1000 CE; 35,000: 1100 CE ♥

40,000: 900 CE; 35,000: 1000 CE; 35,000: 1100 CE; 35,000: 1200 CE [33] Rome's population hovered around 35,000 for much of the pre-Black Death (1348) period.[34][35]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 5 ♥

1. Rome - capital

35,000 inhabitants or more: Rome, maybe Bologna[36]
2. Other large city - Ravenna, Viterbo, Orvieto
10,0000-35,000 inhabitants: Ravenna, Viterbo, Orvieto[37]
3. Regional city
Albano 5,000-10,000 inhabitants
4. Town
100-4,000 inhabitants: Tres Tabernae or Centum Cellae. This one is a guesstimate and should be bracketed; Tres Tabernae, in the southern Campagna, was an important bishopric in late antiquity but by this period was little more than a village.
5. castelli and castra
10-100 inhabitants: castelli and castra: These were nucleated settlements, surrounded by a circuit wall, that originated in 10th- and 11th-century efforts to control agricultural surpluses and peasant production, often by monasteries such as Farfa.[38] Examples from Lazio in this period include Tusculo.[39]

Although there were some fortified settlements (oppida) in Lazio before the 10th century, castles begin to appear in the documents from the 930s: Montorio was founded in 934, Bocchignano in 939.[40] Wickham stresses the degree to which these foundations required detailed planning and substantial demographic shifts, since these new foundations had to be populated from the surrounding area.[41]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 6 ♥

Note: this hierarchy is still confused.

On sources for the institutional structure of Papal government Wickham recommends: "Bresslau, Handbuch, I, pp. 192-229; Halphen, Études; Toubert, ‘Scrinium et palatium’; Noble, The Republic of St. Peter, pp. 212-55."


1. Pope

By 781 CE (Charlemagne agreement) "what had been the Dutchy of Rome was, somewhat enlarged, recognised as St. Peter's and the Pope's own principality." Authority over Ravenna "shared in ill-defineded tandem." [42]
Pope was head of the senate. [43]
Pope, sovereign and "universal bishop", symbolically crowned with tiara. [44]

_Central government_

2. Senators
The title of "senator of all the Romans" is attested from the 10th century, and often describes a person in a position to decisively influence papal elections, as well as being a powerful secular administrator.[45] It is often unclear what senators and patricians did in the way of day-to-day duties, however, and may have been an honorific granted to members of the Roman baronial families.[46] (4)
2. Palatine judges (primicerius, secundicerius, primus defensor, nomenculator, arcarius, saccellarius, and protoscriniarius) of the notariate, Papal lands, Papal charity and treasury
the primicerius, secundicerius and protoscriniarius ran the notariate or scrinium.[47]
primus defensor "the senior official among the managers of papal lands"
nomenculator "ran Papal charity"
arcarius and saccellarius "ran the treasury"
2. vestararius (to 1000 CE) then urban prefect
"Slightly separate was the office of vestararius, which was again a financial office; this official was not a standard judge. On the other hand, when the vestararius appears in court proceedings, he seems often to preside over cases, whereas the palatine judges run the court under him; although here, too, we do not have enough evidence to be sure of a firm hierarchy of office, vestararii seem to be political leaders of unusual importance. There were also lands in the Agro romano attached to the office, which made it visibly remunerative. ... Vestararii, together with superistae/magistri militum, seem to have marked the highest positions lay aristocrats could reach in Rome..." [48]
"In the tenth century the importance of the vestararius, although sometimes still very great, was by now intermittent; after 1000 references to the title vanish. The new tenth-century political office that came to be of major importance was instead the revived position of urban prefect, which reappears in the middle decades of the tenth century after a long break, and it is very likely that it was Alberico who re-established the office. The prefecture was particularly central from 1000 onwards."[49]
3. Administrative subdivisions
Archives held in Lateran Palace with other paperwork. However, very important documents were kept in tomb of St Peter. [50]
High-ranking ecclesiastical officials (legates, papal representatives, etc.): The Papal state had administrative subdivisions, loosely conceived. Noble has argued that through its extensive landholding, charitable actions, and diplomatic role as a negotiator with the Lombards, the Roman Church significantly impacted most residents of Byzantine Italy.[51]
The bureaucrats attached to the papacy itself, usually based in the Lateran palace in Rome. The bureaucracy consisted of scribes, archivists, tax collectors, papal messengers, and administrators charged with the upkeep of the city.[52]
4. Head of Sub-division within an administrative subdivision
Some scholars have claimed that it was the most effective government in Western Europe by the end of the seventh century (although this isn't saying much, given how small-scale papal administration was).[53]
Lower-ranking administrative officials: A nomenclator was probably assisted by ordinator. Vicedominus was steward of the papal Lateran palace. Vicedominus more involved in central administration than a major domus.[54]
Amoner (financial controller).
Major-domo (treasurer and controller of wardrobe).
Pilgrims to the city of Rome was a source of income for the popes. [55]
4. primicerius defensorum
Defensores defended "the rights of the Roman church ... and the oppressed. The formula of appointment was vague enough to allow them to undertake virtually any duty on behalf of the church." There was a college of defensores headed by a primicerius. [56]
Officials Constantine I took with him on his 710 CE visit to Constantinople included: 2 bishops, 2 priests, a deacon, a secundicerius notariorum, the primicerius defensorum, the sacellarius, the nomenclator, the scriniarius, and two subdeacons. Archdeacon, archpriest and primicerius notariorum were left behind. Other officials, vicedominus, arcarius, ordinator and abbot. [57]
5. defensorum
4. primicerius notariorum (head of college of notaries) [58]
Officials Constantine I took with him on his 710 CE visit to Constantinople included: 2 bishops, 2 priests, a deacon, a secundicerius notariorum, the primicerius defensorum, the sacellarius, the nomenclator, the scriniarius, and two subdeacons. Archdeacon, archpriest and primicerius notariorum were left behind. Other officials, vicedominus, arcarius, ordinator and abbot. [59]
5. secundicerius notariorum
A college of notaries headed by primicerius, later joined by college of defensores headed by primicerius, and a college of subdeacons. Notaries were the staff of the papal chancery, career bureaucrats. [60]
Clerical officers (acolytes and guardians) [61]
6. notariorum
By this period, the popes had been caring for orphans, widows, and others as part of their pastoral duties.[62]
2. Cardinals & legates
To a certain extent, these are simply a particular, preeminent, sub-section of the Roman curia's bureaucracy (see below). They enjoyed prestige on an international level, however. During the pontificate of Gregory VII (1074-1085), the cardinals numbered around 74.[63] The cardinalate was composed of the bishops of the suburbicarian dioceses[64]; twenty-eight priests of churches in the vicinity of Rome; 18 deacons, attached to either the papal palaces or urban churches of Rome; and, maybe, 21 sub-deacons (who were, essentially, part of the papal bureaucracy.[65] Legates were drawn from the cardinalate. They were sent out by the popes either on specific missions, or as ambassadors-at-large, and given papal authority to hear disputes, settle ecclesiastical trials, and even make peace between warring lords; the legate system expanded dramatically in the late eleventh century, and was fully functioning as a level of the bureaucracy by the early twelfth century.[66]


_Regional government_

2. Regional governor of a Dutchy
After 756 CE, the duchies were officially controlled from Rome through Papal government administration. Every major city had a bishop. Regional governors. Bishops in joint session with provincial magnates elected the governor of each province and helped choose city officials. [67]
The popes became increasingly involved during the late first millennium in appointing the duke for the Dutchy of Rome. [68]
On several occasions, indeed, papal authority over the imperially-appointed dukes was demonstrated when popes had to save dukes from the irate Roman mob, or were able to defy the duke or Exarch of Ravenna with the aid of militia totius Italiae, "the entire army of Italy.[69]
Regionary guardians. Regional notaries.[70]
3. Bishop of a City
Every major city had a bishop. Bishops in joint session with provincial magnates elected the governor of each province and helped choose city officials.[71]
Under the Lombards, a system of episcopal immunities emerged that made the bishops virtually local temporal sovereigns and enabled them to preserve the local spirit of municipal independence and organization (e.g., consuls, guilds). The urban population was free, and the town walls (often built by the bishops) were refuges. [72]
The Roman bishop administered lands of the Church and lands of Roman basilicas, classified as tituli. [73]
4. Rectors of the Patrimony (in a Diaconate?)
Ecclesiastical government contained other important regional officials. Rectors of the Patrimony were appointed for each major territory. These were drawn from subordinate Roman officials: sub-deacons or notaries and guardians, among them whom could be laymen.[74]
Diaconates were established to store and distribute grain, and be centers of social welfare. [75]
5. Granary worker
5. Town / village leader
A more informal, often ad hoc, stratum but probably the most important on a day-to-day level. They included local landholders in particular. The aristocratic, land-holding stratum of Byzantine Italy emerged following Justinian's 6th-century reconquests.[76]
By the late seventh century, many sources speaks of this stratum, which Noble has described as forming "the key social class in late Byzantine Italy."[77] These landholders, often of eastern origin, acquired land through leasing them from bishops contractually.[78]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 6 ♥ levels.

At time of Concordat of Worms (1122 CE). "Now the clergy were organized in a hierarchical line under the direction of the pope, who could trump the power of local custom, tradition, and even episcopal power. Below the pope stood the bishop. Responsible for maintaining clerical discipline and for overseeing the property of the church, he was answerable only to the pope. Only he could perform all the sacraments; he alone performed the sacrament of confirmation and by the sacrament of ordination passed on his power to others. Theoretically, canon law held that he would be elected by the clergy and people of his diocese. In practice, he was elected only by the canon priests attached to the cathedral. Considered high clergy, the canons aided the bishop in furthering his agenda, administering the diocese and performing rituals at the cathedral church. At their head was the dean, the highest officer in the diocese. A diocesian chancellor supervised the cathedral school and issued licenses allowing clerics to teach and preach in the diocese. A treasurer oversaw finances, while a precentor managed the choir and organized the cathedral's musical program. Each diocese was divided into administrative districts, over which presided the archdeacons. Practically, these were powerful men; they were the bishop's legates, charged with enforcing discipline among the lower clergy, and therefore they were often quite unpopular. ... The parish priests were answerable to them."[79]

1. Pope

2. Archdeacon, of a dianocal college
Archdeacons became popes, Archpriests did not. [80] Following the 1059 decree Decretum in Nomine Domini, only cardinals could elect a new pope.[81]. Furthermore, only cardinals could become popes. Silvester IV (1105-1111), an anti-pope, was the last pope who was not a cardinal before his elevation.[82]
3. Deacons, of a dianocal college
There were seven regional deacons of Rome.[83]
4. Subdeacon, of a college of subdeacons
There was a college of subdeacons.[84] Regionary sub-deacons.[85]
5. Acolytes
Rome's ecclesiastical structure contained a diaconal college with seven regional deacons of Rome, possessing in turn a staff of subdeacons and acolytes. These subdeacons dealt with property and relief for poor. The number increased as responsibilities of Papacy increased. 19 by Gregory I.[86]
2. Archpriest, of a college
Papal administration was collegiate: priests formed a college, headed by the archpriest, which was less important than dianocal college headed by archdeacon. Archdeacons became popes, Archpriests did not. [87]
3. Priests, of a college
2. Metropolitan see archbishop?
"Santiago was in 1120 made a metropolitan see by the pope." [88]
Metropolitan had authority over a province [89]
3. Bishops in diocese
4. Dean
5. Canon priests attached to cathedral
5. Diocesian chancellor
6. Diocesian clergy
"After 2015 ... cathedral chancellors were required to furnish their diocesan clergy with some instruction in theology."[90]
5. Treasurer
5. Precenter
4. Archdeacons of administrative districts
5. Priests in Parish
There were multiple parishes in each episcopal diocese, and dozens or hundreds in larger dioceses such as the city of Rome.
"by the year 1000 it was the priest who really emerged as the religious and even educational leader of the local church." [91]

_Proprietary Churches_

"In 1000 CE ... western Europe had not yet been clearly divided into well-defined territorial parishes with resident priests chosen, ordained, and supervised by the local ordinary, who was in turn directed by the papacy. Indeed, the parish in the year 1000 was far from that ideal, ordered, hierarchical model. Instead, many different (often competing) churches, structures, and people overlapped in the organization of local religious life." [92] "Actually, the most common type of church in the year 1000 was one founded - and governed - by a local lay lord rather than a bishop. ... It is impossible to calculate precisely how many of these churches there were, but they surely numbered in the tens of thousands. Indeed, they far outnumbered the Baptismal churches controlled by the bishops (many of which had passed into the hands of lay lords). ... Because of the force exerted by the ancient, hierarchical, episcopal Roman tradition, this model, which was based on German property law, never took root in central and southern Italy. ... Proprietary churches served very small communities, encompassing perhaps a village or two."[93]


♠ Military levels ♣ 6 ♥ levels.

"...men called magister militum or superista are attested off and on throughout the century; the papal militia had both military and ceremonial importance (see below, p.333), and these were its leaders. There were clearly several such leaders at anyone time, as the Liber Pontificalis makes clear in, for example, its account of the contested papal election of 855, and other senior military figures sometimes appear, such as Cesario (son of Sergio magister militum), ordinatus super exercitum in 849. A hierarchy of rank appears earlier in 855, when Daniele magister equitum accused Graziano, eminentissimus magistro militum et Romani palatii (or Romanae urbis) superista, clearly his superior, of disloyalty to the Carolingians, a charge he could not sustain. Apart from this, however, the structure of the military side of Rome’s aristocratic hierarchies is obscure to us. A set of military offices appear in a wide array of heterogeneous texts, but we cannot put them into a credible ordering. We can say, however, that it was normal to call senior military men nobiles, and Cesario di Sergio’s case shows that they had hereditary elements; we shall see in a moment how complex links between families were by 876. The terminology just outlined becomes much less common after the beginning of the tenth century, perhaps because the supreme military leaders were by now Tefilatto and his heirs; but two people are called superista under Alberico, and Otto III briefly revived the office of magister militiae. Formal military offices cease to be documented at all after that. All the same, military leadership, with or without titles, remained an important role for Rome’s aristocrats."[94]


1. The Pope

Popes during this period often accompanied troops on campaigns; for example, John X bragged that he entered the battle several times during the 915 Christian expedition against the Arabs of the Garigliano river[95]. Later popes (Leo IX, for example) were captured following their armies' defeat on the field at the hands of the Normans, and Lucius II may have died of wounds sustained in his failed assault on the Capitoline Hill in 1144.[96]
2. Cardinals, papal legates
Various officials in the papal curia led armies and held castles and fortresses for the papacy during this period.
The cardinals were in many ways the most important officials in the Patrimony from the late eleventh century onward; in the later Middle Ages, they are found leading armies and serving as what we would consider to be secular administrators.
3. Castellans, chamberlains, papal chaplains
2. superista
3. magister militum
4. Captain or commander
5. Captain or sergeants
6. rank and file.
Typically, papal armies were composed of mercenary bands (a masnada) headed by a captain or a papally-appointed commander. 1. Mercenary leaders: Leaders of a masnada, or mercenary band. These captains would have led their contingents in papal armies. 2. Captains and sergeants: These would have served as liasons between the captain and his soldiers. 3. Foot soldiers


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ There are references to what appear to be full-time military officials from the mid-10th century: the magister militum, a prefect of the navy, and a protospatharios ("sword-bearer").[97] During the late eleventh and twelfth centuries, papal armies would have been commanded by full-time mercenary captains.

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Professional soldiers were present, usually as mercenaries, but the Patrimony did not have a full-time, standing army during this period.

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ The pope himself was, of course, a priest. The city of Rome possessed dozens of parish churches for each neighborhood, while the territory of the Patrimony, mirroring that of Latin Christendom as a whole, possessed a similar array of professional priests.

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ The papal curia possessed professional notaries and a series of other professional offices straight through the period. For example, Theophylact, who dominated papal politics in the first decades of the tenth century, is referred to as magister militum et vestararius.[98] This bureaucracy would expand tremendously in the eleventh and twelfth centuries.

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ The Papacy did not use anything like the Chinese exam system for recruitment to the bureaucracy.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ present ♥ While individual popes often staffed the papal bureaucracy and administration with their relatives,[99] foreigners and non-nobles could rise within the Church hierarchy based on merit.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Papal palace complexes, in particular the Lateran palace, doubled as administrative centers; the papal curia was usually based in the Lateran.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ Codex Iustinianus, canon law. “In 1357, Albornoz promulgated a set of laws for the lands he had conquered that was later known as the Constitutiones aegidianae. This became the basic legal code of the papal states and was not superseded under the Napoleonic era.” [100]

Canon law mentioned. [101]

Papal bulls in the 1200s mentioned. [102]

1730s: “...the papal states remained in fact a collection of provinces and cities rather than an organic political unit.” (263)[103]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ "The classic placitum romanum (a convenient modern phrase; our sources just say placitum) consisted of a court president, who was the ruler of Rome or his delegate; some or all of the palatine judges, assisted by dativi iudices who were chosen case by case; a variable number of named Roman nobiles, who could make up a high percentage of the city’s ‘old aristocracy’ in major cases; and numerous other unnamed adstantes, who might sometimes have been non-aristocratic."[104]

The pope himself heard legal cases - in particular disputes over church lands and ecclesiastical rights-from all over Latin Christian Europe, and the cardinals and legates (see "Administrative levels") served as judges as well. Judges were appointed in the provinces of the Patrimony for more humdrum legal work later in the period.

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ Public court known as placita. "Pierre Toubert definitively analysed the structure of the Roman placitum up to 1080, taking the story on in less detail up to 1200, in a hundred pages of Les structures du Latium médiéval." [105]

"This sort of assembly politics was typical of early medieval Europe, and was regularized by the Carolingians; it was doubtless indeed the Carolingians who extended it to Rome, for Roman practices are so close to those of Carolingian northern Italy. By the eleventh century, such placita were rare in the Frankish world, but south of the Alps they were regular in most regions until the second half of the century. Rome fits this Italian pattern, then, although, as already noted, there are indications that placita were held even more often in Rome than they were in each county further north. It was clearly easy for Roman judges and aristocrats to come together frequently, and the more often they did so the more solid their political aggregation."[106]

It is unclear when it developed, but by long-standing custom, popes held a council in Rome itself during Lent to settle any ecclesiastical business (land disputes, lawsuits over rights, quarrels between bishops and their parish churches, etc.). In the late eleventh century, this system was expanded with another seasonal council held in November for the same purpose.[107]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥ "The point about these placita was thus that they were standardized occasions, run by high-status legal experts, the palatine judges, and legitimated more widely by Rome’s aristocracy. The whole of the city’s political society came together regularly and frequently to run justice, that is to say, and the choreography of each case, while it was on one level unique every time because every case was different, on another level had considerable regularities as well."[108]

Lawyers became an increasingly important part of the papal curia in the eleventh and twelfth centuries; the future pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216) was a lawyer. Bologna, technically a part of the Patrimony, was the major center for legal scholarship in western Europe from the twelfth century onwards.

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ Commercialization of rural hinterland began 1050-1100 CE. "This was the date of similar signs of agrarian development in eastern Lombardy, too, the hinterlands of Bergamo, Brescia, and Cremona. Here, François Menant points to the late eleventh and twelfth centuries as the moment of take-off for systematic irrigation, the development of vineyards on cleared land, the development of transhumant pastoralism, and, later in the twelfth century in the Cremonese, linen." [109]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ The papacy restored and maintained aqueducts (from c800), among other buildings, which at the time "certainly attest to the very great wealth of the papacy in the early Carolingian period, and to the preparedness of popes to spend that wealth very ambitiously." [110] Buildings and restorations mostly occurred in the early 9th century. After this time the code would be for the maintenance of these systems.
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ "The Porticus was ... the location for nearly all Rome’s documented ergasteria or shops in our period."[111] Civitas Leoniana was a market area. "What was being sold in the Civitas Leoniana? Food and drink, for sure; sex, doubtless, though it is not documented; lead and tin seals with portraits of the apostles Peter and Paul by 1199 at the latest, and so presumably the same array of religious trinkets that one can buy in and around piazza S. Pietro today. Our documents mention several negotientes, as actors or witnesses, as one would expect; a cambiator or money changer in 1083; and several food sellers of different types. Only a few artisans appear: workers in metal and cloth. This was, then, a commercial suburb, more than a productive one. The basilica gained the right not only to sell seals in 1199 but to have them made..."[112] Wickham's map of "Classical and secular buildings" also shows basilicas in the forum area.[113] These may indicate market areas.
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ Domuscultae from the eighth century was excavated and showed "a church and a substantial set of outbuildings, presumably largely for the storage of products."[114] "Rome, always a large city, needed to be fed, principally with grain; and it was fed from its hinterland from the eighth century at the latest into the late Middle Ages."[115]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Roads had existed and been maintained since Roman times.
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ The popes maintained bridges across the Tiber; in other cities, such as Ravenna, the local bishops or secular officials did the same.
♠ Canals ♣ absent ♥ There is no mention of the papacy or other powers undertaking canal works during this period; Roman-era canals had, by this point, most likely silted up.
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ "Ripa was the name of the Tiber port area; to be exact, the east side was the Ripa Graeca, called Marmorata at its southern end under the Aventino, and the west side, in Trastevere, was the Ripa Romea."[116]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥ small quarries for stone?

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ inferred present ♥ use of mnemonic devices in Latin instruction in the late Middle Ages.
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ absent ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Compiled starting in 1192 by Cencius. Cardinal Cencius, later elected pope as Honorius III, compiled the Liber Censuum, a tabulation of the lands and fiscal rights of the papacy, beginning in 1192.[117] (2)
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ E.g. Christian calendar.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ The Catholic Church possessed the Bible, in addition to the writings of the Fathers, canon law, and a massive corpus of other material.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Saints' lives were probably the most common form of religious litterature.
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥
♠ History ♣ present ♥ The Liber pontificalis, a series of biographical entries on each pope, is one of the most important sources for the history of the early medieval papacy.
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Some texts written by ancient writers would have been in circulation within the Papal States.
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ The Mirabilia, a 12th-/13th-century collection of legends and myths surrounding the most important buildings of the city and their history, can be considered fiction.


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Some feudatories of the papacy paid dues in kind, or with ceremonial feasts in place of strict cash payments.[118]
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ I'm coding this as a debatable-yet-present factum because, although metal coinage remained in circulation throughout this period, on a day-to-day level these coins probably had a symbolic value as opposed to a strict, one-to-one exchange value in our sense. Thus, the coins coined by later Carolingians of the Regnum Italicum would have varied in value depending on what region of the peninsula one was in.[119]
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ There were specialised units of measurement for precious gems, gold and silver.[120]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ Coins of various origins were used throughout the period for payments and bribes; in 1193, the transaction in which Civitavecchia was handed back to the papacy involved a payment of 300 pounds of gold, or 200 pounds Pavese pence.[121]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ Between ca. 980 and 1180, Rome possessed no native currency.[122] Beginning in the 1180s, however, the Roman Senate began minting coins again; also, cities such as Bologna began minting coins in the 12th century.[123]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ The papacy had its own specialist couriers [124]
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from presence of bronze.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Bronze sculptures held important significance in this period as a link with rulership; “contemporary rulers could associate themselves with their predecessors through the commissioning of bronze objects.” (11) [125]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Guns cast in bronze, then by mid-fifteenth century cannons made of cast iron, with other cast iron objects becoming common. Move from the bloomery process to forging; “Italy and France were also in the forefront of improvements in iron manufacture.” (164-65) [126]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Increased demand for iron and steel from rising nation states in late 15th century. (164-65) [127]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Waley writes of composite bow and crossbowmen during this period. [128]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Waley writes of composite bow and crossbowmen during this period. [129]
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred present ♥ The Papal States often used foreign mercenaries who may have had access to the crossbow. Certainly being used in the 15th CE (inferred for this time?): “In the Papal States Spoleto had developed a considerable arms industry and supplied crossbow bolts, shields and lances to the army.”[130] Waley writes of composite bow and crossbowmen during this period. [131]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ Catapults could be used to throw fire, diseased men or animals over walls. Don’t have access to enough of the following reference to know if the Papal States did this but certainly the technology was still available for use in some offensive capacity.[132] The German Emperor Henry IV used catapults and other siege engines in his 1084 siege of Rome.[133]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ present ♥ There are no sources on the use of sling siege engines within the Patrimony, but they were in use by Western European armies by 1198.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ French mercenaries were often employed who would bring their own weapons. These included the battle axe, sword, dagger, spear or lance. Mace, club and flail would begin their rise to prominence at the end of this period. [134] [135]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ French mercenaries were often employed who would bring their own weapons. These included the battle axe, sword, dagger, spear or lance. Mace, club and flail would begin their rise to prominence at the end of this period. [136] [137]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ French mercenaries were often employed who would bring their own weapons. These included the battle axe, sword, dagger, spear or lance. Mace, club and flail would begin their rise to prominence at the end of this period. [138] [139]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ French mercenaries were often employed who would bring their own weapons. These included the battle axe, sword, dagger, spear or lance. Mace, club and flail would begin their rise to prominence at the end of this period. [140] [141]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ French mercenaries were often employed who would bring their own weapons. These included the battle axe, sword, dagger, spear or lance. Mace, club and flail would begin their rise to prominence at the end of this period. [142] [143]
♠ Polearms ♣ ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ On the basis of armour worn by French soldiers of the 12th-13th centuries we would expect helmet and shield, leather and quilted armour as well as metal breastplate, limb protection and chainmail. [144] [145]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ On the basis of armour worn by French soldiers of the 12th-13th centuries we would expect helmet and shield, leather and quilted armour as well as metal breastplate, limb protection and chainmail. [146] [147]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ On the basis of armour worn by French soldiers of the 12th-13th centuries we would expect helmet and shield, leather and quilted armour as well as metal breastplate, limb protection and chainmail. [148] [149]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ On the basis of armour worn by French soldiers of the 12th-13th centuries we would expect helmet and shield, leather and quilted armour as well as metal breastplate, limb protection and chainmail. [150] [151]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ On the basis of armour worn by French soldiers of the 12th-13th centuries we would expect helmet and shield, leather and quilted armour as well as metal breastplate, limb protection and chainmail. [152] [153]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ On the basis of armour worn by French soldiers of the 12th-13th centuries we would expect helmet and shield, leather and quilted armour as well as metal breastplate, limb protection and chainmail. [154] [155]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The Papacy did not maintain arsenals or arms workshops during this period, and equipment most likely would have been furnished by troops.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The Papacy did not maintain arsenals or arms workshops during this period, and equipment most likely would have been furnished by troops.
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ The Papacy did not maintain arsenals or arms workshops during this period, and equipment most likely would have been furnished by troops.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ present ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ The papacy was capable of organizing naval expeditions occasionally from at least 849, when a papal flotilla under Caesar of Naples defeated a fleet of Arab raiders at Ostia, Rome's port on the Tyrrhenian Sea.[156]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden).[157]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden).[158]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden).[159]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ The Leonine Walls, built starting in 848, are a good example.
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Many of these would have been Roman-era survivals, however. The most notable example is Aurelian's Wall at Rome, which remained the main wall circuit for Rome up to 1870. (These walls may have required some maintenance?).
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred present ♥ Examples needed.
♠ Long walls ♣ [50; 85] ♥ KM. Demolished at the end of the War of Caraffa (1558), the papacy demolished many of its fortifications by agreement with the Spanish (Mallet and Shaw, 278). The Aurelian's Walls, built in the 270s by the Roman Emperor Aurelian, were still in use. However, these walls enclosed the ancient city of Rome so do not count as a "long wall."
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Beginning in 904, the Theophylacti (a noble family from Tusculanum) effectively monopolized political power in Rome, beginning a period in which the aristocratic families of Rome dominated the papacy. [160]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “The popes are the direct, legal (Leo I) successors of the apostle Peter, who had obtained primacy among the apostles from Christ himself. The most famous of the Petrine passages is ‘You are Peter and on this rock (‘’petram’’) I shall build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against her. And I shall give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven. And whatever you shall bind upon earth will also be bound in heaven, and whatever you shall loose on earth will also be loosed in heaven’ (Matthew 16:18-19). However, even this passage was not free of ambiguity, especially in contrast with other New Testament passages that indicate equality in contrast with other New Testament passages that indicate equality among the apostles, or variations in the understanding of the term ‘rock’. For the historical development of the papacy and thus of papal primacy (implied in the western understanding), therefore, tradition precedes doctrine in importance.” [161]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ “The popes are the direct, legal (Leo I) successors of the apostle Peter, who had obtained primacy among the apostles from Christ himself. The most famous of the Petrine passages is ‘You are Peter and on this rock (‘’petram’’) I shall build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against her. And I shall give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven. And whatever you shall bind upon earth will also be bound in heaven, and whatever you shall loose on earth will also be loosed in heaven’ (Matthew 16:18-19). However, even this passage was not free of ambiguity, especially in contrast with other New Testament passages that indicate equality in contrast with other New Testament passages that indicate equality among the apostles, or variations in the understanding of the term ‘rock’. For the historical development of the papacy and thus of papal primacy (implied in the western understanding), therefore, tradition precedes doctrine in importance.” [162]

Normative ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Jesus' message "envisages a universal society bound together by divine love in which the limited human ties of affection based on kinship, cultural identity, and self-interest give way to the unlimited love of God. It calls for an egalitarian kingdom of love without limits. Jesus likens it to a family in which all are brothers and sisters of one another and children of the one Father (‘Abba’, an informal word for father, is Jesus’ preferred name for God)." [163] However, it is worth noting that, for example, social inequality and inequality between the sexes were often justified theologically [164][165].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “Medieval society was hierarchical, not merely in social reality but as a matter of principle. Its hierarchical character was understood in cosmological terms. It was taken for granted that the universe was designed in such a way that some of God’s creatures were intended to be at the topand some below them. Human beings were a ‘higher’ form of being than cattle. Cattle were ‘higher’ than the grass they ate. The grass was ‘higher’ than the earth it grew in. So thoroughgoing was the sense that this was how the universe worked that the nine orders of angels identified by the fifth-century Greek authors Pseudo-Dionysus began to be lined up alongside their human ‘counterparts’ on the understanding that each person’s place in heaven would be related to that of the equivalent angel. So the seraphim and cherubim, the contemplatives among the angels, would be accompanied for eternity by members of the contemplative orders, their human equivalents. In modern terms, this was like suggesting that post-men and motorcycle messengers would spend eternity in the company of ordinary angels, while diplomats and emissaries could expect to find themselves among archangels.//Within human society itself no premium was put upon equality. Until late in the Middle Ages, few appear to have seen anything wrong with the idea that there should be rulers and ruled, for hierarchical arrangements of parts within wholes were a normal way of making an organism ‘work’. A body needs a head but it also needs feet (I Corinthians 12.20). In fragmentary survivals of the teaching which was given in the cathedral school at Laon at the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth centuries, there is a discussion of the passage in Ephesians 6.5 where servants are told to obey their masters. ‘It is no sin to have a servant or to be a servant.’ It was argued at Laon that there are two reasons why ‘servitude is given by God.’ It may be a punishment for the sins of those who are slaves or servants. Or it may have a purpose of proving or testing them, so that, humbled, they may be better people.” [166]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “Medieval society was hierarchical, not merely in social reality but as a matter of principle. Its hierarchical character was understood in cosmological terms. It was taken for granted that the universe was designed in such a way that some of God’s creatures were intended to be at the topand some below them. Human beings were a ‘higher’ form of being than cattle. Cattle were ‘higher’ than the grass they ate. The grass was ‘higher’ than the earth it grew in. So thoroughgoing was the sense that this was how the universe worked that the nine orders of angels identified by the fifth-century Greek authors Pseudo-Dionysus began to be lined up alongside their human ‘counterparts’ on the understanding that each person’s place in heaven would be related to that of the equivalent angel. So the seraphim and cherubim, the contemplatives among the angels, would be accompanied for eternity by members of the contemplative orders, their human equivalents. In modern terms, this was like suggesting that post-men and motorcycle messengers would spend eternity in the company of ordinary angels, while diplomats and emissaries could expect to find themselves among archangels.//Within human society itself no premium was put upon equality. Until late in the Middle Ages, few appear to have seen anything wrong with the idea that there should be rulers and ruled, for hierarchical arrangements of parts within wholes were a normal way of making an organism ‘work’. A body needs a head but it also needs feet (I Corinthians 12.20). In fragmentary survivals of the teaching which was given in the cathedral school at Laon at the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth centuries, there is a discussion of the passage in Ephesians 6.5 where servants are told to obey their masters. ‘It is no sin to have a servant or to be a servant.’ It was argued at Laon that there are two reasons why ‘servitude is given by God.’ It may be a punishment for the sins of those who are slaves or servants. Or it may have a purpose of proving or testing them, so that, humbled, they may be better people.” [167]
♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Public Goods refer to anything that incurs cost to an individual or group of individuals, but that can be used or enjoyed by others who did not incur any of the cost, namely the public at large. They are non-excludable and non-rivalrous goods. Examples are roads, public drinking fountains, public parks or theatres, temples open to the public, etc.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [168] [169] [170]

References

  1. (Partner 1972, xii) Peter Partner. 1972. The Lands of St Peter. The Papal State In The Middle Ages And The Early Renaissance. University of California Press. Berkeley.
  2. Vauchez, 356
  3. (Rist 2009) Rebecca Rist. 2009. The Papacy and Crusading In Europe, 1198-1245. Continuum. London.
  4. (Noble 2011, xxi) T F X Noble. 2011. The Republic of St. Peter: The Birth of the Papal State, 680-825, University of Pennsylvania Press.
  5. Vauchez, 356
  6. Wickham (2015), 36
  7. (Partner 1972, xii) Peter Partner. 1972. The Lands of St Peter. The Papal State In The Middle Ages And The Early Renaissance. University of California Press. Berkeley.
  8. Vauchez, 356
  9. (Rist 2009) Rebecca Rist. 2009. The Papacy and Crusading In Europe, 1198-1245. Continuum. London.
  10. (Noble 2011, xxi) T F X Noble. 2011. The Republic of St. Peter: The Birth of the Papal State, 680-825, University of Pennsylvania Press.
  11. Kreutz, 151
  12. Kreutz, 152.
  13. Marazzi, 64
  14. Vauchez, 356
  15. Wickham (2009), 164
  16. Marazzi, 64
  17. Marazzi, 64-65; Kreutz, 57-60.
  18. Skinner (1995), 2
  19. Partner, 231
  20. Varvaro, 197-98.
  21. Wickham (2009), 68
  22. (Vauchez 2010, 356) André Vauchez ed. Roma Medievale. Rome: Editori Laterza, 2010 [2001].
  23. (Wickham 2009, 164) Chris Wickham. Early Medieval Italy. Central Power and Local Society, 400-1000. Ann Arbor, MA: University of Michigan, 2009 [1981].
  24. (Marazzi 2001, 64) Federico Marazzi. "Aristocrazia e società (secoli VI-XI)," in Vauchez, ed., 41-69.
  25. (Partner 1972, 231) Peter Partner. 1972. The Lands of St. Peter: The Papal State in the Middle Ages and Early Renaissance. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972.
  26. (Kreutz 1996, 151) Kreutz, Barbara M. Before the Normans. Southern Italy in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries. College Park, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.
  27. (Kreutz 1996, 152) Kreutz, Barbara M. Before the Normans. Southern Italy in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries. College Park, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.
  28. Wickham (2015), 36-37, for this figure, and the large size of Rome's territory in comparison with other Italian polities.
  29. Wickham (2015), 36.
  30. (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 107)
  31. (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 107)
  32. http://demo.istat.it/bilmens2012gen/index.html
  33. Bairoch, Batou, Chèvre, 47
  34. Beloch, 185
  35. Brentano, 13
  36. Bairoch, et. al., 41
  37. Lansing, 18, estimates the population of Orvieto and its contado, the area of the surrounding countryside under its control, at around 19,000-32,000; within the city itself, we know that there were 14,000-17,000 people
  38. See, in general, Toubert (1977), 91-93
  39. Toubert (1977), 196
  40. Wickham )2015), 43
  41. Wickham (2015), 44
  42. (Daly 1986)
  43. (Trevor, 1869, 113)
  44. (Noble 2011, xx)
  45. Partner, 105
  46. Marazzi, 58
  47. (Wickham 2015, 187) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  48. (Wickham 2015, 187-188) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  49. (Wickham 2015, 188) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  50. (Richards 1979, 290-292)
  51. Noble, 1984, 10
  52. Carocci and Vendittelli, 74-75
  53. (Partner 1972, 9
  54. (Richards 1979, 298)
  55. (Trevor 1869, 115)
  56. (Richards 1979, 290-292)
  57. (Richards 1979, 275)
  58. (Richards 1979, 290-292)
  59. (Richards 1979, 275)
  60. (Richards 1979, 290-292)
  61. (Partner 1972, 1)
  62. Noble, 1984, 10
  63. Southern, 143
  64. The suburbicarian dioceses are the seven dioceses closest to Rome, and which provided the bishop-cardinals of the early Middle Ages. Today, they are: Ostia, Porto-Santa Rufina, Frascati/Tusculum, Palestrina, Albano, and Sabina-Poggio Mirteto.
  65. Southern, 143-44
  66. Southern, 147-52, provides an excellent case-study of how these legates worked.
  67. (Woods 1921, 48)
  68. (Daly 1986)
  69. Noble, 1984, 18
  70. (Partner 1972, 1)
  71. (Woods 1921, 48)
  72. (Stearns 2001 173)
  73. (Partner 1972, 6)
  74. (Partner 1972, 8)
  75. (Partner 1972, 9)
  76. Noble, 5-6
  77. Noble, 1984, 7
  78. Noble, 1984, 7
  79. (Madigan 2015, 144-145)
  80. (Richards 1979, 290-292)
  81. di Carpegna Falconieri, 65
  82. di Carpegna Falconieri, 64
  83. (Richards 1979, 293)
  84. (Richards 1979, 290-292)
  85. (Partner 1972, 1)
  86. (Richards 1979, 293)
  87. (Richards 1979, 290-292)
  88. (Madigan 2015, 333)
  89. (Madigan 2015, 14)
  90. (Madigan 2015, 310)
  91. (Madigan 2015, 83)
  92. (Madigan 2015, 80-81)
  93. (Madigan 2015, 81-83)
  94. (Wickham 2015, 187) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  95. Kreutz, 78
  96. Partner, 181
  97. Partner, 97
  98. Partner, 79
  99. On this, see in general Carocci, "Il Nepotismo nel medioevo."
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  101. Kleinhenz, Christopher, ed. 2017. Routledge Revivals: Medieval Italy (2004): An Encyclopedia- Volume I. Routledge.
  102. Kleinhenz, Christopher, ed. 2017. Routledge Revivals: Medieval Italy (2004): An Encyclopedia- Volume I. Routledge.
  103. Wright, A.D. 2014. The Early Modern Papacy. London: Routledge.
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  105. (Wickham 2015, 386-387) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  106. (Wickham 2015, 388-389) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  107. Southern, 145-47
  108. (Wickham 2015, 388) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  109. (Wickham 2015, 107-108) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  110. (Wickham 2015, 155) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  111. (Wickham 2015, 135) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
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