IrArcha

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Susiana - Muhammad Jaffar ♥ "Table 3.2 Chronology of the Neolithic period in the Ancient Near East." Khuzistan: Muhammad Jaffar 7000-6300 BCE; Susiana A 6300-5800 BCE; Tepe Sabz 5800-5400 BCE; Kazineh / Susiana B (not sure if two terms for same period or earlier/later) 5400-5000 BCE.[1]'

♠ Alternative names ♣ Muhammad Jaffar ♥ 7000-6300 BCE Muhammad Jaffar.[2]

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 7000-6000 BCE ♥

7000-6300 BCE Muhammad Jaffar.[3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Formative Period ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Susiana A ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥


♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

"The Archaic Susiana 0 Phase. The appearance of the Painted-Burnished variant of ware, a new class of painted pottery that provides antecedent for the entire Archaic Susiana ceramics, marks the transition to the Archaic period. Another site, Tappe Tuleʾi (named after an edible tuber), southwest of Andimesk in northwestern Ḵuzestān, is the only other site in ancient Kuzestan that was occupied during this phase (Hole, 1974; Idem, 1975). The fact that neither Tappe Tule'i nor Coga Bonut was located close to any detectable canal or source of water may be an indication of sufficient precipitation for dry farming. Faunal, floral, and phytolith (fossilized pollen) evidence from Coga Bonut indicated the presence of marshes in upper Susiana during this phase (Redding and Rosen in Alizadeh, pp. 129-49).

Evidence of gazelle, onager, and domesticated sheep, goats, and dogs, as well as that of wheat and barley points to a mixed economy of farming, herding, and hunting in this phase. In addition to these species, the presence of bones of the giant Indian gerbil and bears at Čoḡā Bonut also indicates the wetter climate in this region during the initial phases of the Archaic period.

The Painted-Burnished variant ware is fully represented at Tappe Tuleʾ'i, but is rare in the nearby Dehlorān (Deh Luran) plain to the north (FIGURE 5). Apart from this distinct class of early Neolithic Susiana pottery, the stone tools, chipped stone industry, and small objects such as T-shaped human figurines and animal figurines are almost indistinguishable among the two Susiana sites and Coga Safid and Alikos in Dehloran. The great similarity in the objects other than pottery suggests that while the stone industry and the manufacture of small clay and stone objects found at these sites may have had a shared origin, the Painted-Burnished variant ware was developed in Susiana proper.

The architecture of the Archaic Susiana 0 phase at Coga Bonut consists of two separate buildings, but their complete plans cannot be restored (Alizadeh, fig. 10). A rather large rectangular structure is all that was left of one building that, based on its comparatively large size, must have been a hall or courtyard of a much larger structure. The three surviving walls are neatly made of long, cigar-shaped mud bricks laid as stretchers. Two platforms or buttresses, made of the same construction material, were built against the outer face of its southern wall. The western portion of this building, where the living quarters had been presumably located, was entirely destroyed, but the presence of two rows of headers, one slightly higher than the other, could have provided access to the rooms on this side. The other, smaller building was better preserved. The building material was the same as for the larger structure, but the neat division of space and the straightness of its walls indicate a certain degree of architectural sophistication, if not specialization, even in this early phase of architecture in Susiana.

For reasons not known, sometime during the Archaic Susiana 0 phase, Coga Bonut was deserted and did not become reoccupied for at least a thousand years." [4]

Four sites excavated: Choga Mish, Boneh Fazili, Chogha Bonut and Tula’i. [5]

Tula’I is a herders’ camp, at the least a seasonal camp.

25 sites on the Susiana Plain that have ceramics of one or the other of the periods.

No good information on agricultural settlement
Choga Mish, Choga Bonut and Boneh Fazili have a large settlement.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

According to Mortensen early villages may have clustered together, "each group widely separated from the next." Examples in Susiana: Chogha Bonut, Boneh Favili, and Chogha Mish. Why? "it would have been difficult for the inhabitants of a village of one hundred or so persons to supply marriable pairs continually; thus marriage partners must have been supplied from outside. Among people today who live at low density, the figure of five hundred comes up as the minimum size necessary to maintain a viable social system. (Birdsell 1973:337-38; Wobst 1974)."[6]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [175-700] ♥ Inhabitants. Using the Seshat-wide estimate of [50-200] people per hectare, Chogha Mish would have between 175 and 700 inhabitants. "Chogha Mish was already a sizable settlement by the Early Chalcolithic period (Early Susiana or Susiana a), covering an area of more than 3.5 ha.[7]

"Villages were normally relatively small, an aspect that, combined with the matrimonial strategies of the time, indicates that settlements only had a few large families or even just one."[8]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

"Villages were normally relatively small, an aspect that, combined with the matrimonial strategies of the time, indicates that settlements only had a few large families or even just one."[9]

According to Mortensen early villages may have clustered together, "each group widely separated from the next." Examples in Susiana: Chogha Bonut, Boneh Favili, and Chogha Mish."[10]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

"The social structure of these communities was thus characterised by few heads of households (elders), marked gender, age and provenance barriers, but few socio-political differences. Consequently, burials do not display any significant diffferences in status."[11]

♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

"Communities were united and motivated by common religious beliefs, visible from the various cultic artefacts and objects found ... This religiosity had two main complementary aspect: a funerary aspect, linked, through ancestral cults, to the patriarchal structure of these communities (an aspect that was already visible in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B); and a fertility aspect (human, animal and agrarian), brought to the fore by the development of food production techniques."[12]

In the later Uruk phase "Urban Revolution" c3800-3000 BCE that the following quote refers to religious ideology became more complex, so can infer still low level religious complexity in this period: "Early state formation therefore featured both the rise of a ruling class, making decisions and benefiting from a privilaged position, and the development of a political and religious ideology. The latter was able to ensure stability and cohesion in this pyramid of inequality."[13]

♠ Military levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Unlikely at this time since administrative complexity was so low. "The social structure of these communities was thus characterised by few heads of households (elders), marked gender, age and provenance barriers, but few socio-political differences. Consequently, burials do not display any significant diffferences in status."[14]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Unlikely at this time since administrative complexity was so low. "The social structure of these communities was thus characterised by few heads of households (elders), marked gender, age and provenance barriers, but few socio-political differences. Consequently, burials do not display any significant diffferences in status."[15]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred absent ♥ "While there were shared warehouses, certain fundamental expressions of communal life were still lacking, such as temples or other cultic buildings."[16]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[17]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[18]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[19]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[20]


Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[21]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[22]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[23]


♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[24]


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The fact that neither Tappe Tule'i nor Coga Bonut was located close to any detectable canal or source of water may be an indication of sufficient precipitation for dry farming. Faunal, floral, and phytolith (fossilized pollen) evidence from Coga Bonut indicated the presence of marshes in upper Susiana during this phase (Redding and Rosen in Alizadeh, pp. 129-49)." [25] Earliest irrigation techniques practised not far away, however, at Eridu.[26]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The economy of these communities was still as local as their political organisation, while cultural as well as environmental features existed on a regional level. However, there were also what could be defined, albeit anachronistically, as commercial interactions. There is no contradiction between the local aspect of production and the existence of long-distance exchange. Basic materials and resources needed for survival were still gathered within a radius of a few kilometres from the settlement itself. Moreover, the transport of food and heavy materials over long distances was not yet possible. However, there were precious materials (precious for that period), generally small and light to carry, which were transported over very long distances considering their place of origin."[27] May have been trade with villages.[28] None of this sounds like a formal market place, within a village.
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ "While there were shared warehouses, certain fundamental expressions of communal life were still lacking, such as temples or other cultic buildings."[29]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not until later. Uruk phase c3800-3000 BCE: "bureaucracy sent orders to specialised workmen, planned and constructed key infrastructures (such as canals, temples, or walls), and engaged in long-distance trade."[30]
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[31] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[32]
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[33] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[34]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[35] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[36]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[37] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[38]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[39] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[40]
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[41] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[42]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[43] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[44]
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[45] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[46]
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[47] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[48]
♠ History ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[49] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[50]
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[51] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[52]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[53] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[54]
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[55] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[56]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Obsidian, considered precious for the time, seashells, semi-precious stones, metals.[57]
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Thomas Cressy; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Bone harpoons found for this time, but it is unclear if used for warfare or hunting. There is no reason to believe that other humans couldn't be the target for these.[58]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in evidence and extremely unlikely being a weapon of the Americas
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ "Round and ovoid sling pellets have been dug up in early Sumer and Turkestan. Ovoid sling pellets have been unearthed at the neolithic sites on the Iranian tableland. In later times, the sling was used in Palestine and Syria. It was introduced in Egypt at a still later date."[59]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Stone arrowheads found for this time, but it is unclear if used for warfare or hunting. There is no reason to believe that other humans couldn't be the target for these arrows though [60] "The bow was probably between 6,000 and 10,000 years old by the dawn of the Bronze Age".[61]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ Arrowheads have been found, but is unlikely to be a more sophisticated bow at this time. "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE."[62]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ Bone needles/knives were present by 7200 BC, but no hard evidence for use in warfare [63] Stone blades had been in production in Iraq/Iran since the Paleolithic: 'The Baradostian lithic industry is dominated by blade production. Characteristic tools include slender points, backed blades and bladelets, twisted bladelets with various kinds of light retouch, end scrapers, discoidal scrapers, side scrapers, and burins.' [64] Obsidian blades have also been found for this period [65] Knife blades became longer during this time but this was for butchery rather than warfare[66]
♠ Swords ♣ absent ♥ In Sumer the first swords appeared about c3000 BCE.[67]
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ present ♥ Dogs were used to defend villages against attacking humans/animals[68]
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Evidence for use as Pack Animals appears by around 7000 BC onward [69] The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass 'in more than one place' but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan.[70]
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not used for military purposes until much later
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not used for military purposes until much later

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There is evidence for loincloths being used, but it would hardly count as armor and there is no evidence for warfare at this time:‘The early periods at Tepe Sialk (I-IV) were a time of important technological innovation. A carved bone knife handle representing a man wearing a cap and a loincloth found in a Sialk I context is one of the earliest known anthropomorphic representations from Iran’[71]
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥ Earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer.[72]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources.
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources.
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples.[73]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available.
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Base camps with fortified walls are present, defending against animal or human attackers [74]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [75]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [76]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [77]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [78]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [79]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km. Not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The social structure of these communities was thus characterised by few heads of households (elders), marked gender, age and provenance barriers, but few socio-political differences. Consequently, burials do not display any significant differences in status."[80]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [81] [82] [83]

References

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