FrTeneC

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ La Tene C2-D ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Late La Tene; La Tene Gaul; Celtic Gaul; Gaul; Iron Age Gaul; Celtic Empire; La Tene; La Tene culture; Galli ♥

Galli

Latin term used by Romans from the 4th Century CE. [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 125 BCE ♥

After 200 BCE greater Roman influence in Gaul. High point perhaps 150 BCE the date when Rome sought a formal treaty with the powerful King of the Averni. [2]

By c120 BCE Rome had established the province of Gallia Narbonensis in Southern Gaul. [3] This set the stage for Gaul to be conquered by the Romans in the mid-first century.


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 175-27 BCE ♥


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ nominal; confederation ♥ Urbanised and centralized with strong economic and cultural ties, but did not join together within a unified centralized polity ruled from one power-centre/capital.

Confederations of tribes joined together for battles [4] and "federal" institutions are known from one such instance - a site for war trophies. [5]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

City states formed alliances with other tribes and with Rome. Rome used alliances with Gaulish tribes/city states to further its aims. Rome active in Southern Gaul from 2nd century BCE.[6]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ La Tene B2-C1 ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Late Roman Republic ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ La Tene ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥ No capitals. Each tribe had their own fortified urban settlements. Largest oppidum close to Paris Basin region were Sandouville (150ha) of the Veliocasses, Chatres (170ha) of the Carnutes, Saint Desir (170ha) of the Lexovii, Villeneuve-sur-Yonne (140ha) of the Senones and Alesia of the Mandubii. [7]


♠ Language ♣ Gaulish ♥ [8]

General Description

La Tene (C2-D) was an Iron Age culture in Europe named after an archaeological site at Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland that ran from approximately 175-27 BCE.[9]

The territory centered on ancient Gaul and at its height spanned areas in modern day France, Belgium, Switzerland, Austria, Southern Germany, Czechia, parts of Northern Italy, Slovenia, Hungary, and adjacent parts of the Netherlands, Slovakia, Croatia, western Romania, and western Ukraine.

Settlements during this period included fortified urban settlements, larger towns, villages and farmsteads spread throughout their territories.[10] During this period tribes became urbanised and more centralized but although they formed alliances with other tribes, they did not join together within a unified centralized polity. [11] Each tribe had their own fortified urban settlements and there was no capital city.

Production of goods at many of the larger sites included glass jewellery, leather-working, bronze-casting and coin minting.[12]

The population is estimated at around 70,000-80,000, and much of the information we have about the population (and other aspects of La Tene life during this period) comes from the time of Caesar’s invasion of Gaul. [13] [14]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 15,000: 100 BCE ♥ in squared kilometers Around 100 BCE, politically independent polities in the northern alpine region (which includes central France [15]) had a radius of about 70 km, which gives an area of about 15,394 sq kilometers. [16]

[17]

In Central Gaul, there were even bigger political units. They might have had 4 tiers, and a scale going over 20,000 sq kilometers. These political units are the ones that Caesar called civitates. "En Gaule centrale, existaient des entités politiques plus vastes encore. Celles-ci semblent bien avoir possédé quatre niveaux d'intégration avec une échelle dépassant Ies 20 000 km2. Ces entités politiques sont celles que César a nommées civitates." [18]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [70,000-80,000] ♥ 368,000/5 = 73,600

"Diodorus Siculus estimated 50,000-200,000 persons for tribes in Gaul; Caesar's estimates ranged from the Helvetii at 263,000 to the Latovici at 14,000." [19] [20] Caesar might have been prone to exaggeration.

Some idea for scale of tribal populations comes from Caesar at the time of his invasion of Gaul. Helvetii, Tulingi, Latobrigi, Rauraci and Boii wanted to move from Switzerland to South West Gaul. According to Caesar (c50 BCE) there were 368,000 in total. Another tribe, the Suebi numbered 120,000 people.[21]


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [8,000-10,000] ♥


Bibracte, city of the Aedui at its height in the 1st Century BCE.

200 hectares Double ramparts enclosed 200 hectares. [22]
Bibracte had perhaps 10,000 inhabitants: "Some, such as Bibracte in France, Manching in Germany, and Stradonice and Stare Hradisko in the Czech Republic, have dense occupation remains showing large numbers of inhabitants, intensive industrial activity, and extensive trade. The populations of those major sites was probably in the several thousands, perhaps approaching ten thousand." [23]

Largest oppidum close to Paris Basin region were Sandouville (150ha) of the Veliocasses, Chatres (170ha) of the Carnutes, Saint Desir (170ha) of the Lexovii, Villeneuve-sur-Yonne (140ha) of the Senones and Alesia of the Mandubii. [24]

c150 BCE oppida settlements emerge in La Tene regions. Bigger than the Early Iron Age settlements. Often 50-100 hectares. Manching 380 ha, Kelheim almost 600 ha. [25]

10,000

late Iron Age. [26]

Oppida excavated Manching, Bavaria - Late Iron Age (2nd-3rd centuries BCE)

Earth wall 7 KM length enclosed 380 ha[27]
Except for 500m wide just inside enclosing wall all parts of the site showed evidence of dense human occupation[28]
Evidence from onsite battle indicates date 3rd-2nd centuries BCE.[29]
Est. 3,000-10,000 people [30]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [2-4] ♥ levels.

1. Oppida fortified urban settlement

from 150 BCE [31]
Made use of strategic locations: communication routes; market places; staging posts; valley entrances; on hills; spurs; plateaus. On plains defences were entirely man-made. [32]
"Small fortified cities became common in the fourth and third centuries BC." [33]
2. Hillfort
SW France, Champagne [34]

or

2. Town
Several hundred inhabitants. [35]
3. Hamlets and villages
Vast majority of population in temperate Europe. 20-100 people [36]
Hamlets < 50 population [37]
4. Farmstead
"Agricultural complexes inhabited by single extended families (up to perhaps fifteen people)"[38]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [3-4] ♥ levels.

1. King

2. Decision-making council
Oppida fortified urban settlements from 150 BCE [39]
Caesar c50 BCE referred to the "Gaullish council" of the Parisii [40]
Magistrate had the power to issue coins
Common political and religious institutions [41]
Centralised government [42]
Effective political and administrative system that was equal to Rome [43]
3. Pagi
Pagus (Clan) / Family group [44]
Chiefs of tribes?
Cantons (according to Caesar)[45]
4. Headmen?
according to Caesar there was a sub-division below Pagi/Canton [46]


Galatians, who migrated to Asia minor 279 BCE, also provide a possible insight into Gaulish social structure as they were closely observed by the Greeks. Chieftains (called a tetrach by the Greeks) lead each of the tribes each of which were divided into clans. Supra-tribal level of cooperation: the clans of all the tribes together appointed 300 senators "to attend an annual assembly at a shrine." However they were rarely unified and eventually the chieftains became kings. The chieftains "were assisted by three military advisers and a judge."[47]


♠ Religious levels ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.

1. Supreme Druid[48]

2. Druids
Intellectual elite [49]
Did not have day-day role running the temples.[50]
Tax and military service exempt (according to Caesar)[51]
Responsible for education (according to Caesar)[52]
Judges (according to Caesar)[53]
3. Priests
There were local priests who maintained local religions. At time of Roman conquest (c50 BCE) there was no unified Celtic religion. [54]
In the Roman era they were called gutuateres.[55]

♠ Military levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

1. King

In battle, confederations of tribes.[56]
2. Celtic generals
became mercenaries for Carthage, Rome, Greece. [57]
Urban aristocrats formed and maintained a standing cavalry corps.[58] This would have had a leader.
3. Chieftains
paid in gold staters or silver pieces. [59]
Are these people the same as the "generals"?
4. Individual soldier

Military: "Deployment would probably have been by tribal contingents. Within these contingents, clans would deploy as separate bodies ... To identify each grouping in the battle line and to act as rallying points, the guardian deities of tribe and clan were carried into battle as standards topped with carved or cast figures of their animal forms." [60]


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ Druids.

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Mints at oppida close to Paris Basin region: Villeneuve-Saint Germaine, Boviolles, Sainte-Germaine, and Pommiers. [61]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred absent ♥

Customary law?

Honour price was "the equivalent of the Anglo-Saxon custom of wergild, the amount payable by a third party in the event of unlawful injury or death." "The concept of honour price was fundamental to the legal system of the Celts. It dictated the conduct of all judicial cases, since the value of an individual's oath or evidence was determined by his honour price. To bring a lawsuit against someone with a higher honour price required the intervention of a patron of higher rank, creating an environment in which the support of the richest and most influential members of the elite was constantly sought after." [62]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥ Druids were judges (according to Caesar)[63] which suggests that this was not a full-time occupation.

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
previous code: inferred present | primitive irrigation system known from Beaker culture. "Silo" present during this time period. [64] Does this refer to food storage? Surplus production might also indicate irrigation systems. DH: is there evidence or reason to believe Beaker irrigation, if existed, remained?
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ "The late Hallstatt hillforts were probably functionally analogous to early Irish sites, such as Tara or Tailtiu, which hosted the regional "fairs" or oenachs. These gatherings served more than the secular purpose of exchanging goods." [65]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Polity owned? Oppida excavated Manching, Bavaria - Late Iron Age (2nd-3rd centuries BCE). Many food storage pits uncovered [66] [67] Some form of storage at Saint Desir oppida. Silos known at Vertault. [68]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Cities organised in network of oppida (fortified urban settlements) which were linked by well-defined routes."[69] Network of streets at Vertault, and road network at Villeneuve-Saint-Germain. Paved road at Caudebec-en-Caux. [70]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Lake Neuchatel trade-related bridge found, carbon-dated 251 BCE [71] Another bridge at found at Cornaux.[72]
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Brittany had trading links to Ireland and Britain.[73] c600 BCE the Phoencians had founded trading colony/port at Massilia.[74] However, this wasn't directly owned/controlled by the Gauls. Port at Geneva Note: was not a seaport


Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources for this period. Stone circle known in region close to Paris Basin dating to 475-400 BCE.[75]
♠ Written records ♣ inferred present ♥ Evidence of inscriptions from Gaulish settlements in Northern Italy.[76] "Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [77]
♠ Script ♣ inferred present ♥ Evidence of inscriptions from Gaulish settlements in Northern Italy.[78]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There is evidence for a script, but it is not known whether it was phonetic or non-phonetic. [79]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ inferred present ♥ Possible use of the Greek alphabet? "Caesar remarks that documents captured from the Helvetii were written in Greek characters, and until the conquest of Gaul all Celtic coins were inscribed in Greek, but changed to Latin script around 50 BC." [80]


Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [81]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [82]
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [83]
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [84]
♠ History ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [85]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [86]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [87]
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [88]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Barter economy before coinage. [89] Coral was considered very high value. "Coral route" from Campania through Alps then on to Champagne or Bohemia.[90]
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ Foreign coins in circulation due to payments made to Celtic mercenaries who fought for Carthage, Greece and Rome. Particularly large and diverse hoard found in Moravia. [91] Mainly Greek and Roman. [92]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Coinage universal from 3rd century BCE: "the first indigenous coins in temperate Europe were minted during the third century B.C., and the designs were based on Greek prototypes."[93]; Idea of coinage introduced by mercenaries returning from Greece.[94]; Original usage may have been to pay mercenaries. Cheiftains were paid in gold staters or silver pieces; Design of coin decided in each locale. Magistrates had power to issue coins. [95]; Gold coin found - origin Mediomatrices of NW Gaul? [96]; Gold stater from Gaulish city of Parisii [97]; Oppida excavated Manching, Bavaria, 3rd-2nd centuries BCE, evidence of monetary economy. Minted gold, silver and bronze coins. [98]; Each oppidum minted distinctive types of coins. [99] Present. [100]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ "Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [101]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ Level of development high enough to mint coins, likely high enough for full-time messengers.
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ "In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [102] Still present, used less often.
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ "In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [103] Still present, used less often.
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Diodorus Siculus mentions iron breastplates. [104] "In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [105]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ "The Hallstatt civilisation knew case-hardening only, but the Celts had various methods of 'steeling' such as the false-damascening which consisted in welding harder and weaker strips together. Some of the natural steel quite free of of sulphur and phosphorus must have been difficult to forge as it was liable to form cracks."[106] "The general impression of the Celtic swords, here covering a period from roughly 650 to 100 B.C., is that the blade was normally manufactured from a single iron bar of no particularly good quality. The same material could as well have been utilized for nails. ... Common to all the Celtic swords is the extensive coldwork that has taken place. ... evidently the finishing part of the blacksmith's usual hotwork, only that he continued hammering in the temperature range 800-600C ... Significant coldwork at room temperature must also have taken place, since the metal is work-hardened to high hardness and displays slip lines and Neumann bands. ... The 24 swords do not show any metallurgical development with time, except for one, the oldest, from Hallstatt. That one seems to be a rather mediocre sword based on an improper ore and an inexperienced blacksmith. ... three of them ... of superior quality, being pearlitic-ferritic and probably representing the famous Noric steel. If this argument, based on slag composition and structure - and an inscription on No. 510 - holds true, the manufacture of Noric steel began as early as 300 B.C."[107] "Almost all the Celtic swords here examined were of good quality and would undoubtedly have yielded good service."[108] Not sure of the reason for the contradiction between "no particularly good quality" and "of good quality" but we have the 300 BCE date for Noric steel.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ [109] "The Greek writer Strabo commented that the Celtic warrior carried two types of spear: a larger, heavier one for thrusting, and a smaller, lighter javelin that could be thrown and used at close quarters."[110]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Spears are described, but not spear-throwers.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ Stockpiles of sling stones found at hillforts in Britain. Archers may have been used to defend fortified sites. [111]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Iron arrowheads. Quiver. [112]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature RA.
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature RA.
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature RA.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature RA.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature RA.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature RA.

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous and subsequent (quasi)polities.
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Hache / axe. [113]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Iron dagger[114] Iron dagger "from a Halstatt tomb, mid-5th century BC" [115]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ [116] Broadsword (Bohemia).[117] Long sword, curved broardsword. [118] "The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt." [119]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ [120] "The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt." [121] "The Greek writer Strabo commented that the Celtic warrior carried two types of spear: a larger, heavier one for thrusting, and a smaller, lighter javelin that could be thrown and used at close quarters."[122]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous and subsequent (quasi)polities.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature RA.
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "There seems no trace of the use of donkeys and mules before contact with the Italian peninsula."[123] Does this source say when this contact considered to have begun? My guess of the meaning is the Roman invasion but I don't know the context the sentence was written in.
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ War chariots abandoned in Gaul 200-100 BCE. [124] Cavalry replaced war-chariots from 250 BCE. [125]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature RA.
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature RA.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ Wooden shield carbon dated to 229 BCE (Lake Neuchatel).[126] "Celtic shields were generally oval in shape or sometimes and elongated hexagon. They were made of thin planks of oak or lime wood covered in leather." [127]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Glauberg, Germany c400 BCE. [128] Warrior statue from Glauburg shows armor "reminiscent of Greek or Etruscan styles." [129] The photograph shows an oval-shaped shield and what appears to be a fabric?/leather body armor.
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ [130] "The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt." [131]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Glauberg, Germany c400 BCE. [132] "The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt." [133]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ Light breastplate c100 BCE or before. [134] "Bronze statuette of a warrior from Liechtenstein dated to the 5th century BC. Note the Greek/Etruscan-style cuirass." [135] Diodorus Siculus mentions iron breastplates. [136]
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Coat of mail c100 BCE or before. [137] "The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt." [138]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ The only mention of armour is chainmail. "Diodorus also mentions that some warriors wear iron breast plates of chain mail. Seated figures of stone from the sanctuary of Roquepertuse (Fig.163) and a stone statue of a Gaul from Vachères (Basse-Alpes) (Pl. VI), dating to the late first century BC, are shown wearing chain mail, and actual examples have been found in a few burials, including that of the warrior provided with the bird-crested helmet, who was buried at Ciumesti. One of the features of Celtic warfare which impressed itself upon the Classical mind was the fact that some warriors fought naked except for the sword belt and a gold neck torc." [139]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ The only mention of armour is chainmail. "Diodorus also mentions that some warriors wear iron breast plates of chain mail. Seated figures of stone from the sanctuary of Roquepertuse (Fig.163) and a stone statue of a Gaul from Vachères (Basse-Alpes) (Pl. VI), dating to the late first century BC, are shown wearing chain mail, and actual examples have been found in a few burials, including that of the warrior provided with the bird-crested helmet, who was buried at Ciumesti. One of the features of Celtic warfare which impressed itself upon the Classical mind was the fact that some warriors fought naked except for the sword belt and a gold neck torc." [140]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ The only mention of armour is chainmail. "Diodorus also mentions that some warriors wear iron breast plates of chain mail. Seated figures of stone from the sanctuary of Roquepertuse (Fig.163) and a stone statue of a Gaul from Vachères (Basse-Alpes) (Pl. VI), dating to the late first century BC, are shown wearing chain mail, and actual examples have been found in a few burials, including that of the warrior provided with the bird-crested helmet, who was buried at Ciumesti. One of the features of Celtic warfare which impressed itself upon the Classical mind was the fact that some warriors fought naked except for the sword belt and a gold neck torc." [141]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ Port at Geneva [142]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature RA.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature RA.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ [143]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ Present close to the Paris Basin region. [144]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ [145] Oppida excavated Manching, Bavaria - Late Iron Age. Earth wall 7 KM length enclosed 380 ha[146] At Sainte-Germain: "Delimiting the citadel fortification consists of a triple system of embankments and ditches."[147] At Sandouville outer rampart almost one kilometer long, is preserved as an embankment 6 m high, preceded by a ditch 3 m deep. At Bracquemont there was a 12m high embankment wall. [148]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ At Sainte-Germain: "Delimiting the citadel fortification consists of a triple system of embankments and ditches." Ditches also known at Saint-Mihiel, Vouziers, Saint-Pierre-de-Varengeville, Saint-Samson-de-la-Roque, Sandouville and Lion-devant-Dun.[149]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ Moat known at Vertault. [150]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not until the 75-27 BCE period anywhere close to the Paris Basin region, although previously present close to this same area between 560-475 BCE. [151]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature RA.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ Some oppida are fortified camps. cf Bibracte, in central France.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Oppida settlement at Manching near Ingolstadt in Bavaria had double ring of dry-stone wall ramparts filled with earth. [152] At Sainte-Germain: "Delimiting the citadel fortification consists of a triple system of embankments and ditches."[153]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ Not mentioned in the literature RA.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature RA.

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ In this period there was a king which replaced the chieftain system. Galatians, who migrated to Asia minor 279 BCE, provide a possible insight into Gaulish social structure as they were closely observed by the Greeks. Chieftains (called a tetrach by the Greeks) originally lead each of the tribes each of which were divided into clans. Supra-tribal level of cooperation: the clans of all the tribes and they together appointed 300 senators "to attend an annual assembly at a shrine." However they were rarely unified and eventually the chieftains became kings.[154]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥
previous code: inferred absent | Late in the La Tene sequence, the institution of kingship was declining in prestige [155] decline in prestige doesn't mean rulers not legit authority by gods

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥
previous code: inferred absent | Late in the La Tene sequence, the institution of kingship was declining in prestige [156]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following three things. First, the importance of hierarchy at feasts: "Ceremonial did not only attach to the hearth, but extended more widely to social gatherings and general conviviality. Feasts accompanied by scrupulous ritual were its most elaborate manifestation. Posidonius gives the following account: '[...] When a large number dine together they sit around in a circle with the most influential man in the centre, like the leader of the chorus, whether he surpasses the others in warlike skills, or lineage, or wealth. Beside him sits the host and next on either side the others in order of distinction [...]." [157] Second, the prestige that the elites enjoyed in the all-important realm of war: "A noble was first and foremost one who possessed a mount and the complete panoply of a combatant: a sword in its scabbard, a shield and spears. [...] As warriors they had the greatest privileges, and they alone could take command in war. Commoners could only serve as infantry, and in the army clients were companions-in-arms of their lord." [158] This last point is particularly significant when considering the importance of bravery in Gallic ideology: "To fight was a duty and an honour; it was one way of doubly affirming a man's status as an adult and citizen." [159] Third: "The Celts did not have castes or anything that resembled them. Instead, it was lineage that counted for most and lent weight to the powerful. Kinship founded nobility, which was not so much a hereditary right as an inheritance painstakingly assembled by the ancestors." [160]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the following. "Ceremonial did not only attach to the hearth, but extended more widely to social gatherings and general conviviality. Feasts accompanied by scrupulous ritual were its most elaborate manifestation. Posidonius gives the following account: '[...] When a large number dine together they sit around in a circle with the most influential man in the centre, like the leader of the chorus, whether he surpasses the others in warlike skills, or lineage, or wealth. Beside him sits the host and next on either side the others in order of distinction [...]." [161]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the following three things. First, the importance of hierarchy at feasts: "Ceremonial did not only attach to the hearth, but extended more widely to social gatherings and general conviviality. Feasts accompanied by scrupulous ritual were its most elaborate manifestation. Posidonius gives the following account: '[...] When a large number dine together they sit around in a circle with the most influential man in the centre, like the leader of the chorus, whether he surpasses the others in warlike skills, or lineage, or wealth. Beside him sits the host and next on either side the others in order of distinction [...]." [162] Second, the prestige that the elites enjoyed in the all-important realm of war: "A noble was first and foremost one who possessed a mount and the complete panoply of a combatant: a sword in its scabbard, a shield and spears. [...] As warriors they had the greatest privileges, and they alone could take command in war. Commoners could only serve as infantry, and in the army clients were companions-in-arms of their lord." [163] This last point is particularly significant when considering the importance of bravery in Gallic ideology: "To fight was a duty and an honour; it was one way of doubly affirming a man's status as an adult and citizen." [164] Third: "The Celts did not have castes or anything that resembled them. Instead, it was lineage that counted for most and lent weight to the powerful. Kinship founded nobility, which was not so much a hereditary right as an inheritance painstakingly assembled by the ancestors." [165]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ "Ceremonial did not only attach to the hearth, but extended more widely to social gatherings and general conviviality. Feasts accompanied by scrupulous ritual were its most elaborate manifestation." [166]

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [167] [168] [169]

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