IrKhzE*

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Susiana A ♥ "Table 3.2 Chronology of the Neolithic period in the Ancient Near East." Khuzistan: Muhammad Jaffar 7000-6300 BCE; Susiana A 6300-5800 BCE; Tepe Sabz 5800-5400 BCE; Kazineh / Susiana B (not sure if two terms for same period or earlier/later) 5400-5000 BCE.[1]

♠ Alternative names ♣ Susiana A ♥ "Table 3.2 Chronology of the Neolithic period in the Ancient Near East." Khuzistan: Muhammad Jaffar 7000-6300 BCE; Susiana A 6300-5800 BCE; Tepe Sabz 5800-5400 BCE; Kazineh / Susiana B (not sure if two terms for same period or earlier/later) 5400-5000 BCE.[2]

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 6000-5700 BCE ♥

"Table 3.2 Chronology of the Neolithic period in the Ancient Near East." Khuzistan: Muhammad Jaffar 7000-6300 BCE; Susiana A 6300-5800 BCE; Tepe Sabz 5800-5400 BCE; Kazineh / Susiana B (not sure if two terms for same period or earlier/later) 5400-5000 BCE.[3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Susiana - Muhammad Jaffar ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Susiana B ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥


♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

"Chogha Mish was already a sizable settlement by the Early Chalcolithic period (Early Susiana or Susiana a), covering an area of more than 3.5 ha (Delougaz and Kantor 1996: 280). Most other villages rarely exceeded I ha. Architecture consisted of large multiroom houses containing large living spaces and halls, and smaller storage rooms (Delougaz 1976). Houses appear to have been set close together, with some separated by narrow alleyways. A large brick platfonn measuring at least 6 x 8 m and containing at least six courses of brick was located among the domestic architecture (Delougaz and Kantor 1975: 94). Associated with this platform was a building of substantial size. Another large building was represented by the remains of a thick buttressed wall (Delougaz and Kantor 1975: 95)." [4]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [175-700] ♥ Inhabitants. Using the Seshat-wide estimate of [50-200] people per hectare, Choga Mish would have between 175 and 700 inhabitants. "Chogha Mish was already a sizable settlement by the Early Chalcolithic period (Early Susiana or Susiana a), covering an area of more than 3.5 ha (Delougaz and Kantor 1996: 280). Most other villages rarely exceeded I ha. Architecture consisted of large multiroom houses containing large living spaces and halls, and smaller storage rooms (Delougaz 1976). Houses appear to have been set close together, with some separated by narrow alleyways. A large brick platfonn measuring at least 6 x 8 m and containing at least six courses of brick was located among the domestic architecture (Delougaz and Kantor 1975: 94). Associated with this platform was a building of substantial size. Another large building was represented by the remains of a thick buttressed wall (Delougaz and Kantor 1975: 95)." [5]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Coded 1 for previous period for which the general reference was: "Villages were normally relatively small, an aspect that, combined with the matrimonial strategies of the time, indicates that settlements only had a few large families or even just one."[6]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Administrative conventions developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE so this period very low administrative complexity.[7]

♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

In the later Uruk phase "Urban Revolution" c3800-3000 BCE that the following quote refers to religious ideology became more complex, so can infer still low level religious complexity in this period: "Early state formation therefore featured both the rise of a ruling class, making decisions and benefiting from a privilaged position, and the development of a political and religious ideology. The latter was able to ensure stability and cohesion in this pyramid of inequality."[8]

♠ Military levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not present for previous period and read nothing to suggest major change, such as warrior burials (although that alone would not mean professionalism).. In previous period a general reference was: "The social structure of these communities was thus characterised by few heads of households (elders), marked gender, age and provenance barriers, but few socio-political differences. Consequently, burials do not display any significant diffferences in status."[9]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not present for previous period and read nothing to suggest major change, such as warrior burials (although that alone would not mean professionalism). In previous period a general reference was: "The social structure of these communities was thus characterised by few heads of households (elders), marked gender, age and provenance barriers, but few socio-political differences. Consequently, burials do not display any significant diffferences in status."[10]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred absent ♥ levels.

In the later Uruk phase "Urban Revolution" c3800-3000 BCE that the following quote refers to religious ideology became more complex, so can infer low level religious complexity in this period: "Early state formation therefore featured both the rise of a ruling class, making decisions and benefiting from a privilaged position, and the development of a political and religious ideology. The latter was able to ensure stability and cohesion in this pyramid of inequality."[11] Liverani says "possible existence of specilised priests" in reference to nearby Ubaid culture 5100-4000 BCE temples.[12] This suggests that before 5100 BCE unlikely to be specialised priests in Susiana or the wider region. The fact no symbolic buildings (i.e. temples) so far referenced for this time period suggests a code of inferred absent.

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE so this period very low administrative complexity.[13]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[14]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[15]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE so this period very low administrative complexity.[16]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[17]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[18]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[19]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[20]


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ [absent; present] ♥ "If the earliest inhabitants of Eridu were Sumerians ... then it must be accepted that they made their homes in the plain only after having mastered irrigation techniques in their former abodes at the foot of the Zagros mountains, probably in Khuzistan."[21] "The quality of its ware, which was of the same quality as the best pottery from Samarra or Halaf, indicates that Eridu must have had a formative stage that remains unknown to us. This is either because it is still buried in situ, or because it developed elsewhere (Khuzistan?), and was subsequently brought to Eridu by groups already in possession of core production techniques. The latter, such as irrigated agriculture, are fully Neolithic in character, and were practised alongside fishing, which was prominent due to the settlement's location."[22] "Although irrigation is implied beginning in the Early Village Period in some regions and possibly only in the Middle Village Period, if at all in others, it is obvious that not all sites are located with primary concern for surface water." According to periodization table Early Village period is 6000 BCE, Middle Village Period c4600 BCE.[23]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ Reference to the first silos from c7000 BCE so presumably existed at this time? [24]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[25] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[26]
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[27] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[28]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[29] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[30]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[31] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[32]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[33] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[34]
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[35] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[36]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[37] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[38]
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[39] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[40]
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[41] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[42]
♠ History ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[43] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[44]
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[45] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[46]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[47] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[48]
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[49] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[50]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Thomas Cressy; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Siyalk II-III in Iran, evidence of copper smelting but unclear if in use for military means [51]
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Bone harpoons found for this time, but it is unclear if used for warfare or hunting. There is no reason to believe that other humans couldn't be the target for these.[52]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in evidence and extremely unlikely being a weapon of the Americas
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ "Round and ovoid sling pellets have been dug up in early Sumer and Turkestan. Ovoid sling pellets have been unearthed at the neolithic sites on the Iranian tableland. In later times, the sling was used in Palestine and Syria. It was introduced in Egypt at a still later date."[53] 4500 BCE: "Sling invented at Catal Huyuk in Anatolia."[54] Early Sumer was c4500 BCE but also found at 'neolithic sites' earlier than this.
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Stone arrowheads found for this time, but it is unclear if used for warfare or hunting. There is no reason to believe that other humans couldn't be the target for these arrows though [55] "The bow was probably between 6,000 and 10,000 years old by the dawn of the Bronze Age".[56]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ Arrowheads have been found, but is unlikely to be a more sophisticated bow at this time. "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE."[57]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ Bone needles/knives were present by 7200 BC, but no hard evidence for use in warfare [58] Stone blades had been in production in Iraq/Iran since the Paleolithic: 'The Baradostian lithic industry is dominated by blade production. Characteristic tools include slender points, backed blades and bladelets, twisted bladelets with various kinds of light retouch, end scrapers, discoidal scrapers, side scrapers, and burins.' [59] Obsidian blades have also been found for this period [60] Knife blades became longer during this time but this was for butchery rather than warfare[61]
♠ Swords ♣ absent ♥ In Sumer the first swords appeared about c3000 BCE.[62]
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ present ♥ Dogs were used to defend villages against attacking humans/animals[63]
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Evidence for use as Pack Animals appears by around 7000 BC onward [64] The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass 'in more than one place' but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan.[65]
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not used for military purposes until much later
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not used for military purposes until much later

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There is evidence for loincloths being used, but it would hardly count as armor and there is no evidence for warfare at this time:‘The early periods at Tepe Sialk (I-IV) were a time of important technological innovation. A carved bone knife handle representing a man wearing a cap and a loincloth found in a Sialk I context is one of the earliest known anthropomorphic representations from Iran’[66]
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥ Earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer.[67]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources.
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources.
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples.[68]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available.
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Base camps with fortified walls are present, defending against animal or human attackers [69]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [70]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [71]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [72]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [73]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [74]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km. Not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [75] [76] [77]

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