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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Rosalind Purcell ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Babylonian Empire, Kassite Dynasty ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1359-1333 BCE ♥ These dates describe the reign of Burna-Buriash II. At this time "the Kassite dynasty ranked among the major powers of the Near East", the Amarna letters describe describe "diplomatics marriages and large scale trade" between the Kassites and Egypt, the super-power of the time. [1]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1595-1150 BCE ♥ 1595 BCE - The date of the fall of the First Dynasty of Babylon to the Hittites. By default this is taken as the start of the Kassite Dynasty (as the next rulers of Babylon), although whether this reflects the true start of the Kassite dynasty in unknown. For example, there is a 200 year gap between the last cylinder seals of the First Dynasty and the first of the Kassite Dynasty. [2]

1150 BCE - The Elamites invaded Babylonia in 1154 BCE [3] and put their own king, Kutir-Nahunte, on the throne. Kutir-Nahunte soon conquered the whole of Babylon, defeated the Kassites and returned to Elam with some of their most precious icons, including the victory stele of Naram-Sin and the god statue of Marduk. [4]


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederated state ♥ There was a large influx of foreigners and hill people in the Kassite period. Together with the tribes, which inhabited their own provinces, this caused a lack of centralisation in the Kassite period when Babylon was largely de-urbanised [5] and the more rural, tribal communities existed in a kind of feudal state. [6]


♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none; vassalage ♥ none; vassalage (1243-1207 BCE)

During the Kassite period, Babylon was controlled for a period of time by the Assyrians. In the Amarna letters the Kassite king Burnaburiash II (1359-1333 BCE) described Assyria as his vassal. By the reign of the Assyrian king Tulki-Ninurta I (1243-1207 BCE), Assyria had grown powerful enough, in the vacuum created by the decline of the Mitanni, to invade Babylon. When Tulki-Ninurta I's son overthrew him, the Kassites returned to claim the Babylonian throne again. [7]


Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Sealand ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ elite migration ♥ The Kassites invaded Babylon from the north-west after the Hittites ended the First Empire. The Hittites did not establish their presence in Babylonia and, instead, the Kassite elites took the throne and ruled over Babylonia. There was some migration of Kassite people, but mostly the elites gained control and assimilated into Babylonian society. [8]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Middle Elamite Kingdom ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Mesopotamia ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [500,000-600,000] ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Babylon ♥


Language ♠ Language ♣ Akkadian ♥

General Description

The Kassites invaded Babylon from the north-west after the Hittites ended the First Empire. The Hittites did not establish their presence in Babylonia and, instead, the Kassites took the throne and ruled over Babylonia, although it was a smaller empire than the First Empire. [9] The Kassite Dynasty is notable for the unification of Sumer and Babylon to create the Empire. It was marked by large building projects, especially in old Sumerian cities such as Ur, Uruk and Eridu. [10] The Babylonian Empire was at this time secondary to the powerful surrounding states Egypt and Assyria. The Kassites had a reasonably good relationship with Egypt; there were several intermarriages and gifts were given and recieved. On the other side, they constantly fought with Assyria until the Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I captured the Babylonian king, Kashtiliash IV and conquered Babylon. Assyrians ruled Babylon for seven years. Elam also started invading Babylonian territory in the latter Kassite Dynasty, eventually setting Kutir-Nahhunte on the throne in the north, leaving the Kassites surviving in power in the south. Not many years later Kuti-Nahhunte conquered the whole of Babylon, ended the rule of the Kassite Dynasty and took their god, Marduk, to Susa. [11]

The period was characterised by the overall population decline occurring across the Near East. Border towns and villages were abandoned and irrigation became less successful. Much of the administration was undertaken by or in the temples who effectively owned most of the land; however, another type of land ownership developed, which was the land gifted by the king to religious, military and administrative elites. The non-elites, on the other hand, suffered during this period, becoming markedly impoverished as they became unimportant in social government. [12]

In general, the Kassites made only limited changes to Babylonian culture, mostly assimilating into Babylonian society. As such, it can often be difficult to ascribe evidence to the Kassites specifically, as opposed to the ongoing Babylonian empire. [13]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Rosalind Purcell ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [200,000-250,000] ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ suspected unknown ♥ People. Unknown but, despite immigration into Babylon, population numbers suffered substantial decline and many settlements and much infrastructure was abandoned. [14]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels. (1) large cities, capital - Babylon (1) cities - provincial capitals (3)towns (4) villages [15]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels. (1) king, (2) governor ( saknu ) - Babylon was split into 20 provinces in this period, each with a governor. Some were city provinces, others were a tribal group lands with the title 'House of____(ancestor)'. The governor of Nippur was uniquely called sandabakku (3) functionaries - a heirarchy of functionaries served under the governors. Due to the changing population (hill tribes, foreigners, newly dependant farmers, self-ruling family states) the administration of the empire was an increasing challenge. [16]

♠ Religious levels ♣ [3-4] ♥ levels. At least three: (1) Sanga/Shangum (2) Senior staff (diviners, exorcists, lamentation priests), (3) Snake charmers, acrobats, musicians, singers, barbers, chefs.

"The more important or specialist cultic officials (“priests,” although there was no blanket Mesopotamian term with this meaning), administrative staff, scribes, and artisans would have been permanent employees of the temple[...] At their head was the sanga / shangum (chief priest), whose role was as much administrative as religious. Others had a more exclusively ritual role, headed by the en priest or en / entum priestess, who was the spouse of the city deity: This post lapsed after the OB period, although it was revived by the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadrezzar II. Other cultic personnel included snake charmers, acrobats, musicians, and singers, and more senior staff included diviners, exorcists, and lamentation priests".[17]

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ "In the Kassite period, Babylonia also experienced the influence of new military techniques (chariots and horses). The latter benefited a small group of military professionals, who received generous land grants from the king."[18]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥ Most likely the "small group of military professionals" had relatively high status (because they were few, and because they owned land), so probably occupied relatively high positions in the military hierarchy. "In the Kassite period, Babylonia also experienced the influence of new military techniques (chariots and horses). The latter benefited a small group of military professionals, who received generous land grants from the king."[19]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ "The more important or specialist cultic officials (“priests,” although there was no blanket Mesopotamian term with this meaning), administrative staff, scribes, and artisans would have been permanent employees of the temple[...] At their head was the sanga / shangum (chief priest), whose role was as much administrative as religious. Others had a more exclusively ritual role".[20]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ "Kassite Babylonia was divided into provinces run by a hierarchical bureaucracy that undertook public works, collected taxes, and issued rations to state dependents such as temple staff, guards, and craftsmen."[21]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred continuity with preceding period: "the transmission of one’s professional knowledge from father to son was not a particularly negative tendency for the palace. In the long run, however, it transformed the palace and temple personnel into a series of closed corporations. In other words, members of these elite groups prevented anyone outside this clique from accessing their posts. They also monopolised the technical knowledge needed for the management of these institutions."[22]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred continuity with preceding period: "the transmission of one’s professional knowledge from father to son was not a particularly negative tendency for the palace. In the long run, however, it transformed the palace and temple personnel into a series of closed corporations. In other words, members of these elite groups prevented anyone outside this clique from accessing their posts. They also monopolised the technical knowledge needed for the management of these institutions."[23]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ absent ♥ Temples and palaces both doubled as administration buildings--inferred from knowledge of preceding and succeeding periods, as well the following quote: "the transmission of one’s professional knowledge from father to son was not a particularly negative tendency for the palace. In the long run, however, it transformed the palace and temple personnel into a series of closed corporations."[24]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from long Mesopotamian/Babylonian legal tradition.

♠ Judges ♣ inferred present ♥ "The judiciary operated at three levels. Local councils of elders representing a village or an urban ward dealt with everyday matters such as divorce applications, disputed paternity, and conflicts over inheritance. [...] If the council felt unable to deal with a case or one of the parties at law was dissatisfied with its outcome, the matter could be referred to a higher authority, a judge appointed by the king, or to the king himself, the highest authority. Some serious offenses, such as murder, known as din napishtim (“case of life”), were referred directly to the king as a matter of course[...]. The role of the judiciary was not only to resolve disputes and punish criminal behavior but also to administer and enforce government decrees and to witness and record legally binding agreements between individuals."[25]

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Evidence for full-time professional lawyers is not mentioned by sources.

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ "As in all other periods, Babylonia in the first millennium BC was a predominantly agrarian society dependent on irrigation agriculture" [26]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Drain architecture is found throughout Ur, but it cannot be said what purpose the water served. [27] A pipe network that connects the drinking water to individual settlements is not known to exist / not thought to be present.
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ "It is true, as Karl Polányi has pointed out, that we have to distinguish between market-place and market: the former is securely attested (Akkadian mah˘ı¯rum) in Mesopotamia from the Old Babylonian period onwards".[28]
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ "Paved roads were rare outside the cities; the major highways and many minor ways were, nevertheless, genuine roads, created by leveling and compacting the ground, and regularly repaired after damage by rain and other natural hazards. Army engineers preceded military expeditions to identify the most appropriate line of march, check and clear or repair existing roads, and, where necessary, construct new ones."[29]
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥ "Routes were often dictated by the location of oases, mountain passes, and river crossings, by bridge, ford, or ferry."ref>(McIntosh 2005: 139) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.</ref>
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥ "Rivers and canals were the main highways wherever possible since water transport, particularly of bulk goods, was easier than that over land."[30]
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Administration tablets remarkable for their tabulated form [31]
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥ "The Babylonians used a calendar based on cycles of both the moon and the sun. Time was divided into solar days, lunar months, and luni-solar years. Days ran from sunset to sunset and were divided into four parts or into twelve “double-hours.” Astronomical texts such as Enuma Anu Enlil provided information on how to calculate the length of daylight at different times in the year."[32]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ "A growing body of literature, composed now in Akkadian instead of Sumerian, accumulated through the later second and first millennia. These included new versions of earlier stories, such as Ishtar in the Netherworld, and new stories, such as Enuma elish and The Story of Erra, as well as new compositions in old and new genres of religious literature and other branches of literary composition such as disputations, fables, and love poems, and the time-honored Sumerian lexical texts, now translated and greatly expanded and developed. Epic poems about historical monarchs began to appear, including fictive “autobiographies.” On the practical side, there was a growing body of “scientific” literature: compilations of omen and divination observations, treatments for illnesses, recipes and other treatises, as well as mathematical tables and exercises."[33]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ "A growing body of literature, composed now in Akkadian instead of Sumerian, accumulated through the later second and first millennia. These included new versions of earlier stories, such as Ishtar in the Netherworld, and new stories, such as Enuma elish and The Story of Erra, as well as new compositions in old and new genres of religious literature and other branches of literary composition such as disputations, fables, and love poems, and the time-honored Sumerian lexical texts, now translated and greatly expanded and developed. Epic poems about historical monarchs began to appear, including fictive “autobiographies.” On the practical side, there was a growing body of “scientific” literature: compilations of omen and divination observations, treatments for illnesses, recipes and other treatises, as well as mathematical tables and exercises."[34]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ "A growing body of literature, composed now in Akkadian instead of Sumerian, accumulated through the later second and first millennia. These included new versions of earlier stories, such as Ishtar in the Netherworld, and new stories, such as Enuma elish and The Story of Erra, as well as new compositions in old and new genres of religious literature and other branches of literary composition such as disputations, fables, and love poems, and the time-honored Sumerian lexical texts, now translated and greatly expanded and developed. Epic poems about historical monarchs began to appear, including fictive “autobiographies.” On the practical side, there was a growing body of “scientific” literature: compilations of omen and divination observations, treatments for illnesses, recipes and other treatises, as well as mathematical tables and exercises."[35]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ "A growing body of literature, composed now in Akkadian instead of Sumerian, accumulated through the later second and first millennia. These included new versions of earlier stories, such as Ishtar in the Netherworld, and new stories, such as Enuma elish and The Story of Erra, as well as new compositions in old and new genres of religious literature and other branches of literary composition such as disputations, fables, and love poems, and the time-honored Sumerian lexical texts, now translated and greatly expanded and developed. Epic poems about historical monarchs began to appear, including fictive “autobiographies.” On the practical side, there was a growing body of “scientific” literature: compilations of omen and divination observations, treatments for illnesses, recipes and other treatises, as well as mathematical tables and exercises."[36]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Wisdom literature. [37]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ "A growing body of literature, composed now in Akkadian instead of Sumerian, accumulated through the later second and first millennia. These included new versions of earlier stories, such as Ishtar in the Netherworld, and new stories, such as Enuma elish and The Story of Erra, as well as new compositions in old and new genres of religious literature and other branches of literary composition such as disputations, fables, and love poems, and the time-honored Sumerian lexical texts, now translated and greatly expanded and developed. Epic poems about historical monarchs began to appear, including fictive “autobiographies.” On the practical side, there was a growing body of “scientific” literature: compilations of omen and divination observations, treatments for illnesses, recipes and other treatises, as well as mathematical tables and exercises."[38]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ "A growing body of literature, composed now in Akkadian instead of Sumerian, accumulated through the later second and first millennia. These included new versions of earlier stories, such as Ishtar in the Netherworld, and new stories, such as Enuma elish and The Story of Erra, as well as new compositions in old and new genres of religious literature and other branches of literary composition such as disputations, fables, and love poems, and the time-honored Sumerian lexical texts, now translated and greatly expanded and developed. Epic poems about historical monarchs began to appear, including fictive “autobiographies.” On the practical side, there was a growing body of “scientific” literature: compilations of omen and divination observations, treatments for illnesses, recipes and other treatises, as well as mathematical tables and exercises."[39]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ "Babylonian textiles, horses and chariots were sent west to Egypt with transhipped luxury items such as lapis lazuli in exchange for gold and precious stones." [40] "The Mesopotamians did not use coinage (invented in Asia Minor in the seventh century B.C.E.) but employed various commodities as media of exchange and measures of value: occasionally gold, copper, and tin, but most commonly silver and grain. The value of goods entrusted to merchants was reckoned in weights of silver or volumes of barley, as was that of the commodities that the merchants brought back from their expeditions. Silver rings, coils of silver wire that could easily be cut into pieces, and other small units (often of 5 shekels weight) were regularly used in transactions, the requisite quantity of silver being weighed out to make a purchase or pay for a service."[41]
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ "The Mesopotamians did not use coinage (invented in Asia Minor in the seventh century B.C.E.) but employed various commodities as media of exchange and measures of value: occasionally gold, copper, and tin, but most commonly silver and grain. The value of goods entrusted to merchants was reckoned in weights of silver or volumes of barley, as was that of the commodities that the merchants brought back from their expeditions. Silver rings, coils of silver wire that could easily be cut into pieces, and other small units (often of 5 shekels weight) were regularly used in transactions, the requisite quantity of silver being weighed out to make a purchase or pay for a service."[42]
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ "The Mesopotamians did not use coinage (invented in Asia Minor in the seventh century B.C.E.) but employed various commodities as media of exchange and measures of value: occasionally gold, copper, and tin, but most commonly silver and grain. The value of goods entrusted to merchants was reckoned in weights of silver or volumes of barley, as was that of the commodities that the merchants brought back from their expeditions. Silver rings, coils of silver wire that could easily be cut into pieces, and other small units (often of 5 shekels weight) were regularly used in transactions, the requisite quantity of silver being weighed out to make a purchase or pay for a service."[43]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥ "The Mesopotamians did not use coinage (invented in Asia Minor in the seventh century B.C.E.) but employed various commodities as media of exchange and measures of value: occasionally gold, copper, and tin, but most commonly silver and grain. The value of goods entrusted to merchants was reckoned in weights of silver or volumes of barley, as was that of the commodities that the merchants brought back from their expeditions. Silver rings, coils of silver wire that could easily be cut into pieces, and other small units (often of 5 shekels weight) were regularly used in transactions, the requisite quantity of silver being weighed out to make a purchase or pay for a service."[44]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ "The Mesopotamians did not use coinage (invented in Asia Minor in the seventh century B.C.E.) but employed various commodities as media of exchange and measures of value: occasionally gold, copper, and tin, but most commonly silver and grain. The value of goods entrusted to merchants was reckoned in weights of silver or volumes of barley, as was that of the commodities that the merchants brought back from their expeditions. Silver rings, coils of silver wire that could easily be cut into pieces, and other small units (often of 5 shekels weight) were regularly used in transactions, the requisite quantity of silver being weighed out to make a purchase or pay for a service."[45]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ "The Mesopotamians did not use coinage (invented in Asia Minor in the seventh century B.C.E.) but employed various commodities as media of exchange and measures of value: occasionally gold, copper, and tin, but most commonly silver and grain. The value of goods entrusted to merchants was reckoned in weights of silver or volumes of barley, as was that of the commodities that the merchants brought back from their expeditions. Silver rings, coils of silver wire that could easily be cut into pieces, and other small units (often of 5 shekels weight) were regularly used in transactions, the requisite quantity of silver being weighed out to make a purchase or pay for a service."[46]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Rosalind Purcell; Marta Bartkowiak; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ ♥
♠ Iron ♣ ♥
♠ Steel ♣ ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ ♥
♠ Slings ♣ ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Arrowheads were found in Kassite burial at Ur. [47]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ [48]
♠ Crossbow ♣ ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ [49]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ [50]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ [51]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ [52]
♠ Polearms ♣ ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ As far as the scribal sector of Mesopotamia was concerned, the only influence the Kassite rulers had on Mesopotamian culture was to introduce horses and cavalry, for which they had to invent new ways to describe in writing. [53]
♠ Camels ♣ ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ ♥
♠ Shields ♣ ♥
♠ Helmets ♣ ♥
♠ Breastplates ♣ ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ present, but rather rare in use because of the price'[54]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥ e. g. Dur- Kurigalzu[55] "Kurigalzu I (1390 BC) built a defensive fortress near the confluence of the Tigris and the River Diyala" [56]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE text: "My master: the Asag has constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart".[57]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE text: "My master: the Asag has constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart".[58]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ In the second millennium BCE, "Moats were becoming a common feature of city defenses".[59] e. g. at Kish[60]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE text: "Its walls were built from stone."[61] Examples at Ur.[62]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE text: "Its walls were built from stone."[63]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [64] [65] [66]

References

  1. Stein, D. L. 1997. Kassites. In Meyers, E. M. (ed.) The Oxford Encylopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Volume 3. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p.271-272.
  2. Collon, D. 2007. Babylonian seals. In Leick, G. (ed.) The Babylonian World. London: Routledge. p.107
  3. Gill, A. 2008. Gateway of the Gods: The Rise and Fall of Babylon. London: Quercus. p.62
  4. Liverani, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.364-366
  5. Liverani, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.364-366
  6. Balkan, K. 1986. Studies in Babylonian Feudalism of the Kassite Period. Monographs on the Ancient Near East. Volume 2. Malibu: Undena Publications
  7. Gill, A. 2008. Gateway of the Gods: The Rise and Fall of Babylon. London: Quercus. p.68-69
  8. Gill, A. 2008. Gateway of the Gods: The Rise and Fall of Babylon. London: Quercus. p.66
  9. Gill, A. 2008. Gateway of the Gods: The Rise and Fall of Babylon. London: Quercus. p.66
  10. Stein, D. L. 1997. Kassites. In Meyers, E. (ed.) The Oxford Encylopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Volume 3. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p.272
  11. Liverani, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.364-366
  12. Liverani, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.366-7
  13. Gill, A. 2008. Gateway of the Gods: The Rise and Fall of Babylon. London: Quercus. p.68
  14. Liverani, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.366
  15. Liverani, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.364-370
  16. Liverani, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.364-370
  17. (McIntosh 2005: 206) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  18. (Liverani 2014, 367) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.
  19. (Liverani 2014, 367) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.
  20. (McIntosh 2005: 206) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  21. (McIntosh 2005: 206) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  22. (Liverani 2014, 196) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.
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