IqNAssr

From Seshat Data Browser
Revision as of 18:41, 13 December 2021 by Admin (talk | contribs) (1 revision imported)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Neo-Assyrian Empire ♥ NB: Liverani (2014) "The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy" will help code this page.

♠ Alternative names ♣ Late Assyria; Assyria; Assyrian Empire; New Assyrian Empire; Land of Ashur; Land of Assur ♥ "The Assyrian Empire" refers to "the phase when it controlled the region from Egypt to the Caspian Sea, governing its dependencies either directly or indirectly from a core region situated in the north of modern Iraq." This period "from the early 9th to the late 7th ... is conventionally called the Neo-Assyrian period." [1]


♠ Peak Date ♣ 668 BCE ♥ Map 627 BCE. [2] 745-626 BCE. [3] Zenith at start of reign of Assurbanipal (668-627 BCE), collapse at end of it. [4]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 911-612 BCE ♥ 911-891 BCE Adad-Nirari II. Most important early ruler was Assurnasirpall II (883-859 BCE) who built capital Kalhu on the east bank of the Tigris, and a great palace. [5]

After peasantry wiped out due to excessive warfare under Ashurbanipal (688-625 BCE) state came to rely almost totally on Scythian mercenaries. Assyrian capital, Ninevah, captured and destroyed by Median and Babylonian alliance, 616-612 BCE. [6]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Ashur; Kalhu; Due-Sharrukin; Ninevah ♥ Ashur: 911-859 BCE; Kalhu: 859-681 BCE; Due-Sharrukin: 707-705 BCE; Ninevah: 681-612 BCE Kalhu was purpose-built to replace Ashur, the ancient capital. Ashur declined in importance 883-859 BCE. [7] Kalhu (Nimrud) under Ashurnasipal II. Ninevah under Sennacherib (704-681 BCE) [8] remained capital for rest of empire [9]

Due-Sharrukin (707-705 BCE). [10]

♠ Language ♣ Aramaic ♥ Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern [11]

General Description

The Assyrian Empire (911-612 BCE) was a powerful polity that expanded from its heartland in northern Iraq, using the most advanced military technologies of the era: two wheeled chariots, cavalry and an infantry fully converted to iron weapons.[12][13]

The most important early ruler was Assurnasirpall II (883-859 BCE) who built the capital Kalhu on the east bank of the Tigris.[14] The Assyrian king maintained his presence by establishing “royal cities” with palaces throughout the realm, which he appears to have used on a regular basis.[15] The Assyrian capital also changed frequently: the first capital was Ashur (911-859 BCE) and the last was at Ninevah (681-612 BCE). Sharrukin was important between 707-705 BCE.

Despite the constantly moving king and capital the Assyrian government put down literary roots in a state archives[16] and perhaps the world’s first organized library was built at Nineveh under Asurbanipal (668-627 BCE). Here scribes copied texts from a 1,000 year old Babylonian literary tradition. These included medical works, mythologies, religious guides and astrology.[17] The high level of sophistication the Assyrian civilization achieved is reflected in ruins of water reservoirs and sewerage systems[18], an aqueduct built in Nineveh[19] and "traditional Mesopotamian mud-brick architecture ... monumental stone sculptures and wall reliefs."[20]

The Assyrian government was the personal project of the king who appointed all officials at the state, regional and local levels as well as the priesthood.[21] He was advised by officials called Magnates.[22] The king's provincial governors also lived in palaces[23] and were initially direct relations of the king until the reign of Shalmaneser III (r.859-824 BC) who instead made governors directly appointed eunuchs.[24] Historians believe governors had a lot of freedom over the day-to-day running of the regions since letters that have been recovered sent from governors to the king primarily concern unforeseeable problems.[25]

In the 7th Century population of Mesopotamia reached its height of about 2 million. [26] At its height, after Egypt was conquered in 671 CE, combined with south-eastern Anatolia, the Levant region and western Iran, the total population of the tribute-paying empire may have reached 7 million people.[27]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 1,400,000 ♥ [28]

Assyrian heartland in northern Iraq covered approximately 4000 km2 [29]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [5,000,000-7,000,000]: 670 CE ♥ [30]

In the 7th Century population of Mesopotamia reached its height of about 2 million. [31]

Egypt possessed from 671 CE. About 2.5m inhabitants [32]

South-eastern Anatolia, Levant, western Iran may have contributed another 2.5 million. [33]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 10,000: 911 BCE; 70,000: 875 BCE; 120,000: 700 BCE ♥

70,000 in new city of Kalhu after it was built during reign of Assurnasirpall II (883-859 BCE). All inhabitants and workers, totalling 70,000, invited to a multi-day opening ceremony banquet. [34]

Nineveh: 10,000 in 1000 BCE. 120,000 in 650 BCE. Older, wilder estimate of 700,000. [35]

Assur, Nineveh (modern Mosul) and Arbilu were three major cities. [36]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 6 ♥


1. Capital City
2. Royal cities
the king maintained his presence by establishing “royal cities” with palaces throughout the realm, which he appears to have used on a regular basis. [37]
3. Provincial city
4. Client state capitals
5. Town
6. Village


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [3-4] ♥

Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London. p.504


Longest governmental chain in central bureaucracy? King directly appointed leaders down to the level of municipal government.


1. King[38]

“The king personally selected and appointed every official, be it a state, provincial, municipal, or temple official.”[39]
King's Court


_ Central government line _

2a. Central bureaucracy
2a. Top officials called Magnates, likened to a cabinet, Governors and Deputy-Governors, Provincial Governors. [40]
3a. Scribes
4a. ... ? ...

_ Provincial government _

2b. Provinces [41]

Provincial governors[42], appointed by king, lived in palaces[43] Position nepotistic until reign Shalmaneser III (r. 859-824 BC), thereafter governors were Eunuchs sent from the central government.[44]
Storage depots became nucleus of provincial capitals. [45]
Shalmeneser III integrated conquered areas as provinces, or made them tribute paying vassals. [46]
Since routine decision-making was delegated to governors most letters from provinces concerned unforeseeable problems. [47]


2c. Smaller provinces within provinces [48]

Reforms of Tiglath-pileser III. Previously: conquered land integrated into empire through a governorship. Governors became over-mighty, hereditary and independent. Tiglath abolished governorships and created many new smaller provinces. [49]
These were governed by a district lord (be-pihati) or a governor (shakkanakku), who were responsible to the king. Overseers (qepu) placed in each province to report to king. [50]


2d. Municipal government

“The king personally selected and appointed every official, be it a state, provincial, municipal, or temple official.”[51]
Town chiefs [52]; Mayor and Overseer (chosen by the residents); City leaders [53]
3d. Scribes


3c. Village heads

Inferred level


♠ Religious levels ♣ 3 ♥

"The god Aššur and the city of Aššur are inseparable, as the deity is the personification of the rocky crag that towers high above a bend of the river Tigris." [54]

1. King
Assur’s representative on Earth and the highest priest. [55]
2. High Priests
3. Other priests
Priests and astrologers. [56] Priests and diviners. Sacrifices. Sheep livers examined for omens. [57]


♠ Military levels ♣ 5 ♥

1. King. [58]
Commanded the "Royal Cohort"[59]
2. Commander-in-chief
Commander-in-chief called turtanu.[60]
3. Leaders of the Kisru
Main unit group of kisru (knots) of 200-1,000 men.[61]
4. Captains
Next level had 50 men lead by a captain (rab hanshe). [62] The basic command unit numbered 50 men.[63] Captains raised troops from towns and villages within province designated to him. Governors of province set troop quota for captains to raise. [64]
5. Officers
"Army organised into units based on the decimal system (10, 50, 100)" [65] implies another level below the command unit of 50. The different bodies of the army were structured into smaller contingents led by officers, at least some promoted from the ordinary ranks. [66]

"The Assyrian army of the first millennium BC was really many armies, termed poetically the “Hosts of the God Aššur” in the royal inscriptions. The different contingents were allowed to preserve and develop their own customs and idiosyncrasies."[67]

Militia organization abolished by Tiglath-Pileser III (745-727 BCE). [68]

Governors responsible for collection of taxes and civil and military conscription. [69]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ [70]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ At least between 727 and 612 BCE [71].

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥


Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ State archives. [72]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ absent ♥

No single body of law. “There was no legislative body and no division between executive and judiciary: administrative officials of all levels also held judicial authority. That the profession of a judge did not exist-in contrast to contemporary Babylonia-is also shown by the fact that the word dayānu, “judge, ” was not used for human beings in Neo-Assyrian.” No court building. [73]

♠ Judges ♣ absent ♥ There was no legislative body and no division between executive and judiciary: administrative officials of all levels also held judicial authority. That the profession of a judge did not exist-in contrast to contemporary Babylonia-is also shown by the fact that the word dayānu, “judge, ” was not used for human beings in Neo-Assyrian.” No court building. [74]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ "Ruins of reservoirs have been discovered along with water intakes, spillways and outlets and even the sewerage systems dating as far back as the Pre-Archaemenid and Assyrian (1500-600 BC) periods." [75] Measures undertaken to improve irrigation, for example in Syria. [76]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ [77] Military could build roads and wooden bridges. [78]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ Canal dug around city of Kalhu, called patti hegalli. Used as a moat and as water for farmers. [79]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Akkadian cuneiform.
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Akkadian cuneiform.
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ Akkadian cuneiform.
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Annual religious festivals [80]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Library contained mythic, religious, scientific and literary works. [81]
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Library contained mythic, religious, scientific and literary works. [82]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Library contained mythic, religious, scientific and literary works. [83]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ Ingots used. [84]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ [85]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ After Tiglath-pileser III (744-727 BCE) system of roads and posting stages. Mounted riders (mar shipri) could traverse the empire in 5-7 days from capital Nineveh. Letters were on parchment or clay tablet. [86] The King's Road communication system between king and governor in provinces and client states. Planned and created in 9th Century. [87]
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥ Messaging road stations served only the state, not commerce or public. Letters sealed with imperial signet ring. [88]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Assyrians “first to recognise fully” the superiority of iron over bronze, which had been used for weapons, chariots and armour since 1100 BCE. [89] If the Assyrians were aware of bronze technology, then they also capable of using copper, since it is needed to make bronze.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Assyrians “first to recognise fully” the superiority of iron over bronze, which had been used for weapons, chariots and armour since 1100 BCE. [90]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Assyrians “first to recognise fully” the superiority of iron over bronze, which had been used for weapons, chariots and armour since 1100 BCE. [91]
♠ Steel ♣ inferred absent ♥ Assyrians “first to recognise fully” the superiority of iron over bronze, which had been used for weapons, chariots and armour since 1100 BCE. [92] Steel is superior to iron, but iron was the best metal available to Assyrians.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Weapon of the Americas.
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ [93]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[94]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ "The effective range of the simple bow varied from 50 to 100 yards. And the arrow shot by a simple bow was unable to penetrate leather or bronze armour. The effective range of the composite bows varied between 250 and 300 yards."[95] However, the composite bow itself could not penetrate armour more than 2mm thick [all designs or just the early designs?] and was susceptible to rotting in high-moisture environments.[96] "The composite bow was a recurve bow made of wood, horn and tendons from oxen, carefully laminated together. These bows were probably invented by the nomads of the Eurasian steppe and brought into Sumer by the mercenary nomads."[97] Assyria had highly organized ranks of archers who used strong bows with iron arrowheads. [98] Simple and composite bows, latter with range of 150-200m. [99]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not present at this time: "the hand-held crossbow was invented by the Chinese, in the fifth century BC, and probably came into the Roman world in the first century AD, where it was used for hunting."[100] The crossbow also developed after the Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE.[101]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records.[102] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone".[103] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE.[104] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did.[105] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE.[106] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons.[107] There is no direct evidence for catapults for this time/location. The aforementioned evidence we currently have covering the wider ancient world suggests they were probably not used at this time, perhaps because effective machines had not been invented yet.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Gabriel says the mace was the dominant weapon of war from 4000 BCE but had disappeared from Sumerian illustrations before 2500 BCE, a time when the helmet appears.[108] Almost certainly the technology was still present but the weapon may have been used less frequently. Coded present for Ur III, Akkad and Middle Elam and could possibly be 'inferred present' at this time.
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ ♥
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier's primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken."[109]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ Spear-using phalanx first used in Sumer 2500 BCE. The phalanx was in use until the 1st century BCE.[110]
♠ Polearms ♣ ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ present ♥ "The earliest artistic evidence for war dogs appears on an Assyrian stone relief, c.600 BC, at Birs Nimrud (Iraq). It depicts a warrior carrying a shield and leading a large, armoured mastiff."[111]
♠ Donkeys ♣ ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Cavalry. [112] Smallest element within army but best trained and equipped. Noblemen or Scythian mercenaries. [113] Two horses pulled a two-wheeled chariot. [114] Three horses pulled a heavy chariot used as firing platform for composite bow archers and personnel carrier for mobile infantry.[115] The Assyrians also had horse riders who fired the composite bow.[116]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ First to use camels in military. Assyria in the 9th century CE used military camels..[117]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ In the 9th century BCE king Stabrobates of India invaded Assyria with war elephants. Assyria did not have any. Queen Semiramis dressed camels in elephant costumes to confuse enemy elephants but it didn't work.[118]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Heavy clothing. Poorer ranks used leather or cloth. [119] "knee-high, leather jackboot with thick leather soles complete with hobbed nails to improve traction. The boot had thin plates of iron sewn into the front to provide shin protection."[120]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Wicker shields, curved at the top when necessary to protect archers. [121]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ The Assyrians made a helmet out of iron.[122]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not specifically mentioned.
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ "knee-high, leather jackboot with thick leather soles complete with hobbed nails to improve traction. The boot had thin plates of iron sewn into the front to provide shin protection."[123]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples.[124]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ Higher ranks could afford scale armour. [125]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ "knee-high, leather jackboot with thick leather soles complete with hobbed nails to improve traction. The boot had thin plates of iron sewn into the front to provide shin protection."[126]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ "Placed aboard light reed boats, tactical units became waterborne marines who used fire arrows and torches to burn out the enemy hiding among the bushes and reeds."[127]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ present ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Ancient Levant: "In the Middle Bronze Age, sloping earth ramparts known as glacis appear." [128] Chaldea and Assyria: "What we find in the remarkable encrusted earth ramparts of Chaldea ... Stone was not used at all, but the clay brick walls were given a dressing of stucco or fired brick." "Like the Assyrian walls on which they are modeled, Persian walls were built of air-dried brick".[129]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ "During sieges, huge shields were used to protect individual sappers when they destroyed or sapped the walls, and surely when they filled the ditch in as well."[130]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ The ancient city of Madaktu in Elam was moated at the time of Assurbanipal (668-631 BCE) of Assyria.[131]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ Chaldea and Assyria: "What we find in the remarkable encrusted earth ramparts of Chaldea ... Stone was not used at all, but the clay brick walls were given a dressing of stucco or fired brick." "Like the Assyrian walls on which they are modeled, Persian walls were built of air-dried brick".[132]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ 12 km walls around Ninevah.[133] Chaldea and Assyria: "What we find in the remarkable encrusted earth ramparts of Chaldea ... Stone was not used at all, but the clay brick walls were given a dressing of stucco or fired brick." "Like the Assyrian walls on which they are modeled, Persian walls were built of air-dried brick".[134]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ “The art of fortification had been well developed in the Middle East before 1000 BC. The great walls of the large cities were almost invulnerable to attack available within the limited technology of the times.” [135]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Dan Mullins ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ kingship

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ "Tradizionalmente i re di Assur si consideravano [...] come degli amministratori insediati dal dio Assur. Questa concezione trova espressione in una formula che compare anche nelle cerimonie di investitura del re assiro e che recitava: 'Il dio Assir e' re, ... (nome proprio) e' il rappresentante di Assur'. Questo richiamo ad Assur come vero padrone del paese e signore cui i re assiri erano sottoposti legittimava l'azione del suo rappresentante in terra e gli concedeva un potere che, visto dall'esterno, non aveva limiti." [136] TRANSLATION: "Assyrian kings traditionally considered themselves to be administrators who owed their position to the god Ashur. We find this notion in a set phrase that was used, among other occasions, in royal inauguration ceremonies: 'The god Ashur is king, ... (ruler's name) is the representative of Ashur.' Declaring Ashur the true lord and master of Assyria legitimated the actions of his representative on earth and provided him powers that, from an outsider's perspective, appeared to be unlimited."

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ "Dopo la meta' del II millennio il quadro muto': [...] Il re assiro si defini' come generato da un dio o da una dea. Agli occhi degli uomini il sovrano appariva come immagine degli dei. [...] In tal modo il sovrano veniva elevato al di sopra della masa degli altri uomini, che superava per forza, saggezza e bellezza: tuttavia egli non era un dio." [137] TRANSLATION: "After the second half of the second millennium BC the situation changed: [...] Assyrian kings now defined themselves as divine progeny. In the eyes of his subject, the king was like a god. [...] This way, the king was elevated over all other mortals, and was deemed their superior in strength, wisdom and beauty: and yet, he was not seen as a god proper."

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ "Dopo la meta' del II millennio il quadro muto': [...] Il re assiro si defini' come generato da un dio o da una dea. Agli occhi degli uomini il sovrano appariva come immagine degli dei. [...] In tal modo il sovrano veniva elevato al di sopra della masa degli altri uomini, che superava per forza, saggezza e bellezza: tuttavia egli non era un dio." [138] TRANSLATION: "After the second half of the second millennium BC the situation changed: [...] Assyrian kings now defined themselves as divine progeny. In the eyes of his subject, the king was like a god. [...] This way, the king was elevated over all other mortals, and was deemed their superior in strength, wisdom and beauty: and yet, he was not seen as a god proper."

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Bidmead argues that this was absolutely not present. There were stark differences between rulers and commoners[139] "Dopo la meta' del II millennio il quadro muto': [...] Il re assiro si defini' come generato da un dio o da una dea. Agli occhi degli uomini il sovrano appariva come immagine degli dei. [...] In tal modo il sovrano veniva elevato al di sopra della masa degli altri uomini, che superava per forza, saggezza e bellezza: tuttavia egli non era un dio." [140] TRANSLATION: "After the second half of the second millennium BC the situation changed: [...] Assyrian kings now defined themselves as divine progeny. In the eyes of his subject, the king was like a god. [...] This way, the king was elevated over all other mortals, and was deemed their superior in strength, wisdom and beauty: and yet, he was not seen as a god proper."
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [141] [142] [143]

References

  1. (Radler 2014)
  2. (Wawro 2008, 55)
  3. (Stearns 2001, 27)
  4. (Chadwick 2005, 86)
  5. (Chadwick 2005, 77)
  6. (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 12)
  7. (The Iraq Museum 2011, [1])
  8. (Davidson 2012, 27)
  9. (Stearns 2001, 28)
  10. (Haywood 2000, 1.13)
  11. (Ethnologue 2011, [2])
  12. (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 10) R Dupuy. Dupuy. 2007. The Collins Encyclopedia of Military History, 4th Edition, BCA.
  13. (Chadwick 2005, 77) R Chadwick. 2005. First Civilizations: Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, 2nd Edition, Equinox, London.
  14. (Chadwick 2005, 77) R Chadwick. 2005. First Civilizations: Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, 2nd Edition, Equinox, London.
  15. (Radler 2014) K Radler. 2014. The Assyrian Empire, c. 900-612 BC. The Emergence of European State Forms in Comparative Perspective - Panel "Imperial States in Time".
  16. (Westbrook et al. 2003, 887) R Westbrook. G Beckman. R Jasnow. B Levine. M Roth. 2003. A History of Ancient Near Eastern Law. Volume: 2. Brill. Leiden, Netherlands.
  17. (Davidson 2012, 28) P Davidson. 2012. Atlas of Empires, New Holland, London.
  18. (Mahmoudian and Mahmoudian 2012, 97) A N Angelakis. L W Mays. D Koutsoyiannis. 2012.Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia. IWA Publishing.
  19. (Chadwick 2005, 83) R Chadwick. 2005. First Civilizations: Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, 2nd Edition, Equinox, London.
  20. (Stearns 2001, 27) P Stearns. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History. 6th Edition. James Clarke & Co Ltd. Cambridge.
  21. (Westbrook et al. 2003, 886-888) R Westbrook. G Beckman. R Jasnow. B Levine. M Roth. 2003. A History of Ancient Near Eastern Law. Volume: 2. Brill. Leiden, Netherlands.
  22. (Westbrook et al. 2003, 886-888) R Westbrook. G Beckman. R Jasnow. B Levine. M Roth. 2003. A History of Ancient Near Eastern Law. Volume: 2. Brill. Leiden, Netherlands.
  23. (Radler 2014) K Radler. 2014. The Assyrian Empire, c. 900-612 BC. The Emergence of European State Forms in Comparative Perspective - Panel "Imperial States in Time".
  24. (Radler 2014) K Radler. 2014. The Assyrian Empire, c. 900-612 BC. The Emergence of European State Forms in Comparative Perspective - Panel "Imperial States in Time".
  25. (Radler 2014) K Radler. 2014. The Assyrian Empire, c. 900-612 BC. The Emergence of European State Forms in Comparative Perspective - Panel "Imperial States in Time".
  26. (Stearns 2001, 28) P Stearns. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History. 6th Edition. James Clarke & Co Ltd. Cambridge.
  27. (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 226) Colin McEvedy. Richard Jones. 1978. Atlas of World Population History, Allen Lane, London.
  28. (Chase-Dunn 2011, Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)
  29. (Radler 2014)
  30. (Modelski 2003, 179 )
  31. (Stearns 2001, 28)
  32. (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 226)
  33. (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 226)
  34. (Chadwick 2005, 78)
  35. (Modelski 2003, 179, 55, 33 )
  36. (Radler 2014)
  37. (Radler 2014)
  38. (Radler 2014)
  39. (Westbrook et al. 2003, 886-888)
  40. (Westbrook et al. 2003, 886-888)
  41. (Radler 2014)
  42. (Chadwick 2005, 77)
  43. (Radler 2014)
  44. (Radler 2014)
  45. (Davidson 2012, 27)
  46. (Stearns 2001, 27)
  47. (Radler 2014)
  48. (Radler 2014)
  49. (Chadwick 2005, 79)
  50. (Chadwick 2005, 79)
  51. (Westbrook et al. 2003, 886-888)
  52. (Sayce 1899 [3])
  53. (Chadwick 2005, 77)
  54. (Radler 2014)
  55. (Chadwick 2005, 75-76)
  56. (Davidson 2012, 28)
  57. (Chadwick 2005, 77)
  58. (Chadwick 2005, 76-77)
  59. (Radler 2014)
  60. (Chadwick 2005, 76-77)
  61. (Chadwick 2005, 76-77)
  62. (Chadwick 2005, 76-77)
  63. (Radler 2014)
  64. (Chadwick 2005, 76-77)
  65. (Radler 2014)
  66. (Radler 2014)
  67. (Radler 2014)
  68. (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 10)
  69. (Westbrook et al. 2003, 889)
  70. (Davidson 2012, 27)
  71. (Davidson 2012, 27)
  72. (Westbrook et al. 2003, 887)
  73. (Westbrook et al. 2003, 883, 886, 890)
  74. (Westbrook et al. 2003, 883, 886, 890)
  75. (Mahmoudian and Mahmoudian 2012, 97) Angelakis A N, Mays L W, Koutsoyiannis, D. 2012.Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia. IWA Publishing.
  76. (Radler 2014)
  77. (Chadwick 2005, 79)
  78. (Chadwick 2005, 76)
  79. (Chadwick 2005, 77)
  80. (Radler 2014)
  81. (Chadwick 2005, 86)
  82. (Chadwick 2005, 86)
  83. (Chadwick 2005, 86)
  84. (Roger and Moorey 1999, 238)
  85. (Haywood 2000, 1.13)
  86. (Chadwick 2005, 79)
  87. (Radler 2014)
  88. (Radler 2014)
  89. (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 10)
  90. (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 10)
  91. (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 10)
  92. (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 10)
  93. (Chadwick 2005, 75)
  94. Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.
  95. (Roy 2015, 20) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.
  96. (Gabriel 2002, 28) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  97. (Roy 2015, 20) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.
  98. (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 10)
  99. (Chadwick 2005, 76)
  100. (Nicholson 2004, 99) Helen Nicholson. 2004. Medieval Warfare: Theory and Practice of War in Europe, 300-1500. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.
  101. (Keyser and Irby-Massie 2006, 260) Paul T Keyser. Georgia Irby-Massie. Science, Medicine, And Technology. Glenn R Bugh. ed. 2006. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  102. Siegelova I. and H. Tsumoto (2011) Metals and Metallurgy in Hittite Anatolia, pp. 278 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 275-300
  103. (Singh 2008, 272) Upinder Singh. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Longman. Delhi.
  104. (Marsden 1969, 5, 16, 66.) Marsden, E. W. 1969. Greek and Roman Artillery: The Historical Development. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
  105. (Dandamaev 1989, 314) Dandamaev, M A. 1989. A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire. Brill.
  106. (Pollard and Berry 2012, 45) Pollard, N, Berry, J (2012) The Complete Roman Legions, Thames and Hudson, London Rives, J (2006) Religion in the Roman Empire, Wiley
  107. (Keyser and Irby-Massie 2006, 260) Paul T Keyser. Georgia Irby-Massie. Science, Medicine, And Technology. Glenn R Bugh. ed. 2006. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  108. (Gabriel 2002, 24) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  109. (Gabriel 2002, 26-27) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  110. (Gabriel 2002, 25) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  111. (Mayor 2014, 287) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  112. (Davidson 2012, 27)
  113. (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 10)
  114. (Chadwick 2005, 77)
  115. (Gabriel 2002, 11-12) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  116. (Gabriel 2002, 28) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  117. (Mayor 2014, 289-290) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  118. (Mayor 2014, 289-290) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  119. (Chadwick 2005, 77)
  120. (Gabriel 2002, 10) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  121. (Chadwick 2005, 77)
  122. (Gabriel 2002, 22) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  123. (Gabriel 2002, 10) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  124. (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  125. (Chadwick 2005, 77)
  126. (Gabriel 2002, 10) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  127. (Gabriel 2002, 10) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  128. (Philip 2003, 190) Graham Philip. Weapons and Warfare in Ancient Syria-Palestine. Suzanne Richard. ed. 2003. Near Eastern Archaeology: A Reader. Eisenbrauns. Winona Lake.
  129. (Semper 2004, 754-755) Gottfried Semper. 2004. Style in the Technical and Tectonic Arts; Or, Practical Aesthetics. Getty Publications. Los Angeles.
  130. (De Backer 2016, 111) Fabrice De Backer. 2016. The Neo-Assyrian Shield: Evolution, Heraldry, and Associated Tactics. Lockwood Press. Atlanta.
  131. (Russell 2017, 490) John M Russell. Assyrian Art. Eckart Frahm. ed. 2017. A Companion to Assuria. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Hoboken.
  132. (Semper 2004, 754-755) Gottfried Semper. 2004. Style in the Technical and Tectonic Arts; Or, Practical Aesthetics. Getty Publications. Los Angeles.
  133. (Modelski 2003, 179)
  134. (Semper 2004, 754-755) Gottfried Semper. 2004. Style in the Technical and Tectonic Arts; Or, Practical Aesthetics. Getty Publications. Los Angeles.
  135. (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 11)
  136. Cancik-Kirschbaum, E. 2007. Transl. A. Cristofori. Gli Assiri p. 105. Bologna: Il Mulino.
  137. Cancik-Kirschbaum, E. 2007. Transl. A. Cristofori. Gli Assiri pp. 106-107. Bologna: Il Mulino.
  138. Cancik-Kirschbaum, E. 2007. Transl. A. Cristofori. Gli Assiri pp. 106-107. Bologna: Il Mulino.
  139. Julye Bidmead 2017 Jan Oxford workshop, interview by Tom Currie and Dan Mullins
  140. Cancik-Kirschbaum, E. 2007. Transl. A. Cristofori. Gli Assiri pp. 106-107. Bologna: Il Mulino.
  141. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  142. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  143. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html

Ali, Y.A. and Kirk Grayson, A. 1999. Sennacherib in the Akitu House. Iraq 61:187-189

Bidmead, J. 2002. The Akītu Festival: Religious Continuity and Royal Legitimation in Mesopotamia. New Jersey: Gorgias

Kriwacek, P. 2011. Babylon. London: Atlantic Books.

Reade, J. 2005. Religious Ritual in Assyrian Sculpture. In Porter, B.N. (ed.) Ritual and Politics in Ancient Mesopotamia. New Haven: American Oriental Society.

Black, J. 2008. World History Atlas. Dorling Kindersley Limited. London.

Chadwick, R (2005) First Civilizations: Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, 2nd Edition, Equinox, London.

Davidson, P (2012) Atlas of Empires, New Holland, London.

Dupuy, R, Dupuy, T (2007) The Collins Encyclopedia of Military History, 4th Edition, BCA.

Haywood, J. 2000. The Cassell Atlas of World History. The Ancients & Classical Worlds. Volume 1. Cassell. London.

McEvedy, C, Jones, R (1978) Atlas of World Population History, Allen Lane, London.

Modelski, G. 2003. World Cities -3000 to 2000. FAROS2000. Washington D.C.

Radler, K. 2014. The Assyrian Empire, c. 900-612 BC. The Emergence of European State Forms in Comparative Perspective - Panel "Imperial States in Time".

Roger, P and Moorey, S. 1999. Ancient mesopotamian materials and industries: the archaeological evidence. Eisenbrauns.

Stearns, P. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History. 6th Edition. James Clarke & Co Ltd. Cambridge

The Iraq Museum (2011) [4]

Wawro, G ed. 2008. Historical Atlas. Millennium House Pty Ltd. Elanora Heights.

Westbrook, R, Beckman, G, Jasnow, R, Levine, B, Roth, M. 2003. A History of Ancient Near Eastern Law. Volume: 2. Brill. Leiden, Netherlands.