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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣♥

♠ Original name ♣Archaic Crete ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣Doric Crete♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 650 BCE ♥ 7th century BCE


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣710-500 BCE♥ The Archaic Crete (7th-6th centuries) is divided in the following periods: Orientalizing or Daedalic or Early Archaic (710-600 BCE) and Archaic Archaic (600-500).

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣none♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Geometric Crete♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣continuity♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Classical Crete♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Archaic Greece♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣none♥ Crete is divided into territorial entities each one centered upon a city that served as the main political and economic center of its region. The most important city-stateswere these of Knossos, probably the largest urban centre of the period, Axos, Krousonas, Phaistos, Gortys, Lyktos, Arkades, Prinias, and Eltyna in central Crete, Lato, Dreros and Praisos in east Crete, and Aptera and Kydonia in the west. None of these centers thought was seat of a political authority that controlled the island.

♠ Language ♣Doric Greek♥

General Description

Crete is a large island in the Eastern Mediterranean. The Archaic Crete (7th-6th centuries) is divided in the following periods: Orientalizing or Daedalic or Early Archaic (710-600 BCE) and Archaic Archaic (600-500).

There was no capital city as Crete was divided into territorial entities, each one centered upon a city that served as the main political and economic centre of its well-defined region. Political, military and religious control was exercised by the Kosmoi, a board of 3 to 10 annually elected nobles. [1]

No information could be found in the sources consulted regarding the polity's overall population, however the largest settlement, Knossos, is estimated to have housed about 4,000 people.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣♥ The following were coded through pers. comm. with Kostis Christakis

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 167 ♥ Km2. In this period Crete was divided into regional city-states that controlled well-defined regions.[2] 'For Crete, [Hansen and Nielsen] make a quick calculation: having said that there were 49 contemporary cities in Crete, and the island having 8200 km2, the average territory of a Cretan city was of 167km2'.[3]

♠ Polity Population ♣ suspected unknown ♥ People. In this period Crete was divided into regional city-states that controlled well-defined regions.[4] 'For Crete, [Hansen and Nielsen] make a quick calculation: having said that there were 49 contemporary cities in Crete, and the island having 8200 km2, the average territory of a Cretan city was of 167km2'.[5] Expert input may be needed to suggest a population estimate for a typical Archaic Cretan city-state.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 4,000 ♥ Knossos was the largest urban center, with a population of roughly 4,000 in this period.[6]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [1-5] ♥ 1-2, 5 levels. Crete is divided into regional city-states which controlled a well defined region. The settlement hierarchy within these states is simple. It was centered upon the city where all the government, public and religious buildings were located and villages and hamlets scatted throughout its rural countryside. City-states were independent of their neighbors and there was a political unity among the urban centre and the rural settlements. [7]

♠ Administrative levels ♣5♥ levels. Political, military and religious control was exercised by the Kosmoi, a board of 3 to 10 annually elected nobles -their number varies from 3 to 10- elected by the Ecclesia, the body of free male citizens. The council of elders, the Gerousia, whose members were chosen among the best Kosmoi, had legislative and juridical authority. The most senior member of the Kosmoi bore the title of "protokosmos". [8]

♠ Religious levels ♣5♥ levels. Religious control was exercised by the Kosmoi, a board of 3 to 10 annually elected nobles -their number varies from 3 to 10- elected by the Ecclesia, the body of free male citizens. [9] Cult was performed by priests annually elected by the Ecclesia.

♠ Military levels ♣5♥ levels. Military control was exercised by the Kosmoi, a board of 3 to 10 annually elected nobles -their number varies from 3 to 10- elected by the Ecclesia, the body of free male citizens. [10]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present♥ Μilitary control in city-states was exercised by the Kosmoi , a board of 3 to 10 nobles, annually elected by the Ecclesia, the body of free male citizens. One of them was the president of the board (he was called πρωτόκοσμος, στραταγέτας, κόσμος ο επί πόλεως).[11]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣present♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣present♥ Cult was performed by priests annually elected by the Ecclesia. [12]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣present ♥ Bureaucratic control was exercised by ippis, a board of free-citizens.

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣present♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣present♥ Codes of laws and regulations were recorded in inscriptions (commonly incised on stone). Legal inscriptions, the oldest are dated to the 7th century BCE, were found so far in the city-states of Gortyn, Axos, and Dreros. [13] Many inscriptions were displayed on sanctuaries, a tangible expression of the intersection of law and religion. The texts are fragmentary and provide a very cloudy picture on the legal systems adopted by the Archaic city-states. [14] The codes primarily deal with issues of ownership and pledges. The most important inscription, the longest inscription of the Greek world, is the famous Gortyn Code or the Great Code. [15] Although the inscription is dated to the first half of the 5th century BCE, it is argued that echoes Archaic legislative systems.

♠ Judges ♣present♥ The council of elders, the Gerousia, whose members were chosen among the best Kosmoi, had legislative and juridical authority. [16] Officials appointed by the state, they are called dikastai (δικαστές), acted as judges; they deal mostly with cases involving inheritances and pledges. Special judges, the hetaireai, deal with matters of tribal law and custom, others, called orfanodikastes (ορφανοδικαστές) were appointed to supervise the affairs of orphans or minors, the ksenios Kosmos (ξένιος κόσμος) had important duties connected with the foreigners living in the city, and finally the cosmos hiarorgos (ιαροργός) was responsible for matters related to the religion.

♠ Courts ♣ present♥ Legal disputes were tried in the agora (the central gathering place) of the city.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣absent♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present♥
♠ markets ♣ present♥
♠ food storage sites ♣unknown♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present♥
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥
♠ Canals ♣absent♥
♠ Ports ♣present♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣present♥ "Significantly, however, the oral transmission of the traditions of the past allowed Greek culture to survive this loss [the loss of writing] by continuing its stories and legends as valuable possesions passed down thought time. Storytelling, music, singing, and oral performances of poetry, which surely had been a part of Greek life for longer than we can trace, transmitted the most basic cultural ideas of the Greeks about themselves from generation to generation." [17]
♠ Written records ♣present♥ The oldest written record is an inscription incised on a large storage jar at Phaistos and dated to the end of 8th century BCE. [18]. All written records are inscriptions incised on stone and contain religious texts or cities laws. Others are votive and were incised on pieces of armor. They are dated to the mid 7th century and 6th century BCE.
♠ Script ♣present♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣present♥ Phonetic alphabetic writing was introduced to the Greek World during the 10th or 9th century BCE when Greeks adopted the earlier Phoenician alphabet and used it to write the Greek language. [19] Sound data indicates that the alphabet was first introduced and developed in Crete and not at Euboea, as some scholars had argued. [20] This theory has fully confirmed by the recent find of a Cretan inscription at Eltyna (Central Crete). [21] The Doric Cretan alphabet was very close to its Phoenician model. The Doric Cretan alphabet was also used to express an unknown language that is believed to be the language of the Minoans that was preserved and spoken by some groups in the isolated mountainous regions of east Crete. [22] These inscriptions date from the late 7th or early 6th century down to the 3rd century BCE.


Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣present♥
♠ Calendar ♣present♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣present♥
♠ Religious literature ♣absent♥
♠ Practical literature ♣absent♥
♠ History ♣absent♥
♠ Philosophy ♣absent♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣absent♥
♠ Fiction ♣absent♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣present♥ Minting in Greece was introduced around 6th century BCE. Before that period economic transactions were based on a barter system of spits, precious artifacts and metals, animals, food, and services. [23]
♠ Tokens ♣present♥ Minting in Greece was introduced around 6th century BCE. Before that period economic transactions were based on a barter system of spits, precious artifacts and metals, animals, food, and services. [24]
♠ Precious metals ♣present♥ Minting in Greece was introduced around 6th century BCE. Before that period economic transactions were based on a barter system of spits, precious artifacts and metals, animals, food, and services. [25]
♠ Foreign coins ♣present♥ Epigraphic evidence from many regions of the island and archeological finds attest to the use of monetary values from at least the turn of the 6th century. The first coins to be used were the Aiginetans as result of the close relations between Aigina and the Cretan city of Kydonia (West Crete). [26]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent♥ Cretans started minting around 470 BCE perhaps as a response to the reduced supple of new Aiginetan coinage. [27]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ absent♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent♥
♠ General postal service ♣ absent♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣♥ The following were coded through pers. comm. with Kostis Christakis

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present♥ '
♠ Bronze ♣ present♥ [28]
♠ Iron ♣ present♥ [29]
♠ Steel ♣ absent♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present♥ [30]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent♥
♠ Slings ♣ absent♥
♠ Self bow ♣ present♥ [31]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present♥ [32]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ absent♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ absent♥
♠ Daggers ♣present ♥ [33]
♠ Swords ♣ present♥ [34]
♠ Spears ♣ present♥ [35]
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣present♥ [36]
♠ Horses ♣ present♥ [37]
♠ Camels ♣ absent♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ absent ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present♥ [38]
♠ Shields ♣ present♥ [39]
♠ Helmets ♣present ♥ [40]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present♥ [41]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present♥ [42]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent♥
♠ Plate armor ♣absent ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣present♥ [43]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ unknown ♥ [44]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣present♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present♥ [45]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ absent♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent♥
♠ Long walls ♣ absent♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣absent♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred absent ♥ Political, military and religious control was exercised by the Kosmoi, a board of 3 to 10 annually elected nobles -their number varies from 3 to 10- elected by the Ecclesia, the body of free male citizens. The council of elders, the Gerousia, whose members were chosen among the best Kosmoi, had legislative and juridical authority. The most senior member of the Kosmoi bore the title of "protokosmos". [46]

starting in 7th c BCE, across Mediterranean was move away from Kingship, rise of rule of law (but also of tyranny / demagoguery). Common cultural antipathy to kingship or hereditary / absolute rule put informal constraint on ruler [47]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Between 650 and 600 the citizens of a small polis (city- or rather citizen-state), Dreros on Crete, passed a law and had it inscribed on stone: 'This has been decided by the polis: When a man has been Kosmos, for ten years that same man shall not be Kosmos. If he should become Kosmos, whatever judgments he gives, he himself shall owe double, and he shall be useless as long as he lives, and what he does as Kosmos shall be as nothing. The swearers (to this shall be) the Kosmos, the Demioi and the Twenty of the polis. (ML 2; trans. Fornara 1983: no. 11)' This is one of the earliest extant polis laws in Greece. It represents the first instance (as far as we know, in world history) of a limitation being imposed upon the repetition of an office. The Kosmos apparently was the chief magistrate and judge of Dreros. The law prohibits him from repeating his office before an interval of ten years has expired and determines the punishment to be exacted for offenses against this restriction, involving material compensation and a serious reduction in the offender's status: he shall be “useless,” that is, probably, deprived of various civic capacities, including the capacity to hold public office. Two groups of officials (the Demioi and the Twenty) are listed among those responsible for upholding the law.//In only a few lines, this law offers invaluable insight into the political and administrative structure of one early polis. More importantly in our present context, it reflects an effort by a community to gain control over its officeholders and leaders (Ehrenberg 1943: 14-18; Willetts 1955: 167-69; Hölkeskamp 1999: 87-95)." [48]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Between 650 and 600 the citizens of a small polis (city- or rather citizen-state), Dreros on Crete, passed a law and had it inscribed on stone: 'This has been decided by the polis: When a man has been Kosmos, for ten years that same man shall not be Kosmos. If he should become Kosmos, whatever judgments he gives, he himself shall owe double, and he shall be useless as long as he lives, and what he does as Kosmos shall be as nothing. The swearers (to this shall be) the Kosmos, the Demioi and the Twenty of the polis. (ML 2; trans. Fornara 1983: no. 11)' This is one of the earliest extant polis laws in Greece. It represents the first instance (as far as we know, in world history) of a limitation being imposed upon the repetition of an office. The Kosmos apparently was the chief magistrate and judge of Dreros. The law prohibits him from repeating his office before an interval of ten years has expired and determines the punishment to be exacted for offenses against this restriction, involving material compensation and a serious reduction in the offender's status: he shall be “useless,” that is, probably, deprived of various civic capacities, including the capacity to hold public office. Two groups of officials (the Demioi and the Twenty) are listed among those responsible for upholding the law.//In only a few lines, this law offers invaluable insight into the political and administrative structure of one early polis. More importantly in our present context, it reflects an effort by a community to gain control over its officeholders and leaders (Ehrenberg 1943: 14-18; Willetts 1955: 167-69; Hölkeskamp 1999: 87-95)." [49]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ “The philosophers taught a universalizing frame of reference so they encouraged people to look on each other as equals. But as we saw with slavery, this did not translate into actual social change or even recognizing a need to break down categories. The only example I can think of is again Musonius Rufus who advocated a version of male and female equality (in education, for example). He was against double standards of sexual morality for men and women. Traditional Greek religion reinforced all kinds of social distinctions. Foreigners could not worship in most civic cults of another city without a special permission, women were restricted to certain well-defined roles in certain cults, and on and on. There was no doctrinal or ritual drive toward universal equality, though rituals were used to emphasize the equality of individuals within a given social group (e.g. Athenian male citizens). There is only one exception but it is an important one: mystery cults, very popular in Hellenistic times, were surprisingly open to initiating all comers. The Eleusinian Mysteries accepted women, slaves and foreigners, and so did many other mysteries (but not all).” [50]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “The philosophers taught a universalizing frame of reference so they encouraged people to look on each other as equals. But as we saw with slavery, this did not translate into actual social change or even recognizing a need to break down categories. The only example I can think of is again Musonius Rufus who advocated a version of male and female equality (in education, for example). He was against double standards of sexual morality for men and women. Traditional Greek religion reinforced all kinds of social distinctions. Foreigners could not worship in most civic cults of another city without a special permission, women were restricted to certain well-defined roles in certain cults, and on and on. There was no doctrinal or ritual drive toward universal equality, though rituals were used to emphasize the equality of individuals within a given social group (e.g. Athenian male citizens). There is only one exception but it is an important one: mystery cults, very popular in Hellenistic times, were surprisingly open to initiating all comers. The Eleusinian Mysteries accepted women, slaves and foreigners, and so did many other mysteries (but not all).” [51]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “The philosophers taught a universalizing frame of reference so they encouraged people to look on each other as equals. But as we saw with slavery, this did not translate into actual social change or even recognizing a need to break down categories. The only example I can think of is again Musonius Rufus who advocated a version of male and female equality (in education, for example). He was against double standards of sexual morality for men and women. Traditional Greek religion reinforced all kinds of social distinctions. Foreigners could not worship in most civic cults of another city without a special permission, women were restricted to certain well-defined roles in certain cults, and on and on. There was no doctrinal or ritual drive toward universal equality, though rituals were used to emphasize the equality of individuals within a given social group (e.g. Athenian male citizens). There is only one exception but it is an important one: mystery cults, very popular in Hellenistic times, were surprisingly open to initiating all comers. The Eleusinian Mysteries accepted women, slaves and foreigners, and so did many other mysteries (but not all).” [52]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ absent ♥ idea of charity / prosocial activity rose later, in some Classical poleis and then in Hellenistic Kingdoms. “Hellenistic philanthropy was closely tied to piety because the benefactions were usually things like sponsoring a festival or enhancing a sanctuary. Sponsoring a festival meant entertainment and free food distribution, but the main goal was not necessarily to help the poor—it was more to enhance the public good. I think it is very likely that the teachings of philosophers encouraged these sorts of activities, but of course the donors also benefited from increased prestige.” [53]

♠ production of public goods ♣ absent ♥ idea of charity / prosocial activity rose later, in some Classical poleis and then in Hellenistic Kingdoms. “Hellenistic philanthropy was closely tied to piety because the benefactions were usually things like sponsoring a festival or enhancing a sanctuary. Sponsoring a festival meant entertainment and free food distribution, but the main goal was not necessarily to help the poor—it was more to enhance the public good. I think it is very likely that the teachings of philosophers encouraged these sorts of activities, but of course the donors also benefited from increased prestige.” [54]

References

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  2. Willetts, R. F. 1965. Ancient Crete. A Social History, London and Toronto, 56-75; Lembesi, A. 1987. "Η Κρητών Πολιτεία," in Panagiotakis, N. (ed.), Κρήτη: Ιστορία και Πολιτισμός, Heraklion, 166-72.
  3. (Coutsinas 2013) Nadia Coutsinas. 2013. "The Establishment of the City-States of Eastern Crete from the Archaic to the Roman Period." CHS Research Bulletin 2 (1). http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:hlnc.essay:CoutsinasN.The_Establishment_of_the_City-States_of_Eastern_Crete.2013. Coutsinas is citing An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis by Mogens Herman Hansen and Thomas Heine Nielsen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).
  4. Willetts, R. F. 1965. Ancient Crete. A Social History, London and Toronto, 56-75; Lembesi, A. 1987. "Η Κρητών Πολιτεία," in Panagiotakis, N. (ed.), Κρήτη: Ιστορία και Πολιτισμός, Heraklion, 166-72.
  5. (Coutsinas 2013) Nadia Coutsinas. 2013. "The Establishment of the City-States of Eastern Crete from the Archaic to the Roman Period." CHS Research Bulletin 2 (1). http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:hlnc.essay:CoutsinasN.The_Establishment_of_the_City-States_of_Eastern_Crete.2013. Coutsinas is citing An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis by Mogens Herman Hansen and Thomas Heine Nielsen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).
  6. Whitelaw, T. 2004. "Estimating the population of Neopalatial Knossos," in Cadogan, G., Hatzaki, E. and Vasilakis, A. (eds), Knossos: Palace, City, State: Proceedings of the Conference in Herakleion organized by the British School at Athens and the 23rd Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities of Herakleion, in November 2000, for the Centenary of Sir Arthur Evans's Excavations at Knossos (BSA Studies 12), London, 147-58.
  7. Willetts, R. F. 1965. Ancient Crete. A Social History, London and Toronto, 56-75; Lembesi, A. 1987. "Η Κρητών Πολιτεία," in Panagiotakis, N. (ed.), Κρήτη: Ιστορία και Πολιτισμός, Heraklion, 166-72.
  8. Willetts, R. F. 1965. Ancient Crete. A Social History, London and Toronto, 56-75; Lembesi, A. 1987. "Η Κρητών Πολιτεία," in Panagiotakis, N. (ed.), Κρήτη: Ιστορία και Πολιτισμός, Heraklion, 166-72.
  9. Willetts, R. F. 1965. Ancient Crete. A Social History, London and Toronto, 56-75; Lembesi, A. 1987. "Η Κρητών Πολιτεία," in Panagiotakis, N. (ed.), Κρήτη: Ιστορία και Πολιτισμός, Heraklion, 166-72.
  10. Willetts, R. F. 1965. Ancient Crete. A Social History, London and Toronto, 56-75; Lembesi, A. 1987. "Η Κρητών Πολιτεία," in Panagiotakis, N. (ed.), Κρήτη: Ιστορία και Πολιτισμός, Heraklion, 166-72.
  11. Willetts, R. F. 1965. Ancient Crete. A Social History, London and Toronto, 56-75; Lembesi, A. 1987. "Η Κρητών Πολιτεία," in Panagiotakis, N. (ed.), Κρήτη: Ιστορία και Πολιτισμός, Heraklion, 166-72.
  12. Willetts, R. F. 1965. Ancient Crete. A Social History, London and Toronto, 56-75.
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  15. Guarducci, M. 1950. Inscriptiones Creticae IV, Rome, n. 72; Willetts, R. F. 1967. The Law Code of Gortyn, Berlin; Di Vita, A. ed. 1984. Creta Antica. Cento anni di archaeologia italiana (1884-1984), Rome, 73-9; Davies, J. 2005. “The Gortyn Laws,’’ in Gagarin, M. and Cohen, D. J. (eds). Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law, Cambridge, 305-27.
  16. Willetts, R. F. 1965. Ancient Crete. A Social History, London and Torondo, 77; Chaniotis, A. 1897. "Κλασική και Ελληνιστική Κρήτη," in Panagiotakis, N. (ed.), Κρήτη: Ιστορία και Πολιτισμός, Heraklion, 203.
  17. Martin, T. R. 1996. Ancient Greece. From Prehistory to Hellenistic Times, New Haven and London, 37.
  18. Bile, M. 1988. La dialect crétois ancient, Paris, 29
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  20. Guarducci, M. 1953. "La culpa dell'alfabeto greco," in Γέρας Αντωνίου Κεραμοπούλλου, Athens, 342-54; Guarducci, M. 1967. Epigrafia greca I, Rome, 189-81; Duhoux, Y. Les Étéocrétoise et l'origine de l'alphabet grec," Ant. Clas. 50, 287-94.
  21. Kritzas, X. 2010. " ΦΟΙΝΙΚΗΙΑ ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΑ: Νέα αρχαϊκή επιγραφή από την Έλτυνα," in Rethemiotakis, G. and Egglezou, M. Το Γεωμετρικό Νεκροταφείο της Έλτυνας, Heraklion, 3-23.
  22. Duhoux, Y. Les Étéocrétoise et l'origine de l'alphabet grec," Ant. Clas. 50, 287-94.
  23. e.g. Seaford, R. 2004. Money and the Early Greek Mind: Homer, Philosophy, Tragedy, Cambridge, 125-46; Tejado, R. and Guerra, G. 2012. "From barter to coins: shifting cognitive frames in Classical Greek economy," in Herrero-Soler, H. and White, A.(eds.), Metaphore and Milles. Figurative Language in Business and Economics, Berlin/Boston, 27-4.
  24. e.g. Seaford, R. 2004. Money and the Early Greek Mind: Homer, Philosophy, Tragedy, Cambridge, 125-46; Tejado, R. and Guerra, G. 2012. "From barter to coins: shifting cognitive frames in Classical Greek economy," in Herrero-Soler, H. and White, A.(eds.), Metaphore and Milles. Figurative Language in Business and Economics, Berlin/Boston, 27-4.
  25. e.g. Seaford, R. 2004. Money and the Early Greek Mind: Homer, Philosophy, Tragedy, Cambridge, 125-46; Tejado, R. and Guerra, G. 2012. "From barter to coins: shifting cognitive frames in Classical Greek economy," in Herrero-Soler, H. and White, A.(eds.), Metaphore and Milles. Figurative Language in Business and Economics, Berlin/Boston, 27-4.
  26. Stefanakis, M. I. 1999. "The introduction of coinage in Crete and the beginning of local minting," in Chaniotis, A. (ed.), From Minoan Farmers to Roman Traders. Sidelights on the Economy of Ancient Crete, Stuttgart, 247-68.
  27. Stefanakis, M. I. 1999. "The introduction of coinage in Crete and the beginning of local minting," in Chaniotis, A. (ed.), From Minoan Farmers to Roman Traders. Sidelights on the Economy of Ancient Crete, Stuttgart, 247-68.
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  47. (Jennifer Larson, Oxford workshop January 2017)
  48. Raaflaub, K. 2007. Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece p. 23. Berkeley, Calif.; London : University of California Press.
  49. Raaflaub, K. 2007. Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece p. 23. Berkeley, Calif.; London : University of California Press.
  50. Jennifer Larson 2016, pers. comm.
  51. Jennifer Larson 2016, pers. comm.
  52. Jennifer Larson 2016, pers. comm.
  53. Jennifer Larson 2016, pers. comm.
  54. Jennifer Larson 2016, pers. comm.