FrValoL

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Jill Levine ♥

♠ Original name ♣ French Kingdom - Late Valois ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Valois dynasty; Kingdom of France ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1515 CE ♥ Reigns of Charles VIII (1483-1498 CE) and Louis VII (1498-1515 CE) witnessed "a remarkable recovery and expansion." [1]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1450-1589 CE ♥

"But the accession of Louis XI and perhaps the conclusion of the War of the Public Weal in 1465 really did coincide with a reversal of the trend of demographic and political collapse which had dominated the history of France for a century."[2]

Reigns of Charles VIII (1483-1498 CE) and Louis VII (1498-1515 CE) witnessed "a remarkable recovery and expansion." [3]

"The crisis of 1557-62 was an ominous prelude to civil war and collapse." [4]

End 16th century according to Jean du Port: "France was then so ruined and depopulated that it seemed more like a desert than a flourishing kingdom, for there was no one in the fields, the country folk had fled to the churches and strongholds, not daring to emerge for fear of the gendarmerie which was usually in the countryside. It had become fallow, full of thickets and woods by the continuous wars under three kings and more like the haunt of beasts than of men."[5]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose; unitary state ♥

Government was more centralized north of the Loire. [6]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ French Kingdom - Early Valois ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ French Kingdom - Early Bourbon ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Paris ♥ Main royal institutions, the Parlement and financial courts, were in Paris. The royal court, however, was peripatetic. [7]

♠ Language ♣ French ♥ Kingdom contained 5 languages: "French, occitan (Provencal, Auvergnat, Gascon etc.), Basque, Breton and Flemish." French language, favoured in court and central government, spread gradually into the regions. "The jurists of the chancellery and high courts had worked essentially in French from the fourteenth century and this opened the way for the triumph of French as the literary language."[8]

General Description

The Late Valois (Valois dynasty) represent the last century of Valois rule over the French Kingdom from 1450-1589 CE. The period was greatly impacted by the French Renaissance, external war against the Italians and Habsburgs, and the internal Wars of Religion. First Late Valois king Louis XI (1461-1483 CE) continued to modernize the royal government, and implemented the first royal postal service.[9] The French Renaissance hit its cultural peak during the rule of Frances I (1515-1547 CE) and Henry II (1547-1559 CE). Artists and scholars traveled from Italy to France, and had an immense impact on architecture, culture, and art. Urban life was transformed by Renaissance culture and the printing press.[10]

Calais was returned to France from England, and Burgundy, Dauphiné, Provence, and the Three Bishoprics in Lorraine were secured in this period.[11] [12] The territory of the Kingdom of France was between 400,000 and 500,000 square meters during the rule of the Late Valois.[13] Outside of Europe, explorer Jacques Cartier paved the way for future French colonies in Canada, and French explorers and merchants began to exploit the west African coast.[14]

The Valois fought the Italian Wars from 1494-1559 CE over the French crown’s claim on the kingdom of Naples. In 1519 CE, Charles V of the Spanish Habsburgs became the Holy Roman Emperor. The wars in Italy were the start of a lasting rivalry between the Habsburgs and Valois. In 1559 CE, France gave up all claims in Italy.[15] The last Valois kings were weakened by the Wars of Religion (Huguenot Wars) (1562-1598 CE), between the Roman Catholics and Reformed Protestants. 3 million people died in the conflict or from famine or disease during the war.[16]

Population and political organization

Early Valois king Charles VII's work to modernize the French government was continued by Louis XI. The royal council became less feudal and more bureaucratic, the king was advised by professional lawyers rather than feudal vassals, and the financial and judicial functions of government were separated.[17][18]

The disasters of the late 14th and 15th century had decimated the population of many cities and towns in France. The nation recovered by the late 15th century.[19] The population of the Kingdom of France during the recovery period in 1470 CE is estimated to be between 10 million and 12 million.[20] In 1560 CE, the population reached 20 million.[21]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [400,000-500,000] ♥ in squared kilometers.

425,000: 1461 CE; 460,000: 1483 CE [22]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [10,000,000-12,000,000]: 1470 CE; 16,000,000: 1500 CE; 18,000,000: 1515 CE; 20,000,000: 1560 CE ♥

Catastrophic collapse: 1350-1450 CE. Patchy revival: 1450-1500 CE. Population boom: 1500-1550 CE. Hesitated: 1550-1600 CE. [23]

[10,000,000-12,000,000]: 1470s CE [24] (Mousnier) 18,000,000: 1515 CE [25] (Pierre Chaunu) 16,000,000: 1500 CE [26] (Ladurie) 20,000,000: 1560 CE [27]

Urbanization: 6-10% "much birth in the country, much death in the town." [28]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [250,000-300,000] ♥

Lyon: 20,000: 1450 CE; 40,000: 1500 CE; 70,000: 1550 CE. [29]

Rouen: 20,000: 1450 CE; [60,000-70,000]: 1560 CE. [30]

Paris: 300,000: 1560 CE. [31]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 6 ♥ levels.

1. Capital city

Paris
2. Provincial capital
Lyon? Rouen?
3. Bailliage or Sénéchiaussée town
few cities topped 30,000. [32]
4. Town associated with castle of a Prévôt
10,000 was a substantial town. [33]
5. Village
6. Hamlet


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [5-6] ♥ levels. [34]


1. King

considered guardian of divine and human law


_Central government_


2. Conseil du roi
3. Head of the Royal Secretariat (recorded council business and drafted acts, correspondence, etc. and archived. Head-quartered at Celestins monastery).
title of Premier secretaire du roi not in use after 1460 CE but position still de facto occupied. gained further responsibilities including those of the secretaires des guerres (created 1472 CE) and greffier (clerk) of council.
4. Bureaucrats of the divisions of the Royal Secretariat head-quartered at the Celestins monastery
5 Lesser bureaucrats inferred
6. Lesser bureaucrats inferred
4?. secretaire des finances
Conseil du roi (highest organ of public power in 15th and 16th centuries) over-overwhelmingly composed of aristocrats, especially as cardinals from 1520s CE. councils of government reflected a strong ethos of collective decision-making process.
Grand conseil de justice emerged under Louis XI (1461-1483 CE).
Conseil Etroit (known by this name from 1484 CE) - inner councillors and princes of the blood.. Conseil secret within this conseil had 3 members. Conseil Etroit became known as Conseil prive from mid-1530s CE.
Conseil des affaires, morning council with the king which considered the latest despatches. mid-16th century?
Parlements of Paris. "Each Parlement claimed sovereign jurisdiction in its own territory and not all edicts registered at Paris were registered in the provinces. They thus remained unimplemented. However, only the Parlement of Paris could admit officiers or constitute itself as a chamber of peers."


_Provincial government_


2. Provincial Parlements
"Each Parlement claimed sovereign jurisdiction in its own territory and not all edicts registered at Paris were registered in the provinces. They thus remained unimplemented. However, only the Parlement of Paris could admit officiers or constitute itself as a chamber of peers."
2. Provincial governor of provincial gouvernements (King's lieutenant-general)
"representatives of the King's person in the provinces"
Limited terms, perhaps 3-5 years
Powers between provincial Parlements and provincial governments often contested.
3. Bailiff in a Bailliages (Northern France); seneschal in a Sénéchiaussée (Southern France)
1515 CE France had about 100 bailliages
Bernard Guenee said: bailliages were not divided into chatellenies, they were made up of them.
4. Prévôt in a Prévôté (or vicomte)/Chatellenie
this level was the "bedrock of the system of law and administration."
consisted of a "castle, dependant lands and rights with, significantly, only one "custom" prevailing in it."
5. Leader of a parish
within Chatellenies. E.g. in 1562 CE there were 43 parishes within the Pontoise chatellenie.


X. Seigneuries

Seigneuries (lordships) owned by seigneurs
The "chatellenie was the essential administrative unit, sometimes a royal chatellenie, sometimes seigneurial."
X. Great fiefs and (apanages of the crown) - level replaced by provincial bodies
80 fiefs in 1480 CE, c40 in 1530 CE
Apanage of Orleans returned 1498 CE. Burgundy 1477 CE. Picardy-Artois 1477 CE. Avergne 1531 CE. Brittany 1536 CE. Maine 1481 CE. Anjou 1481 CE.


♠ Religious levels ♣ 7 ♥ levels. [35]

"The struggles over the institutional government of the church were shaped by the formation of two main strands of thinking about the church in France which can be classified as "Gallician": the theological, which sought to make of the universal church a limited monarchy and to undertake a profound "reformation" of its structure; and the political, the doctrine above all of the Parlement of Paris, which invoked the king's supreme jurisdiction in its refusal to allow the free exercise of papal jurisdiction in France. These two strands of thought came together in the idea of hostility to Rome..." [36]


1. Pope

de jure #1

1. King

de facto #1. made ecclesiastical appointments
2. Parlement of Paris
"issued orders in January 1535 offering rewards for those who denounced heretics and punishments for concealments." [37]
3. Council of the French Church
Cardinals, Papal legates
4. Archbishop in archbishopric
5. deputy called vicar-general?
5. Bishop in Diocese
1551 CE diocese of Lombez had 154 priests in 91 parishes (low density priests to parishes) where as diocese of Leon (Brittany) had "an exceptionally dense concentration of clergy."
under Francis I "only six known commoners promoted as bishops who in fact owed their positions to their scholarship and close relationship to the royal household."
6. Archdeacon
7. Parish priest
Priest / Cures / Vicaires. "in the 392 parishes of Beauvais, there were only 80 resident cures ... distributed unevenly, the rest replaced by vicaires."


♠ Military levels ♣ [10-12] ♥ levels.


1. King

Commander-in-chief
2. Secretaires des guerres / senior councillor
2. Constable
Constable of France [38]
3?. Marshall
3-5 marshals [39]
4. Captain
Captains of heavy cavalry important role among in the staff command structure [40]
5. Lieutenant-general
"A deep pocket was a crucial advantage to a commander." Expected to lavish gifts on army. [41]
"successful commanders had to navigate the labyrinth of politics and patronage in order to obtain funds for their armies."[42]
6?. Marechal de camp / Maitre de camp (cavalry / infantry)[43]
6?. Marechal de logis / maitre l'artilerie[44]
7. Sergent de bataille[45]
8. Colonel[46]
9. Captain
Captain of a company. [47]
10. Lieutenant
Could be promoted to captain. [48]
11. Sergeant[49]
12. Individual soldier


Louis XI wanted new permanent army with: 4 royal lieutenants over 10 vicaires each commanding 10 captains who each lead 10 dizainiers who each took charge of 10 soldiers. However reforms abandoned 1483 CE. [50]

By 1562 CE companies were formed into larger groups called regiments. [51]


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Paid salary.[52]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Permanent armed forces.[53]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Christianity.


Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Provincial governor "paid fixed emoluments like other office-holders."[54]

Roland Mousnier estimated 1515 CE at least 4,041 executive office-holders. Pierre Chaunu estimated 5,000, and with clercs and commis the "administrative technostructure" would be 7,000-8,000, making 1 bureaucrat per 57.5 sq km, or 1 per 2,000 people. [55]

Offices could be bought and sold because they were thought of as property and thus profit-making. Sold by the state to raise money. For a price the office could be made hereditary (and thus withdrawn from market). Frequently new offices were created to raise money.

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred present ♥ through the universities

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥

Within the church, the papal Concordat of Bologna (negotiated between king of France and the pope) promulgated in Rome 1516 CE "dispensed princes of the blood and members of great families from the requirement of a University degree, although the king had the phrase: "the king will name a qualified person, that is to say a graduate or a noble" modified by deleting the last three words in order to minimise lobbying. However, the overwhelming noble status of the bishops appointed after 1516 CE is clear."[56]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Mints

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥

Customary law became codified between mid-15th to mid-16th century. The idea of a single code of law was discussed but not taken further by the Assembly of Notables in 1517 CE. [57]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred present ♥ Coded present for Early Valois.[58]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥

Coded present for Early Valois

Law courts called parlements established at the Royal Palace in Paris by Philip IV. Justice administration "in the hands of parlements staffed by professional lawyers organized in three chambers." [59]


♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥ Trained lawyers.[60]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Water-mills.[61]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Cisterns?
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ [62] By early 14th century Paris had paved streets. Roads around Ile de France region also improved.[63] Royal toll stations, e.g. at Bapaume. [64]
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥ Early Valois bridges built over Saone at St-Jean-de-Losne. [65] and bridge of St. Laurent at Macon. [66]
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Many ports at mouth of Rhone. Louis IX in the 1260s CE built a new fortified port on royal lands called Aigues Mortes. [67]


Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ "France possesses no precious metal resources and little copper. Iron ores are abundant, and there are regional deposits of lead, zinc, and coal. All of these were exploited during the Middle Ages. Evidence for ironworking exists from Merovingian France onward." [68]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Anything written by the era's literati.
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ French language.
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ French language.
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ French language.

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Each region had own measures for dry goods and wine despite effort by Henri II (1547-1559 CE) in Paris to impose one standard. [69]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Bible.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Jean du Tillet and Charles Dumoulin: 16th century Gallician theorists.[70]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Maps "that began to disseminate a definitive visual image of the kingdom" [71] such as produced by Oronce Fine (1494-1555 CE) who was also a mathematician, and Charles Estienne (1504-1564 CE) who was also an anatomist.
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Nicolle Gilles: "Annales et Chroniques" (1492 CE) and Robert Gaguin: "Compendium de origine et gestis Francorum" (1495 CE) important for formation of French national identity under the monarchy. The early identity had France founded by Trojans. Paolo Emilio's "De rebus gestis Francorum" (published between 1517-1539) was "the first complete humanist history" and he told that France was founded by Clovis. [72]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Jean-Pierre de Mesmes "Institutions astronomiques (1557 CE): "celebrates the development of vernacular poetry and history and the beginnings of a distinctly French philosophy and mathematics." [73]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Rabelais, La vie de Gargantua et de Pantagruel.

Money

♠ Articles ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Livre tournois, of 20 sols and 240 deniers, was a unit of account. Widely used gold coin, ecu d'or soleil fixed at 36s3d in 1498 CE, 2 livres (i.e. 40s) in 1516 CE, 45s in 1533 CE, 50s in 1551 CE, 60s in 1574 CE. Widely used silver coin, teston, fixed at 10s in 1498 CE, 10s6d in 1541 CE, 12s in 1561 CE. The livre parisis was a lesser used larger unit of account: 1 sol tournois = 15 deniers parisis. [74]
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ Royal postal system founded by Louis XI (1461-1483 CE) in 1464 CE. Network of stations and horses. Not for public use. [75]
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥ Royal postal system founded by Louis XI (1461-1483 CE) in 1464 CE. Network of stations and horses. Not for public use. [76]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Alec Vulfson ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Bronze sword hilts?
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ Bronze sword hilts?
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ [77]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Writing in the 14th century, Ibn Hudhayl "described Frankish swords as mudakkar with 'steel edges on an iron body, unlike those of India.'"[78] "The carbon content of Western blades is much lower, but their hardness can be increased by quenching (an easier process when only thin bands of steel along the edges are involved). Despite the evident superiority of crucible steels, Western blades offered a useful combination of properties, at presumably a much lower price, than Oriental ones, and there are references to their being exported to Muslim lands, for examples, Saracen pirates demanded 150 Carolingian swords as part of the ransom for Archbishop Rotland of Arles in 869."[79]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ Absent in previous and subsequent periods.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred absent ♥ inferred from discussion in sources of projectile technology during this period
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: use of longbowman and mounted archer increased.[80] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: use of longbowman and mounted archer increased.[81]
♠ Composite bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "With the influx of crossbows, the use of short bows died out in French armies, and by the 13th century they were not considered a weapon of war in most parts of Europe. However, they did persist as hunting weapons. During the late Middle Ages, the crossbow dominated the archery of the French army, although some French military leaders attempted to hire groups of short - and longbowmen from Scotland and mounted archers from Spain and Italy." [82] Archers from Brittany - simple bow? [83]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ Crossbowmen.[84]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred absent ♥ Cannon was in use at this time.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred present: 1450-1487 CE; absent: 1488-1589 CE ♥ "The final use of the trebuchet in Europe was probably the siege of Malaga in 1487."(Castile and Aragon vs Emirate of Granada).[85]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ present ♥ Used from about 1380 CE.[86] Present.[87]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ present ♥ After 1350 CE primitive handgun.[88] Arquebusiers [89]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: mace.[90]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "On horseback, the principal weapon was a 10-foot-long wooden lance carried with a small wedge-shaped shield and sometimes a short, steel-handled battleaxe."[91]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Present.[92] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "In both armies, the basic weapon was a long straight sword, worn usually on the left side and balanced on the right by a short dagger called a misericord, because it was often used to grant the 'mercy' of death to the mortally wounded."[93] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: certain types of dagger used to exploit gaps in armour.[94]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Present.[95] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "In both armies, the basic weapon was a long straight sword, worn usually on the left side and balanced on the right by a short dagger called a misericord, because it was often used to grant the 'mercy' of death to the mortally wounded."[96]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Lances.[97] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "On horseback, the principal weapon was a 10-foot-long wooden lance carried with a small wedge-shaped shield and sometimes a short, steel-handled battleaxe."[98]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ Pikemen. [99] Halberdiers. [100]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ See reference. [101]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks."[102] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: full metal armour worn over padded doublet.[103]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ Rarely carried from mid-14th century. [104] From about 1380 CE shield abandoned.[105] Present.[106] Why does Potter say present? Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "On horseback, the principal weapon was a 10-foot-long wooden lance carried with a small wedge-shaped shield and sometimes a short, steel-handled battleaxe."[107] Academic disagreement. Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: many knights discarded shields in the mid-15th CE but men-at-arms carried a light buckler.[108]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Present.[109] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks."[110]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ Cuirasses.[111] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks."[112] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: upper and lower breastplates.[113]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Gauntlets and greaves.[114] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: plate shotes, greaves, cuisses (leg coverings), knee piece, vambraces (lower arm), rebraces (upper arm), cowters and pauldrons (elbows and shoulders), gauntlets (hands and wrists), bevor (triangular metal plate to protect the neck).[115]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Mail gorgets, mail skirts. [116] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks."[117]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ As much as "350 lbs" - surely a typo for 35 lbs, or 15.9kg - after 1500 CE due to emergence of gunshot. [118] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks."[119] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: pollaxe: 4-6 foot wooden shaft with spike and axehead.[120]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ Present.[121]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ Navy.[122]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent periods.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent periods.
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Present.[123]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent periods.
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Present.[124]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ Fortified camps particularly significant in 16th Century. Popular example 1536 CE fortified camp built under Montmorency near Avignon. [125]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred present ♥ "The final use of the trebuchet in Europe was probably the siege of Malaga in 1487."(Castile and Aragon vs Emirate of Granada).[126]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ inferred present ♥ "Castle architecture became increasingly complex from the 12th to 13th centuries. ... All of these precautions became obsolete with the widespread use of gunpowder in the 14th and 15th centuries, and castles became simply country residences for the nobility."[127]

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Throne was inherited within the Valois dynasty.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Christianity is monotheistic.

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Jesus' message "envisages a universal society bound together by divine love in which the limited human ties of affection based on kinship, cultural identity, and self-interest give way to the unlimited love of God. It calls for an egalitarian kingdom of love without limits. Jesus likens it to a family in which all are brothers and sisters of one another and children of the one Father (‘Abba’, an informal word for father, is Jesus’ preferred name for God)." [128] However, it is worth noting that, for example, social inequality and inequality between the sexes were often justified theologically [129][130].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “Medieval society was hierarchical, not merely in social reality but as a matter of principle. Its hierarchical character was understood in cosmological terms. It was taken for granted that the universe was designed in such a way that some of God’s creatures were intended to be at the topand some below them. Human beings were a ‘higher’ form of being than cattle. Cattle were ‘higher’ than the grass they ate. The grass was ‘higher’ than the earth it grew in. So thoroughgoing was the sense that this was how the universe worked that the nine orders of angels identified by the fifth-century Greek authors Pseudo-Dionysus began to be lined up alongside their human ‘counterparts’ on the understanding that each person’s place in heaven would be related to that of the equivalent angel. So the seraphim and cherubim, the contemplatives among the angels, would be accompanied for eternity by members of the contemplative orders, their human equivalents. In modern terms, this was like suggesting that post-men and motorcycle messengers would spend eternity in the company of ordinary angels, while diplomats and emissaries could expect to find themselves among archangels.//Within human society itself no premium was put upon equality. Until late in the Middle Ages, few appear to have seen anything wrong with the idea that there should be rulers and ruled, for hierarchical arrangements of parts within wholes were a normal way of making an organism ‘work’. A body needs a head but it also needs feet (I Corinthians 12.20). In fragmentary survivals of the teaching which was given in the cathedral school at Laon at the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth centuries, there is a discussion of the passage in Ephesians 6.5 where servants are told to obey their masters. ‘It is no sin to have a servant or to be a servant.’ It was argued at Laon that there are two reasons why ‘servitude is given by God.’ It may be a punishment for the sins of those who are slaves or servants. Or it may have a purpose of proving or testing them, so that, humbled, they may be better people.” [131] “Until well into the modern period, the anointing of monarchs at their coronations lent them a particular lustre and a particular status as mediator between God and the people.//So, the ‘royal religion’ that emerged from the fusion of different elements served to raise the king above his subjects and to give the French people a means of identification that was rich in potential.” [132]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “Medieval society was hierarchical, not merely in social reality but as a matter of principle. Its hierarchical character was understood in cosmological terms. It was taken for granted that the universe was designed in such a way that some of God’s creatures were intended to be at the topand some below them. Human beings were a ‘higher’ form of being than cattle. Cattle were ‘higher’ than the grass they ate. The grass was ‘higher’ than the earth it grew in. So thoroughgoing was the sense that this was how the universe worked that the nine orders of angels identified by the fifth-century Greek authors Pseudo-Dionysus began to be lined up alongside their human ‘counterparts’ on the understanding that each person’s place in heaven would be related to that of the equivalent angel. So the seraphim and cherubim, the contemplatives among the angels, would be accompanied for eternity by members of the contemplative orders, their human equivalents. In modern terms, this was like suggesting that post-men and motorcycle messengers would spend eternity in the company of ordinary angels, while diplomats and emissaries could expect to find themselves among archangels.//Within human society itself no premium was put upon equality. Until late in the Middle Ages, few appear to have seen anything wrong with the idea that there should be rulers and ruled, for hierarchical arrangements of parts within wholes were a normal way of making an organism ‘work’. A body needs a head but it also needs feet (I Corinthians 12.20). In fragmentary survivals of the teaching which was given in the cathedral school at Laon at the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth centuries, there is a discussion of the passage in Ephesians 6.5 where servants are told to obey their masters. ‘It is no sin to have a servant or to be a servant.’ It was argued at Laon that there are two reasons why ‘servitude is given by God.’ It may be a punishment for the sins of those who are slaves or servants. Or it may have a purpose of proving or testing them, so that, humbled, they may be better people.” [133]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The instructions of Leviticus 19.15-18 set out a number of practical rules for living. One must be impartial when ‘judging’ one’s neighbour, and not judge one’s neighbour in the sense of condemning him’ one must not hate one’s brother but one must reproach him when it is appropriate. Partly upon these Jesus erected his summary of the law: one must love one’s neighbour as oneself and love God above all things.” [134]

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [135] [136] [137]

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