FrValoE

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Jill Levine ♥

♠ Original name ♣ French Kingdom - Early Valois ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Valois dynasty ♥

Valois dynasty: 1328-1589 CE. [1]

"Although the Capetian line is considered to have ended with the advent of the Valois in 1328, in fact the Valois and all succeeding French monarchs through Louis XVI were descended in the male line from Hugh Capet." [2]


♠ Peak Date ♣ 1364-1380 CE ♥

Charles V (reign 1364-1380 CE) "revitalised the monarchy." [3]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1328-1450 CE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

Institutions of a centralized state were present. However, civil war meant frequent state breakdown.

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ French Kingdom - Late Capetian ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ French Kingdom - Late Valois ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Christendom ♥ This ended: "during the period 1300-1450 CE "the idea of Christendom as a supranational entity toward which all Christians felt supreme loyalty and affection slowly collapsed. With the evolution of independent political and physical territories, soon to be called national monarchies or states, Christians began to choose between allegiance to state and devotion to church, and many chose the former. By the fifteenth century, the papacy ceased to function as a universal power and more and more like another regional Italian prince jealously guarding his fiefdom." [4]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Paris ♥

Charles VI was last King resident in Paris. 1422-1575 CE royal palace in Paris abandoned. Charles VII lived in Bourges and then Chinon. Location of ruler's residence kept changing. However, the royal administration remained in Paris. [5]


♠ Language ♣ French ♥ "The jurists of the chancellery and high courts had worked essentially in French from the fourteenth century and this opened the way for the triumph of French as the literary language."[6]

General Description

The French crown passed to the Valois Dynasty in 1328 after a succession crisis within the ruling Capetian family, and the Valois reigned over the French kingdom until 1589 CE. Here we focus on the early Valois period, 1328-1450 CE, which was marked by the Hundred Years' War and the economic and human devastation caused by the Black Death. By the mid-15th century, the beginnings of a more modern bureaucracy had developed under Charles VII.
In this period, the territory of the Kingdom of France was considerably smaller than that of modern France.[7] The kingdom covered 390,000 square kilometres in 1350 and 340,000 square kilometres in 1450.[8]
In response to the decline in population and production during the Black Death in the mid-fourteenth century, the crown instituted harsh financial reforms and higher taxes. This led to revolts by peasants and in urban areas.[9] At the same time, the Valois faced the English Plantagenet dynasty in the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE). The French suffered major defeats at Bruges (1340 CE) and Agincourt (1415 CE). Historian of France W. Scott Haine notes that, “In the darkest days of this war France’s very existence seemed in question.”[10] In 1439 CE, inspired by the actions of peasant leader Joan of Arc, Charles VII of France instituted a professional standing army.[11] Charles VII conquered Normandy and Aquitaine by 1453 CE, and England only maintained control over Calais.

Population and political organization

We have estimated the population of the French Kingdom as 12 million in 1350 CE using data from Turchin and Nefedov’s Secular Cycles.[12] The population declined drastically during the Black Plague in the mid-fourteenth century.[13] An estimated one-third of population died in the plague by 1400 CE.[14] In 1450 CE, the population was only 9 million.[15]
The king and royal lineage dominated French political society. Others were divided into estates: the clergy, the nobles, and the common people.[16] During the time of the Valois there were 40,000 noble families in France- nobility was either inherited or bestowed by the king.[17] Charles VII (1422-1461 CE) began the process to modernize the crown- instituting reforms to change the government from feudal to bureaucratic. This was continued by Late Valois ruler Louis XI (1461-1483 CE).[18]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 390,000: 1350 CE; 390,000: 1400 CE; 340,000: 1450 CE ♥ in squared kilometers. [19]

Territory of French Kingdom in Km2

1350 CE: 390,000
1400 CE: 390,000
1450 CE: 340,000


♠ Polity Population ♣ 11,500,000: 1350 CE; 9,000,000: 1400 CE; 9,500,000: 1450 CE ♥

Population of France and estimate for French Kingdom

1350 CE - 12 million
11.5 million
1400 CE - 10 million
9 million
1450 CE - 11 million
9.5 million

Population of medieval France derived from Turchin and Nefedov (2009). [20] Estimates take account of territory of France in the possession of the French Kingdom.[21]

Plague from 1348 CE. [22]


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 200,000: 1350 CE; 300,000: 1400 CE; 150,000: 1450 CE ♥

Paris. [23]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

1. Capital city

Paris may have grown from about 25,000 in 1200 to 210,000 in 1328 CE. [24]
Regional City or colonial city (Kingdom of Navarre c.1200 CE)
2. Capital of a principality
France c1300 CE 12 cities 20,000-50,000 population[25]
Marseille, Montpellier, Lyon, and Bordeaux about 30,000.[26]
3. Large Town - with district administrative buildings
France c1300 CE 20 cities 10,000-20,000 population[27]
Avignon about 1300 CE population 5,000-6,000 [28] ballooned to 40,000 ten years after arrival of Pope[29] - 1319 CE.
Provins over 10,000 population 1200-1300 CE [30]
4. Small town
5. Hamlet
90% population lived in rural settlements[31]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels. Is central government separate from provincial? Probably not.


1. King


_Central government_

Foundations of administrative system laid by Philip II. [32]

2. who replaced the senechal at this level?
3. Department heads. Finance, Justice, Chancery, Treasury (from Philip IV - previously the treasury was kept by the Knights Templar at their Temple), auditors, law-courts (parlements), archives (muniments in tresor des chartres)
Government departments within the Royal Palace, Ile de la City [33]
4. Lesser officials


Law courts Parlement De Paris from 1250-1790 CE


_Provincial government_

2. Leader of semi-autonomous city-state
3.
4.
autonomous urban governments had independent judicial institutions, legal system, and administration and managed its own relations with the church and the monarchy.[34]
Some cities were semi-autonomous city-states, e.g. Flanders [35]
2. Ruler of appanage
3.
4.
"Beginning with the sons of Blanche of Castile and Louis VIII (r. 1223-26), apanages became normal in France. By installing their sons as rulers, monarchs could control newly acquired outlying areas, as northern French nobles had long done." [36]
Apanage: "province or jurisdiction, or later for an office or annuity, granted (with the reservation that in the absence of direct heirs the land escheated to the crown)" - often granted to sons of the Capetian king [37]
2. Dukes/Barons/Counts who ruled principalities
3. Principalities had capitals with their own mini-government system [38]
4.
Example: the Dauphine of Vienne an independent principality (until 1349 CE). Territory from Rhone to The Alps. "Capital" city was Vienne. [39]
Example: Burgundy. Duke of Burgundy had his administration based at Beaune, which moved to Dijon in the 14th century.[40]
"Between 1120 and 1481, no lord in France is known to have made any regular use of prince as a title of lordship" [41]
3. District: Bailiff in a Bailliage (Northern France); seneschal in a Sénéchiaussée (Southern France)
The basic provincial administrative unit of late-medieval France from late in the reign of Philip II[42]
bailliage and sénéchiaussé were administrative subdivisions of France established by Philip II after 1190.[43]
seneschals of dukes, barons, counts became royal appointees, continued their role as chief administrative officers. the lands under their control became known as sénéchaussées.[44]
baillis of royal provinces, particularly important under Philip II (1180-1222 CE) [45]
late Middle Ages 30-40 districts governed by a bailiff or a seneschal.[46]
4. Prévôt in a Prévôté.
The district for which a prévôt was responsible was called the prévôté, and there were half a dozen of these in each bailliage.[47]
prévot farmed the revenues of the royal domain and rendered justice at a local level.
a "prevote" was a military region used in the raising of armed forces (end 12th century)[48]
5. Leader of a parish
Cities could be divided into parishes [49]


♠ Religious levels ♣ [6-7] ♥

King as divine ruler, especially encouraged by Philip IV who was the first of the Valois kings.


Note: hierarchy might need fine-tuning to conditions in Carolingian France


1. King as divine ruler, especially encouraged by Philip IV who was the first of the Valois kings.

1. Pope

Pope is primus inter pares among the five patriarchs.[50]
2. Metropolitans and archbishops
"the term 'bishop' applies to patriarchs, metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops (both suffragan and assistant bishops or chorepiskopoi) throughout the Byzantine period. After the 'ecumenical' patriarch of Constantinople, who after the seventh century occupied the only remaining patriarchal seat under Byzantine rule, metropolitans held the second highest rank in the Orthodox Church."[51]
"The title 'archbishop' emerged in special cases, for example in important cities such as Athens which did not possess a metropolitan."[52]
3. Bishops and Chorepiskopoi
Bishops and Chorepiskopoi form one rank below the metropolitans and archbishops[53]
3. Priest
"In the early Church, priests or presbyters served as advisers, teachers, and ministers who assisted the bishops to whom they were assigned."[54]
4. Deacon
"Deacons assisted the priest or bishop at the Divine Liturgy, baptisms, and other sacraments. ... Various administrative and pastoral jobs were delegated to deacons from an early period; they helped bishops to dispense charity to the community, manage the diocese's finances and property, and to deal with other official business (Laodikeia, canons 21, 23, 25). Deacons were subject to the authority of both bishops and priests, but they came to exercise considerable power, especially in the patriarchate of Constantinople."[55]
4. Deaconess (diakonissa)
"The deaconess's chief liturgical role was to assist at the baptisms of women; she also acted as a mediator between women parishioners and their bishops, kept order among female members of the congregation, and ministered especially to women."[56]
5. Subdeacon
"The rank of subdeacon provided a stepping-stone to that of deacon; its duties were similar to those of the deacon."[57]
6. Reader (anagnostesj
"A reader is a member of the lower clergy with the responsibility of reading, usually from the ambo, passages from the Epistles and the Old Testament prescribed for offices and the Divine Liturgy."[58]
7. Minor orders
"Other members of the minor clerical orders included doorkeepers, exorcists, cantors, and widows. All of these officials helped in either liturgical, administrative, or pastoral functions. Most would have received payment from their dioceses, or, in the case of private foundations, from their donors, but it is likely that most would have been engaged in secular professions in order to supplement their incomes."[59]


♠ Military levels ♣ [5-6] ♥ levels.

1. King

2. Constable (from 1091 CE)
regional armies usually commanded by relatives of king[60]
senechal was the senior royal official, and senior military commander [61] - only until 1091 CE[62]
3. Marshal (sometime after 1226 CE - 14th century, by 1314 CE)
Without responsibilities under Philip II and Louis VIII. [63]
gained military command duties in 14th century. Philip VI "appointed two marshals as second in command of the French army below the constable."[64]
"Helped by a provost and some lieutenants, they were responsible for recruiting captains, inspecting the troops, and organizing the pay for the army."[65]
4. Knight
During a crisis the garrison at Bordeaux had 4 bannerets, 23 knights, 227 squires and 192 sergeants" and local militia.[66]
Grand Master of the Crossbowmen (from 1200 CE) - additional level?
5. Sergeant
"In the military context, sergeants were lightly armed fighting men who served and

supported knights." [67] Also had civilian "enforcer" role.

Mid-12th century professional sergeants equipped by nobles[68]
Infantry sergeants paid 9 deniers a day[69]
Also mounted sergeants[70]
6. Individual soldier
lower level below Sergeant?


Militia leader (this level also called constable?)

Lead a milita, paid slightly less than a sergeant [71]

Captains[72]

Each city parish had its own captain

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥

From 1365 [73]

Nicolle 1991

Professional sergeants in the mid 12th century.[74]
Permanent command structure under Philip IV (reign 1284-1314 CE) but no permanent army [75]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent: 1284-1364 CE; present: 1365-1450 CE ♥

From 1365 [76]


Nicolle 1991

"By the first years of the 13th century the French king could maintain a virtual standing army on his frontier with English-ruled Normandy. [77]
Professional sergeants in the mid 12th century.[78]
Permanent command structure under Philip IV (reign 1284-1314 CE) but no permanent army [79]
Inferred absent under Philip IV: Permanent command structure under Philip IV (reign 1284-1314 CE) but no permanent army [80]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Christianity


Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥

Professional maitres des comptes in auditing department.[81]


♠ Examination system ♣ inferred present ♥

Department of Chancery hired university trained bureaucrats.[82]


♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred present ♥

Department of Chancery hired university trained bureaucrats.[83]


♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Royal mint. Offices of the government departments in Paris. [84]


Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present: 1350-1450 ♥

Salic law. Reestablished during 100 Years War (approximate date). DH: needs ref.


♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ [85]


♠ Courts ♣ present ♥

Law courts called parlements established at the Royal Palace in Paris by Philip IV. Justice administration "in the hands of parlements staffed by professional lawyers organized in three chambers." [86]


Justice system with courts set up for fairs to enable dispute resolution. [87]


♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥ [88]


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Irrigation canals. [89] (from 10th century?) 12th and 13th centuries flaz and hemp cultivated from networks of shallow canals. [90]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ Cisterns. By 1000 CE most communities obtained water from rivers, wells and cisterns and this was still the case at the end of the Middle Ages. However, in the 11th and 12th centuries new water supply systems were developed which became installed in towns. [91] (within this time period?) "Pilgrims, crusaders, university students, and merchants would have encountered conduits and fountains in the course of their travels."[92] By end of Middle Ages[93]: piped water to public fountains; artificial lifting devices and water towers; Gravity flow systems of channels and pipes in the High Middle Ages very similar to Roman engineering.[94]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Halles au ble[95]: Established since Philip II ET: Still run?; Market in Paris for sales of wheat/grain "French kings conceded fairs as privileges to some locales by regalian right, uncontested except in the case of the most rebellious of lords, such as the duke of Burgundy under Louis XI.[96]
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ By early 14th century Paris had paved streets. Roads around Ile de France region also improved.[97] Royal toll stations, e.g. at Bapaume. [98]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Bridge built over Saone at St-Jean-de-Losne. [99] Bridge of St. Laurent at Macon. [100]
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Many ports at mouth of Rhone. Louis IX in the 1260s CE built a new fortified port on royal lands called Aigues Mortes. [101]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ "France possesses no precious metal resources and little copper. Iron ores are abundant, and there are regional deposits of lead, zinc, and coal. All of these were exploited during the Middle Ages. Evidence for ironworking exists from Merovingian France onward." [102]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Anything written by the era's literati.
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ French language.
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ French language.
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ French language.

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Weight standard of Troyes - became an international standard [103]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Bible.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥
♠ History ♣ present ♥ "Christine de Pizan (1363-ca. 1429) wrote a prose biography of Charles V, which would have interested the court, as well as other works, such as her verse universal history, with a broader appeal. Likewise, the historical works of Gilles le Bouvier (1386-ca. 1455), the Berry Herald, the Chronique du roi Charles VII, the Histoire de Richard II, and the Recouvrement de Normandie, were probably written with the court in mind; Gilles also kept the Grandes chroniques for a time (1403-22)." [104]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Nicholas of Autrecourt (ca. 1300-after 1350) on Aristotelian scholasticism [105]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ "Secular Latin plays were produced in the 12th century alongside religious and liturgical drama." [106] "By the late 12th century, plays were being written in French, though a few nonliturgical Latin plays were also performed." [107] Miracle plays, written for the Guild of Parisian Goldsmiths, 14th Century. Passion plays common in 15th century France. [108]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ End of 13th century there were "specialised carriers" of goods from Italian merchants in Italy. They could deliver spices directly to Paris. This by-passed and helped lead to the demise of the International Fairs. [109]
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥ unknown End of 13th century there were "specialised carriers" of goods from Italian merchants in Italy. They could deliver spices directly to Paris. This by-passed and helped lead to the demise of the International Fairs. [110]
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Alec Vulfson ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Bronze sword hilts?
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ Bronze sword hilts?
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ [111]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Writing in the 14th century, Ibn Hudhayl "described Frankish swords as mudakkar with 'steel edges on an iron body, unlike those of India.'"[112] "The carbon content of Western blades is much lower, but their hardness can be increased by quenching (an easier process when only thin bands of steel along the edges are involved). Despite the evident superiority of crucible steels, Western blades offered a useful combination of properties, at presumably a much lower price, than Oriental ones, and there are references to their being exported to Muslim lands, for examples, Saracen pirates demanded 150 Carolingian swords as part of the ransom for Archbishop Rotland of Arles in 869."[113]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Present?[114]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred absent ♥ inferred from discussion in sources of projectile technology in this period
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ "The rise of crossbows lead to the virtual disappearance of the simple bows as war weapons in France and no hand bows are recorded in surviving castle inventories from 1230 to the mid-14th century." [115] Longbowmen and mounted archers hired as mercenaries. [116] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: use of longbowman and mounted archer increased.[117]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ "The rise of crossbows lead to the virtual disappearance of the simple bows as war weapons in France and no hand bows are recorded in surviving castle inventories from 1230 to the mid-14th century."[118] With the influx of crossbows, the use of short bows died out in French armies, and by the 13th century they were not considered a weapon of war[119] Longbowmen and mounted archers hired as mercenaries. [120]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ Crossbow armed infantry gained in importance during the 13th century.[121]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ Traction trebuchets preceded counter-weight trebuchets. "A drawing of a thirteenth-century stone carving at the Church of Saint-Nazaire in Carcassonne that is believed to depict the siege of Toulouse in 1218. It shows a traction trebuchet, and illustrates two important points. First, some of the hauliers (who include a woman in their number) are pulling horizontally, a method that is implied by Chinese illustrations. Second, there is apparently a heavy weight on the pulling end of the beam to assist the effort, thus showing the transition of the traction trebuchet toward the full counterweight version with no hauliers."[122]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ present ♥ Simon de Montford's stone throwing trebuchets.[123] [124] First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[125] "The final use of the trebuchet in Europe was probably the siege of Malaga in 1487."(Castile and Aragon vs Emirate of Granada). [126]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent: 1328-1379 CE; present: 1380-1450 CE ♥ Bombards. [127] Used from about 1380 CE.[128]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent: 1328-1349 CE; present: 1350-1450 CE ♥ Cannon used in greater numbers late 14th century, and at sea. [129] Hand gunners.[130] Infantry using in 1430s CE.[131] After 1350 CE primitive handgun.[132]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ "Lesser weapons were also employed by knights after 1050. Special forms of ax, hammer (bec), mace, club, and flail were introduced in the 12th and 13th centuries to supplement the sword, but it was only after 1300 that these were both fully developed and commonly used."[133] Mace armed cavalry at Battle of Bouvines. [134] Maces used by infantry in 13th century.[135] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: mace.[136]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Common 12th century infantry weapon.[137] "Lesser weapons were also employed by knights after 1050. Special forms of ax, hammer (bec), mace, club, and flail were introduced in the 12th and 13th centuries to supplement the sword, but it was only after 1300 that these were both fully developed and commonly used."[138] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "On horseback, the principal weapon was a 10-foot-long wooden lance carried with a small wedge-shaped shield and sometimes a short, steel-handled battleaxe."[139]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Most knights and squires used a dagger after 1350 CE[140] but maybe in use more rarely before this time as well? Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "In both armies, the basic weapon was a long straight sword, worn usually on the left side and balanced on the right by a short dagger called a misericord, because it was often used to grant the 'mercy' of death to the mortally wounded."[141] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: certain types of dagger used to exploit gaps in armour.[142]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Long, straight, double-edged, sword.[143] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "In both armies, the basic weapon was a long straight sword, worn usually on the left side and balanced on the right by a short dagger called a misericord, because it was often used to grant the 'mercy' of death to the mortally wounded."[144]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Lance/spear.[145] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "On horseback, the principal weapon was a 10-foot-long wooden lance carried with a small wedge-shaped shield and sometimes a short, steel-handled battleaxe."[146]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ New forms of polearm introduced in the 14th and 15th centuries[147] - implies there were old forms of polearm, or spears used as a polearm. Early 13th century Brabancon mercenaries from modern Brabant, Belgium fought with pikes or long spears. [148]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ War horses brought from Italy.[149] Lance armed cavalry (late 12th century) [150] Aristocrats "usually dismounted and fought on foot throughout the Merovingian, Carolingian, and post-Carolingian periods."[151] 12th century saddle innovations made the horseback charge with a lance possible.[152]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present: 1328-1380 CE; suspected unknown: 1381-1450 CE ♥ Part-time urban militia men often used wooden buckler shields.[153] From about 1380 CE shield abandoned.[154]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Early 13th century Brabancon mercenaries often wore leather, quilted armour.[155] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks."[156] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: full metal armour worn over padded doublet.[157]
♠ Shields ♣ present: 1328-1380 CE; inferred present: 1381-1450 CE ♥ Rarely carried from mid-14th century. [158] From about 1380 CE shield abandoned.[159] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "On horseback, the principal weapon was a 10-foot-long wooden lance carried with a small wedge-shaped shield and sometimes a short, steel-handled battleaxe."[160] Academic disagreement Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: many knights discarded shields in the mid-15th CE but men-at-arms carried a light buckler.[161]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Present.[162] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks."[163]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ Breastplate late 13th century. [164] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: upper and lower breastplates.[165]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present: 1328-1349 CE; suspected unknown: 1351-1450 CE ♥ In 13th and 14th centuries. [166] Mail leggings worn to about 1350 CE. [167] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks."[168] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: plate shotes, greaves, cuisses (leg coverings), knee piece, vambraces (lower arm), rebraces (upper arm), cowters and pauldrons (elbows and shoulders), gauntlets (hands and wrists), bevor (triangular metal plate to protect the neck).[169]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Mail haubeck. [170] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks."[171]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ Coat of plates "a defence made of several butted plates attached to a poncho-like fabric garment" [172] Breastplate late 13th century. [173] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks."[174] Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) reference: plate armour for horses.[175]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ Present.[176]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ present ♥ "French fleets consisted mainly of merchant vessels recruited for royal service. Galleys were built or hired to fight, but by the 15th century these were replaced by large sailing ships over a hundred feet in length with carrying capacities of up to 1,000 tons."[177]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ "The English possessions in France led to Anglo-French warfare in the 13th and 14th centuries. The French pieced together a navy for use in the Atlantic and the Channel, often hiring Genose galleys to fight the English, especially in the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE). France also built a naval base and shipyard, the Clos des Galées, at Rouen."[178] The 'cog' was mostly used in the northern waters while galleys were used in the Mediterranean.[179]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Castle architecture became increasingly complex from the 12th to 13th centuries. ... All of these precautions became obsolete with the widespread use of gunpowder in the 14th and 15th centuries, and castles became simply country residences for the nobility."[180]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ "Castle architecture became increasingly complex from the 12th to 13th centuries. ... All of these precautions became obsolete with the widespread use of gunpowder in the 14th and 15th centuries, and castles became simply country residences for the nobility."[181]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ "Castle architecture became increasingly complex from the 12th to 13th centuries. ... All of these precautions became obsolete with the widespread use of gunpowder in the 14th and 15th centuries, and castles became simply country residences for the nobility."[182]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ "Castle architecture became increasingly complex from the 12th to 13th centuries. ... All of these precautions became obsolete with the widespread use of gunpowder in the 14th and 15th centuries, and castles became simply country residences for the nobility."[183]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ "Castle architecture became increasingly complex from the 12th to 13th centuries. ... All of these precautions became obsolete with the widespread use of gunpowder in the 14th and 15th centuries, and castles became simply country residences for the nobility."[184]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Fortified towns.[185] Fortified port of Aigues Mortes.[186]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred present ♥ "At the height of the Middle Ages, great castles were built with deep, defensive ditches or moats and several concentric rings of stone walls reinforced with towers that required attackers to fight their way through several layers of defense to achieve victory."[187] "Castle architecture became increasingly complex from the 12th to 13th centuries. ... All of these precautions became obsolete with the widespread use of gunpowder in the 14th and 15th centuries, and castles became simply country residences for the nobility."[188]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ inferred present ♥ "Castle architecture became increasingly complex from the 12th to 13th centuries. ... All of these precautions became obsolete with the widespread use of gunpowder in the 14th and 15th centuries, and castles became simply country residences for the nobility."[189]


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Throne was inherited within the Valois dynasty.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Christianity is monotheistic.

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Jesus' message "envisages a universal society bound together by divine love in which the limited human ties of affection based on kinship, cultural identity, and self-interest give way to the unlimited love of God. It calls for an egalitarian kingdom of love without limits. Jesus likens it to a family in which all are brothers and sisters of one another and children of the one Father (‘Abba’, an informal word for father, is Jesus’ preferred name for God)." [190] However, it is worth noting that, for example, social inequality and inequality between the sexes were often justified theologically [191][192].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “Medieval society was hierarchical, not merely in social reality but as a matter of principle. Its hierarchical character was understood in cosmological terms. It was taken for granted that the universe was designed in such a way that some of God’s creatures were intended to be at the topand some below them. Human beings were a ‘higher’ form of being than cattle. Cattle were ‘higher’ than the grass they ate. The grass was ‘higher’ than the earth it grew in. So thoroughgoing was the sense that this was how the universe worked that the nine orders of angels identified by the fifth-century Greek authors Pseudo-Dionysus began to be lined up alongside their human ‘counterparts’ on the understanding that each person’s place in heaven would be related to that of the equivalent angel. So the seraphim and cherubim, the contemplatives among the angels, would be accompanied for eternity by members of the contemplative orders, their human equivalents. In modern terms, this was like suggesting that post-men and motorcycle messengers would spend eternity in the company of ordinary angels, while diplomats and emissaries could expect to find themselves among archangels.//Within human society itself no premium was put upon equality. Until late in the Middle Ages, few appear to have seen anything wrong with the idea that there should be rulers and ruled, for hierarchical arrangements of parts within wholes were a normal way of making an organism ‘work’. A body needs a head but it also needs feet (I Corinthians 12.20). In fragmentary survivals of the teaching which was given in the cathedral school at Laon at the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth centuries, there is a discussion of the passage in Ephesians 6.5 where servants are told to obey their masters. ‘It is no sin to have a servant or to be a servant.’ It was argued at Laon that there are two reasons why ‘servitude is given by God.’ It may be a punishment for the sins of those who are slaves or servants. Or it may have a purpose of proving or testing them, so that, humbled, they may be better people.” [193] “Until well into the modern period, the anointing of monarchs at their coronations lent them a particular lustre and a particular status as mediator between God and the people.//So, the ‘royal religion’ that emerged from the fusion of different elements served to raise the king above his subjects and to give the French people a means of identification that was rich in potential.” [194]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “Medieval society was hierarchical, not merely in social reality but as a matter of principle. Its hierarchical character was understood in cosmological terms. It was taken for granted that the universe was designed in such a way that some of God’s creatures were intended to be at the topand some below them. Human beings were a ‘higher’ form of being than cattle. Cattle were ‘higher’ than the grass they ate. The grass was ‘higher’ than the earth it grew in. So thoroughgoing was the sense that this was how the universe worked that the nine orders of angels identified by the fifth-century Greek authors Pseudo-Dionysus began to be lined up alongside their human ‘counterparts’ on the understanding that each person’s place in heaven would be related to that of the equivalent angel. So the seraphim and cherubim, the contemplatives among the angels, would be accompanied for eternity by members of the contemplative orders, their human equivalents. In modern terms, this was like suggesting that post-men and motorcycle messengers would spend eternity in the company of ordinary angels, while diplomats and emissaries could expect to find themselves among archangels.//Within human society itself no premium was put upon equality. Until late in the Middle Ages, few appear to have seen anything wrong with the idea that there should be rulers and ruled, for hierarchical arrangements of parts within wholes were a normal way of making an organism ‘work’. A body needs a head but it also needs feet (I Corinthians 12.20). In fragmentary survivals of the teaching which was given in the cathedral school at Laon at the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth centuries, there is a discussion of the passage in Ephesians 6.5 where servants are told to obey their masters. ‘It is no sin to have a servant or to be a servant.’ It was argued at Laon that there are two reasons why ‘servitude is given by God.’ It may be a punishment for the sins of those who are slaves or servants. Or it may have a purpose of proving or testing them, so that, humbled, they may be better people.” [195]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The instructions of Leviticus 19.15-18 set out a number of practical rules for living. One must be impartial when ‘judging’ one’s neighbour, and not judge one’s neighbour in the sense of condemning him’ one must not hate one’s brother but one must reproach him when it is appropriate. Partly upon these Jesus erected his summary of the law: one must love one’s neighbour as oneself and love God above all things.” [196]

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [197] [198] [199]

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