FrMervE

From Seshat Data Browser
Revision as of 18:40, 13 December 2021 by Admin (talk | contribs) (1 revision imported)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Early Merovingian ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ regnum Francorum; Francia; Neustria; Merovingian Kingdom; Franks; Frankish Kingdom; Frankish Kingdoms ♥ regnum Francorum [1] Francia [2]


♠ Peak Date ♣ 543 CE ♥ First wave of the plague of Justinian struck Gaul in 543 CE.


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 481-543 CE ♥

Clovis ascends the throne. 481 CE is the earliest possible date. Start of Merovingian rule in the Paris Basin from 486 CE.


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ nominal; loose; confederated state; quasi-polity ♥

When divided kingdom more like a confederation. Division was not a governing structure.[3]

"There are two levels operating simultaneously... regnum and regna. A variable number of kingdoms within the Merovingian polity as a whole." [4]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Roman Late Antiquity ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ elite migration ♥ The start of Merovingian rule in the Paris basin: 486, when the territory was conquered from Syragrius.
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Middle Merovingian ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥ Latin?
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Paris ♥ Capital of Childeric I 457-481 CE was at Tournai. [5] Paris was the capital chosen by Clovis [6]

♠ Language ♣ Old Frankish ♥ Previously coded as "Latin; Germanic".

General Description

In the early Merovingian period (481-543 CE), numerous Frankish kingdoms were united under the nominal leadership of Clovis I, who is traditionally considered to have become king of the Salian Franks in 481 CE.[7] Under Clovis, the capital moved from Tournai to Paris.[8][9]

Population and political organization

Merovingian France was a largely decentralized kingdom based on the pre-existing Roman administrative system, in which cities were the basic units.[10] The city rulers, known as counts or grafio, who sent the king his tax revenue and carried out judicial and administrative functions, had access to both administrative officials and city archives (gesta municipalia).[11][12] Groups of cities and counts could be placed under a duke for military and administrative purposes.[13]
In contrast, there was no elaborate central administration, the highest non-royal official being a figure known as the mayor of the palace.[14] The king's capital and main residence was at Paris, where the population may have reached 30,000 by the 8th century CE,[15] although the court was always a peripatetic institution.[16] The king consulted a group of magnates (obtimates) at an annual gathering around 1 March. Written references to royal edicts are known from 614 CE onwards, but earlier royal legislation has not survived.[17] Merovingian kings had the authority to appoint dukes and counts as well as bishops, who were often 'royal servants with no known connections with their sees'.[18]
From 622 CE onwards the basic territorial divisions of the Merovingian Kingdom were Neustria (centred on the Seine and Oise rivers and associated with the Pactus Legis Salicae law code),[19] Burgundy (where the Liber Constitutionum was developed), and Austrasia (by the Rhine and Meuse, which came to possess its own mayor of the palace[20] and followed the Lex Ribvaria).[21] A fourth area, Aquitaine, had a special status due to its distance from the royal centres and was under less direct Merovingian control.[22] In the earliest times, Merovingian administration beyond the Rhine (in modern-day Germany) was less elaborate than that imposed further to the west: counts sent to rule in the east did not attempt to introduce literacy, currency or Christianity to their domains.[23]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [200,000-300,000] ♥ in squared kilometers. 250,000: 511 CE. Total area divided by four regions.

Merovingian kingdoms was a quasi-polity in terms of territory that could be militarily controlled. This figure represents the average sized kingdom within the polity.Merovingian kingdoms was a quasi-polity in terms of population that could be militarily controlled. This figure represents the average sized kingdom within the polity.

Total area divided by 4 regions.


These figures are for the total area: 350,000: 481 CE; 600,000; 490 CE; 600,000: 500 CE; 1,000,000: 510 CE; 1,000,000: 520 CE; 1,000,000: 530 CE; 1,400,000: 540 CE; 1,400,000: 550 CE; 1,400,000: 560 CE

These numbers are based on the maps at Geacon [2] worked out from number of pixels (which you can find from image editor if you take a screen cap of the maps at the same scale) Scale: 200 km. 1 pixel = 20 km2. Figures rounded to memorable number (otherwise false precision).

Clovis victorious over Alamans c506 CE. Land annexed. [24]
511 CE Kingdom divided: new regions ruled from Rheims (Theuderic), Orleans (Choldomer), Paris (Childebert I) and Soissons (Clothar I). [25]
531 CE Thuringian Kingdom annexed by Theuderic and Clothat I.[26]
534 CE conquest of Burgundy [27]
536 CE received most of the Gothic territory in Provence. [28]
537 CE acquires Provence [29]
Clother sole monarch 558-561 CE. 561 CE Clother dies. Kingdom again divided. Paris (Charibert I)

Orleans (Guntram), Rheims (Sigibert I), Soissons (Chilperic I)[30]


♠ Polity Population ♣ [1,250,000-1,750,000] ♥ [1,250,000-1,750,000]: 511 CE Merovingian kingdoms was a quasi-polity in terms of population that could be militarily controlled. This figure represents the average sized kingdom within the polity.


Total: [300,000-500,000]: 481 CE; [2,000,000-3,000,000]: 500 CE; [5,500,000-6,500,000]: 550 CE

Estimated from below.

Population of France [31]

400 CE = 5
500 CE = 4.75
600 CE = 4.5
700 CE = 4.75
800 CE = 5

Population of Belgium and Luxembourg [32]

400 CE = 0.3
500 CE = 0.3
600 CE = 0.3
700 CE = 0.3
800 CE = 0.3

Population of Netherlands [33]

400 CE = 0.2
500 CE = 0.2
600 CE = 0.2
700 CE = 0.2
800 CE = 0.2

Population of Germany [34]

400 CE = 3.5
500 CE = 3.25
600 CE = 3.0
700 CE = 3.0
800 CE = 3.25


Merovingian South West Germany. "activity radius of about 1km around early Neolithic settlements. This gives an area of slightly over 3 km2, of which 10 percent were fields and gardens. It was exploited by about 100 individuals (Kuster 1995:76-7). This implied a population density of about 30 inhabitants per km2. If we assume one settlement with about 200 inhabitants and some smaller settlements in one Gemarkung, we obtain a figure of 50-60 inhabitants per km2 for the Merovingian period." [35]


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [20,000-30,000] ♥

Paris 20,000-30,000 by 8th Century.[36]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

1. City

2. Town
3. Village or Gemarkungen settlement
4. Hamlet or Farmstead


Possible settlement levels [37]

Estimated size of farmstead populations: 10-25 people.
Village
Gemarkungen settlement (idealised as 6km2 hexagon, 300-360 people - Lower Rhine area)
Towns
Cities


Clovis victorious over Alamans c506 CE. Region retained own identity and law code. Dux/duces. [38]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

"Merovingian administration was singularly crude and poor: neither literacy, currency nor Christianity were introduced by the counts dispatched to rule beyond the Rhine. In its economic, social and political structures, Western Europe had left behind the precarious dualism of the first decades after Antiquity; a rough mixing process had occurred, but the results still remained unformed and heteroclite. Neither simple juxtaposition nor crude mixture could release a new general mode of production, capable of surmounting the impasse of slavery and colonate, and with it a new and internally coherent social order."[39]

1. King

The court was a peripatetic institution [40]

_ Court institution_

2. Senior Palace official was known as "Mayor of the Palace" [41] maior domus [42]
3. Treasurer [43]
4. Notaries and scribes


Comes palatii [44]

Magnates known as Obtimates, were consulted by the king at an annual gathering around March 1st. [45]

_Regional government_


2. Dukes and Bishops
Group of cities and counts could be placed under a duke (for military and administrative purposes). [46]
Magnates (dux?) and Church (bishops)
"Many bishops owed their position to the king" and "were royal servants with no known connections with their sees." [47]
Individuals in charge of multiple civitates? called dux (pl. duces). [48]
Aristocrats dependent on patronage from king. [49]
Alternative ruling structures had been innovated such as dukedom (higher scale) and the pagi (lower scale).[50]
3. Comes (count) of the Civitas (city-district)
Merovingians maintained existing Roman administrative systems where possible. Gregory of Tours (538-594 CE) writings show cities are the basic units of the administrative system. [51]
local law-men called rachinburgi [52]
City archives: defensor, curator, magister, militum. Known from Formularies from a few civitates but no evidence uniform across polity. Senior official of civitas was the comes (pl. comites) or count (lit. "companion). Heard law-suits, enforced justice, lead the military. In north graphiones instead of comes. [53] Civitas administration "provided dominant source of tax revenue" and some of the manpower for the army. [54]
In sixth century the role of the Roman curiales had been taken over by a single official appointed by the Merovingian king, the "count" or the "grafio" in the Frankish homelands. This official - where present the most important city official - had its origins in the Roman imperial comes civitatis. The first such official in Gaul is known from 471 CE. They executed judicial and administrative functions and sent the king his tax revenue. Rule through these city officials gradually spread across Gaul in the post-Roman period.
Gregory of Tours refers to "leading officials" who could be members of a local council.[55]
Gregory of Tours' region in central Gaul likely had longest persisting continuity with Roman structures of city-based rule. These were the "basic building-blocks of which the various Merovingian regna were composed." However, in Frankish regions the rule-through-city framework may have been less pervasive. [56]
Internal administrative regions due to the city based taxation system. The "guiding imperative behind the divisions would appear to be the sharing out of the profits from various forms of taxation" on the civitas [57]
4. Pagi
Sub-division of the civitates. Replaces civitates in some parts of Gaul [58]
Alternative ruling structures had been innovated such as dukedom (higher scale) and the pagi (lower scale).[59]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

1. Pope

Christian state after baptism Clovis 508 CE. Catholic church. [60]

1. King ("Like Constantine, the Merovingian King was considered the reflection of God on Earth. The succession to the kingship could never been anything but the expression of a higher will" [61]

Kings involved in ecclesiastical legislation [62]
Kings gave money for shrines of saints. [63]
"Many bishops owed their position to the king" and "were royal servants with no known connections with their sees." [64]
2. Bishop in dioceses
Bishop in every civitas. Bishop's church called ecclesia, other churches were basilicae. City had complex of religious buildings, usually included a number of churches, a baptistery, and the bishop's home (domus ecclesiae). Other religious officials were the clergy. Outside the city were funerary basilicas, sacred sites (shrines called loca sancta), mausoleums, tombs and cemeteries. Authorities secular and often came into conflict with religious authorities. [65]
Dioceses provided basic structure of Merovingian Church, "the ecclesiastical counterparts of the civitates" and in the same place, except in the north and east. [66]
3. Subordinate bishops
Dioceses had provinces (like civitates) [67]
4. Priests
5. Lesser clergy


♠ Military levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

1. King

Kings usually lead the army at least until Sigibert III. After this Mayor of the Palace always involved. [68]
Forces usually lead by a commander. Sometimes by a king. [69]
2. Duke
Armies commanded by duces (dukes) [70]
At times of war Merovingian kings were supported by their leudes and aristocrats.[71]
Leudes: "military followers apparently of considerable social status and influence, though probably to be distinguished from the greatest magnates of the realm, many of whom had military followings of their own, and might be expected to fight for the king both inside and outside his kingdom." [72]
2. Comes
Local levy usually commanded by count of civitas [73]
Garrisons in cities not the same source as the local levy. [74]
Garrison commander and local levy commander were two different people. [75]
There are "indications of city-based system of military service" similar to Roman one. For example, in 578 CE Chilperic took the men of Tours, Poitiers, Bayeux, Le Mans and Angers to war in Brittany.[76]
3. officer level? inferred
4. Individual Soldier

1. Tribunus

Garrison commander
Milites at Tours served under a tribunus, not a count [77]
Milites - garrisoned fortifications [78]
Laeti - protected fortresses and served as antrustiones in centenae [79]


Bodyguard was the core military force.[80]

Kings
antrustiones - Merovingian royal body guards
puer regis - lower lever bodyguards
leudes - soldiers in attendance intermittently
spathani - ?
Dukes / Magnates
also had bodyguards
Counts
also had bodyguards
Troops raised from city
Bishops
also had bodyguards

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Milites at Tours served under a tribunus, not a count. [81]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Garrisoned forces. [82]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred continuity with earlier/later periods, with no clear evidence of discontinuity


Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent ♥

6th century Merovingian Kingdom "de facto local aristocrats, a service aristocracy (defined by its tenure of posts within the administration) and an hereditary nobility." [83]


♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred continuity with earlier/later periods, with no clear evidence of discontinuity


Mints and municipal archives.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥

Pactus legis Salicae territorial law-code. [84]

First Merovingian law code can be dated before 511 CE. First sixty five titles of Pactus Legis Salicae "antedates the Liber Constitutionum of the Burgundians by at least a decade." Pagan elements within original work suggest Frankish origin in addition to some Christian Roman involvement. Pactus Legis Salicae most associated in with Neustria region, Lex Ribvaria with Austrasia and Liber Constitutionum (or Lex Gundobada) with Burgundy. [85]

No royal legislation survives beyond 614 CE. However there are literature references to royal edicts after this date. [86]

Law

letters, precepts, edicts, decrees, pacts.
Merovingian law books: Pactus Legis Salicae and Lex Ribvaria. [87]
Pactus pro tenore pacis on theft[88]

"The Lombards made no effort to repeat Ostrogothic parallelism in Italy. They recast the civil and juridicial system of the country in the regions which they occupied, promulgating a new legal code based on traditional Germanic norms, but drafted in Latin, which soon predominated over Roman law. The Merovingian kings retained a double legal system, but with the growing anarchy of their rule, Latin memories and norms progressively faded. Germanic law became progressively dominant, while the land taxes inherited from Rome broke down administ the resistance of the population and Church to a fiscality which no longer corresponded to any public services or integrated State. Taxation progressively lapsed altogether in the Frankish kingdoms."[89]


♠ Judges ♣ present ♥

Bishops could act as judges [90]

Edict of Chlothar II among other things limited power of secular judges over clerics [91]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥

Legal procedure known from Formularies and case records. Courts. Used Roman tradition of written evidence. Law not homogeneous "each person was entitled to be judged according to the law of his or her place of birth or ethnic group." Royal Court was the highest court, settled disputes between magnates. [92]


♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Bishops dug irrigation canals. [93] The king was Christian and many bishops owed their position to the king. If bishops dug irrigation canals then they are partly working on behalf of the king.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred present ♥ Bishops (non-state) took an interest in water-supply. [94] Gregory of Tours mentions one aqueduct, not certain whether current or from 500 CE. [95] "The political collapse of the Western Roman Empire did not coincided with a parallel collapse of Roman traditions of engineering. The technology did not disappear - it was adapted to new ends in late antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Even before the "Fall of Rome" hydraulic patronage was shifting away from secular munificence of large-scale aqueducts and luxurious public baths to more modest ecclesiastical structures such as baptistery fonts, charitable baths and atrium fountains. These new Christian waterworks helped to preserve the knowledge of subterranean pipes, hydraulic cement, and even inverted siphons. Some classical aqueducts were restored or remained in use during the Early Middle Ages, often thanks to episcopal patronage."[96]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ In Paris there was a merchant's quarter. "... in the cities of Provence, the curator or defensor civitatis was also responsible for the supervision of the market."[97]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Merovingian and Carolingian period, there were granaries on manor complexes. [98]


Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Via Belgica "Still, it is possible - perhaps even likely- that the Merovingian kings and queens repaired the roads. It is due to these maintenance efforts of later rulers that the road is still recognizable on many places and is usually still in use. It has been listed by UNESCO as World Heritage." [99] Via Regia "After the Thuringian kingdom’s fall in 531/534, the territory through which the road passed was under Merovingian domination". [100]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Roman era bridges. Gregory of Tours mentions the Grand pont over the Seine at Paris. [101]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ 620-625 CE repair work was undertaken on the reventments of the Corbulo canal at the Roman castellum of Leiden-Room-burg (Matilo).[102]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Port at Marseille. [103] [104] Francia-England-Frisia trading network [105] Domberg - another trade centre in north [106] Quentovic: trade centre/port in north [107] Dorestad: 240 ha site. 80 wells. [108]: trade centre/port in north


Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ "France possesses no precious metal resources and little copper. Iron ores are abundant, and there are regional deposits of lead, zinc, and coal. All of these were exploited during the Middle Ages. Evidence for ironworking exists from Merovingian France onward." [109]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ [110]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Merovingian latin script. [111]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ [112]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ [113]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Manuscript production at Luxeuil and Corbie important to Merovingian culture. However, no "great scholar" equivalent to Bede. [114] 5th century: religious writings: Caesarius (Bishop of Arles, 503-543 CE) wrote on monastic rules, and authored many sermons. [115]; two Gallic chronicles survive from the 5th century [116]; Nearly all literature from southern and central regions of Gaul [117]
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ 6th century: letter-collections: Ruricius of Limoges, Avitus of Vienne, Ferreolus of Uzes, Ennodius of Pavia (originally from Provence). [118] Dynamius [119] ;(rhetoric), advisor to Theudebert I. [120]; Epistulae Austrasiacae - collection of 48 letters, 460-c590 CE [121]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ "Although there were historians in France before the Franks arrived—e.g., Prosper of Aquitaine (ca. 455) and Sulpicius Severus (d. 410)—French historical writing really begins with Gregory of Tours (ca. 538-594)." [122]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ "The contribution of Merovingian culture to the history of philosophy was basically that of preserving the scholarship of the ancients." [123]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ suspected unknown ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Non-monetary economy at local level.[124] Money was used to pay tax in Merovingian period. However, tax also known to have been paid in exchange, such as with wine. Laws contain "list of equivalences to solidus." [125]
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ Non-monetary economy at local level. Bullion not coin used on eastern frontiers. West = coin archaeology. East = scales for weighing bullion found. [126]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ Roman coinage finds in Merovingian burials suggests use of late Roman coins, perhaps as bullion due to high metal content. [127]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ c570 CE gold coins. Solidus. coins bear name of mint, moneyer and sometimes a king, saint or church (i.e. not all royal issue). debased with silver until 660s CE when new silver denarius created. [128]
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Alec Vulfson ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Metal girdle of iron or bronze 6 inches in breadth worn around the waist.[129]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Metal girdle of iron or bronze 6 inches in breadth worn around the waist.[130]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ [131]
♠ Steel ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Need evidence for high-quality steel. One of Charlemagne's vassals left an Indian sword (spatha indica) in his will[132], which suggests it was far superior to the steel sword the Franks possessed. Writing in the 14th century, Ibn Hudhayl "described Frankish swords as mudakkar with 'steel edges on an iron body, unlike those of India.'"[133] Two-edged steel sword used by cavalry.[134]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ [135] [136]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ Slingers were used in Charlemagne's army.[137] "Carolingian military organization was based primarily on that of their Merovingian predecessors, who had built on later Roman institutions." and "Archers and slingers fighting on foot supported the battle line." [138]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Bows and quivers [139] Merovingians and Carolingians used a "short, simple bow" which was "gradually replaced, beginning in the ninth century, by the composite bow." [140]
♠ Composite bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ "The crossbow, or arbaleste, was reintroduced into France ca. 950 and was commonly used thereafter to ca. 1550, primarily by special infantry units placed from ca. 1200 to 1534 under the overall authority of a grand master of the crossbowmen (arbalest[r]iers)." [141]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ Various types of siege engines were used in Merovingian warfare. [142]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ Various types of siege engines were used in Merovingian warfare. [143]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ One-handed battle axe. 6th century Franks used it a lot. [144]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ scramasax [145]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Sword (long-straight for mounted use, steel, two-edged) [146] Short sword. [147]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Most common weapon. [148]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ This source suggests donkeys were introduced sometime in the Celtic period: "There seems no trace of the use of donkeys and mules before contact with the Italian peninsula."[149]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ [150] Beginning of sixth century Merovingians had cavalry.[151] 507 CE cavalry recorded [152]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred present ♥ Gundovald used camels to carry treasure. While this is not a military use, it does seem that these camels were accompanying the military albeit as a vehicle to transport goods. [153]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ Shield [154]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Leather cuirass with pteruges.[155] Padded armour. [156]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ [157]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ [158] "Few appear to have had helmets, or indeed any covering for the head; but their hair was allowed to grow sufficiently long in front to be tied over the crown of the head, so as to deaden considerably the force of a blow from a weapon."[159]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ [160]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Mail-shirt [161]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ Iron. [162]
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥


Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ River craft.[163]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature - RA.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ Naval forces - in 515 CE used vs Danes.[164] Imperial naval base in the 5th century. Ships not Frankish in origin.[165] "Roman vessels utilized the rivers and coastal waters to transport merchandise and military personnel. The early Franks developed fleets for use in trade and war. Their vessels were propelled by oars and probably a single square sail. Charlemagne used a fleet against the Slavs, Saxons, Avars, and others. Because of their Italian interests, the Franks also maintained a small Mediterranean fleet in the 9th century."[166]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden).[167] Since palisades are a very ancient form of fortification we could code inferred present for the period earlier than the 12th century (when it is known they were still used).
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden).[168] Since earth ramparts are a very ancient form of fortification we could code inferred present for the period earlier than the 12th century (when it is known they were still used).
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden).[169] Since ditches are a very ancient form of fortification we could code inferred present for the period earlier than the 12th century (when it is known they were still used). Thuringians dug ditches in the fields against Merovingian horses.[170]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ Includes moats dug with deep pits inside for the wader to sink into.[171]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Walled cities. [172] City walls present in sixth century. [173]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Throne was inherited within the Merovingian dynasty.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ absent ♥ The following quote suggests that French kings were officially legitimated by god starting with the Carolingian dynasty. “With the advent of the Carolingian Empire, the situation changes. Kingship was seen as no less sacred than the papacy. The Holy Roman Emperor is God’s anointed, compared to David and Solomon and Christ himself. Indeed, the anointing of kings is numbered by some among the sacraments, and seen as investing the king with responsibility for, and power over, the Church. For a theorist of royal power like Jonas of Orléans (c.780-842/43), the task of the king was “to govern the people of God,” a term that now referred, not to a group who have been called by God out of a larger social whole (1 Peter 2:9-10; Revelation 8:14), but simply to the people of Europe (The Institution of the King §4, in O’Donovan and O’Donovan, 1999: 218).” [174]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ French kings at this time were simply believed to be good Christians--or, at least, the ideal king was a good Christian [175].

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Jesus' message "envisages a universal society bound together by divine love in which the limited human ties of affection based on kinship, cultural identity, and self-interest give way to the unlimited love of God. It calls for an egalitarian kingdom of love without limits. Jesus likens it to a family in which all are brothers and sisters of one another and children of the one Father (‘Abba’, an informal word for father, is Jesus’ preferred name for God)." [176] However, it is worth noting that, for example, social inequality and inequality between the sexes were often justified theologically [177][178].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “Medieval society was hierarchical, not merely in social reality but as a matter of principle. Its hierarchical character was understood in cosmological terms. It was taken for granted that the universe was designed in such a way that some of God’s creatures were intended to be at the topand some below them. Human beings were a ‘higher’ form of being than cattle. Cattle were ‘higher’ than the grass they ate. The grass was ‘higher’ than the earth it grew in. So thoroughgoing was the sense that this was how the universe worked that the nine orders of angels identified by the fifth-century Greek authors Pseudo-Dionysus began to be lined up alongside their human ‘counterparts’ on the understanding that each person’s place in heaven would be related to that of the equivalent angel. So the seraphim and cherubim, the contemplatives among the angels, would be accompanied for eternity by members of the contemplative orders, their human equivalents. In modern terms, this was like suggesting that post-men and motorcycle messengers would spend eternity in the company of ordinary angels, while diplomats and emissaries could expect to find themselves among archangels.//Within human society itself no premium was put upon equality. Until late in the Middle Ages, few appear to have seen anything wrong with the idea that there should be rulers and ruled, for hierarchical arrangements of parts within wholes were a normal way of making an organism ‘work’. A body needs a head but it also needs feet (I Corinthians 12.20). In fragmentary survivals of the teaching which was given in the cathedral school at Laon at the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth centuries, there is a discussion of the passage in Ephesians 6.5 where servants are told to obey their masters. ‘It is no sin to have a servant or to be a servant.’ It was argued at Laon that there are two reasons why ‘servitude is given by God.’ It may be a punishment for the sins of those who are slaves or servants. Or it may have a purpose of proving or testing them, so that, humbled, they may be better people.” [179]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “Medieval society was hierarchical, not merely in social reality but as a matter of principle. Its hierarchical character was understood in cosmological terms. It was taken for granted that the universe was designed in such a way that some of God’s creatures were intended to be at the topand some below them. Human beings were a ‘higher’ form of being than cattle. Cattle were ‘higher’ than the grass they ate. The grass was ‘higher’ than the earth it grew in. So thoroughgoing was the sense that this was how the universe worked that the nine orders of angels identified by the fifth-century Greek authors Pseudo-Dionysus began to be lined up alongside their human ‘counterparts’ on the understanding that each person’s place in heaven would be related to that of the equivalent angel. So the seraphim and cherubim, the contemplatives among the angels, would be accompanied for eternity by members of the contemplative orders, their human equivalents. In modern terms, this was like suggesting that post-men and motorcycle messengers would spend eternity in the company of ordinary angels, while diplomats and emissaries could expect to find themselves among archangels.//Within human society itself no premium was put upon equality. Until late in the Middle Ages, few appear to have seen anything wrong with the idea that there should be rulers and ruled, for hierarchical arrangements of parts within wholes were a normal way of making an organism ‘work’. A body needs a head but it also needs feet (I Corinthians 12.20). In fragmentary survivals of the teaching which was given in the cathedral school at Laon at the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth centuries, there is a discussion of the passage in Ephesians 6.5 where servants are told to obey their masters. ‘It is no sin to have a servant or to be a servant.’ It was argued at Laon that there are two reasons why ‘servitude is given by God.’ It may be a punishment for the sins of those who are slaves or servants. Or it may have a purpose of proving or testing them, so that, humbled, they may be better people.” [180]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “Love, even more than considerations of justice, has inspired Catholics and other Christians to care for the socially marginalized and any man or woman in need. Christianity inherited from the OT a healthy message of concern for widows, orphans, and strangers (e.g. Deut. 24: 17-21), along with prophetic opposition to those who used their wealth and power to oppress the economically and socially weak. The very early post‐NT codes on which we have already drawn maintained the Jewish moral message by attributing to ‘the way of death’ the actions of those who ‘attend not to the widow and orphan’, ‘turn away the needy’, and ‘oppress the afflicted’ (Epistle of Barnabas, 20. 2; see Didache, 5. 2). The denunciation bears on sins of omission (failures to help widows and orphans) and those of commission (in positively turning away the needy and oppressing those who are already afflicted).// Those whom Jesus expected his followers to help included the hungry, the thirsty, strangers, the naked, the sick, and prisoners (Matt. 25: 31-46). The list of the suffering with whom he identified did not explicitly include widows and orphans, but the list was obviously open‐ended. His parable of ‘the Good Samaritan’ powerfully illustrates what he wants from all: the willingness to reach across religious and cultural divides to help any human being in distress (Luke 10: 30-7). He left no room for a self‐absorption that may not even notice the pain of others. [...] This moral message provided an important stimulus for the development of hospitals. St Basil of Caesarea (d. 379) founded what was perhaps the first Christian hospital. Innumerable doctors, nurses, and administrators have followed his lead, not least Catholic women who belonged to religious institutes founded specifically to care for the sick and the terminally ill. They have ‘come to the help’ of the sick as enjoined by Jesus' message (Matt. 25: 36). Many others have realized that one should add to the list in Matthew's text those who are ignorant and in need of education. Part at least of the astonishing commitment by Catholics and other Christians to the work of educating children and older persons has been fired by the sense of Jesus saying to them: ‘I was ignorant and you taught me.’ [181]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ Poor shelters. "Presumably, poor shelters were less common in the more rural western Empire than they were in the east. The earliest examples of western European shelters generally date only from the sixth century. The most concrete evidence of this religious charity is contained in the acta of local and regional ecclesiastical councils of the early medieval era. Within the Frankish kingdom, for example, twenty of the 282 episcopal conclaves that are recorded mention hospitals and another dozen the Christian obligation for hospitality." [182]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [183] [184] [185]

References

  1. (Wood 1994, 72)
  2. (Fouracre in Wood ed. 1998, 297)
  3. (Wood 1994, 112-115)
  4. (Loseby in Wood ed. 1998, 174)
  5. (DeVries and Smith 2007, 230)
  6. (Wood 1994, 41)
  7. (Drew 1991, 5) Drew, Katherine Fischer. 1991. “Introduction.” In The Laws of the Salian Franks: Translated and with an Introduction by Katherine Fischer Drew, 1-56. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/BT6A8ZH6.
  8. (Wood 1994, 41) Wood, Ian. 1994. The Merovingian Kingdoms 450-751. London: Longman. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ARUIRN35.
  9. (DeVries and Smith 2007, 230) DeVries, Kelly, and Robert D. Smith. 2007. Medieval Weapons: An Illustrated History of Their Impact. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ZDQNCFQQ.
  10. (Loseby 1998, 245-49) Loseby, S. T. 1998. “Gregory’s Cities: Urban Functions in Sixth-Century Gaul.” In Franks and Alamanni in the Merovingian Period: An Ethnographic Perspective, edited by I. N. Wood, 239-69. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DT5E5GNS.
  11. (Wood 1994, 204) Wood, Ian. 1994. The Merovingian Kingdoms 450-751. London: Longman. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ARUIRN35.
  12. (Loseby 1998, 245-49) Loseby, S. T. 1998. “Gregory’s Cities: Urban Functions in Sixth-Century Gaul.” In Franks and Alamanni in the Merovingian Period: An Ethnographic Perspective, edited by I. N. Wood, 239-69. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DT5E5GNS.
  13. (Bachrach 1972, 67) Bachrach, Bernard S. 1972. Merovingian Military Organization 481-751. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SG5XNFPG.
  14. (Halsall 2003, 28) Halsall, Guy. 2003. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Z5EZBP2R.
  15. (Clark and Henneman, Jr. 1995, 1316) Clark, William W., and John Bell Henneman, Jr. 1995. “Paris.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 1314-30. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/HS8644XK.
  16. (Wood 1994, 150-53) Wood, Ian. 1994. The Merovingian Kingdoms 450-751. London: Longman. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ARUIRN35.
  17. (Fouracre 1998, 286-89) Fouracre, P. J. 1998. “The Nature of Frankish Political Institutions in the Seventh Century.” In Franks and Alamanni in the Merovingian Period: An Ethnographic Perspective, edited by Ian Wood, 285-316. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/GT2AINW4.
  18. (Wood 1994, 78) Wood, Ian. 1994. The Merovingian Kingdoms 450-751. London: Longman. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ARUIRN35.
  19. (Wood 1994, 112-15) Wood, Ian. 1994. The Merovingian Kingdoms 450-751. London: Longman. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ARUIRN35.
  20. (Fanning 1995, 157) Fanning, Steven. 1995. “Austrasia.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 156-57. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/GR2MKFDX.
  21. (Wood 1994, 112-15) Wood, Ian. 1994. The Merovingian Kingdoms 450-751. London: Longman. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ARUIRN35.
  22. (Wood 1994, 100, 146) Wood, Ian. 1994. The Merovingian Kingdoms 450-751. London: Longman. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ARUIRN35.
  23. (Anderson 2013, 126-27) Anderson, Perry. 2013. Passages from Antiquity to Feudalism. London: Verso. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/K6F5NBFF.
  24. (Wood 1994, 161)
  25. (Wood 1994, 50)
  26. (Wood 1994, 50)
  27. (Wood 1994, 53-55)
  28. (Wood 1994, 33)
  29. (Wood 1994, 54)
  30. (Wood 1994, 57)
  31. (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 57) McEvedy, C and Jones, R. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Allen Lane. London.
  32. (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 63)
  33. (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 65)
  34. (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 69)
  35. (Damminger in Wood ed. 1998, 69)
  36. (Kilber 1995, 1316) Kilber, W W. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press)
  37. (Damminger in Wood ed. 1998, 61-69)
  38. (Wood 1994, 161)
  39. (Anderson 2013, 126-127) Anderson, Perry. 2013. Passages from Antiquity to Feudalism. Verso Books.
  40. (Wood 1994, 150-153)
  41. (Halsall 2003, 28)
  42. (Wood 1994, 150-153)
  43. (Wood 1994, 150-153)
  44. (Wood 1994, 150-153)
  45. (Wood 1994, 104)
  46. (Bachrach 1972, 67)
  47. (Wood 1994, 78)
  48. (Wood 1994, 61)
  49. (Halsall in Wood ed. 1998, 149)
  50. (Loseby in Wood ed. 1998, 245-249)
  51. (Loseby in Wood ed. 1998, 245-249)
  52. (Wood 1994, 107)
  53. (Wood 1994, 60)
  54. (Wood 1994, 64)
  55. (Loseby in Wood ed. 1998, 245-249)
  56. (Loseby in Wood ed. 1998, 245-249)
  57. (Loseby in Wood ed. 1998, 245-249)
  58. (Halsall 2003, 48)
  59. (Loseby in Wood ed. 1998, 245-249)
  60. (Wood 1994, 72)
  61. (Schutz 2004, 18) Schutz, H. 2004. The Carolingians in Central Europe, Their History, Arts, and Architecture: A Cultural History of Central Europe, 750-900. BRILL
  62. (Wood 1994, 105)
  63. (Wood 1994, 66)
  64. (Wood 1994, 78)
  65. (Loseby in Wood ed. 1998, 252-253)
  66. (Wood 1994, 71)
  67. (Wood 1994, 71)
  68. (Halsall 2003, 28-29)
  69. (Bachrach 1972, 54)
  70. (Halsall 2003, 45)
  71. (Loseby in Wood ed. 1998, 245-249)
  72. (Wood 1994, 64)
  73. (Bachrach 1972, 67)
  74. (Bachrach 1972, 127)
  75. (Bachrach 1972, 127)
  76. (Loseby in Wood ed. 1998, 245-249)
  77. (Bachrach 1972, 51)
  78. (Bachrach 1972, 33)
  79. (Bachrach 1972, 33)
  80. (Halsall 2003, 48)
  81. (Bachrach 1972, 51)
  82. (Halsall 2003, 48)
  83. (Halsall 2003, 21)
  84. (Halsall in Wood ed. 1998, 151)
  85. (Wood 1994, 112-115)
  86. (Fouracre in Wood ed. 1998, 286-289)
  87. (Wood 1994, 103-104)
  88. (Wood 1994, 106)
  89. (Anderson 2013, 124) Anderson, Perry. 2013. Passages from Antiquity to Feudalism. Verso Books.
  90. (Wood 1994, 76)
  91. (Wood 1994, 106-107)
  92. (Fouracre in Wood ed. 1998, 286-289)
  93. (http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/thierry-the-historical-essays-and-narratives-of-the-merovingian-era)
  94. (Loseby in Wood ed. 1998, 260)
  95. (Loseby in Wood ed. 1998, 260)
  96. (Glick, Steven Livesey and Wallis 2014, 505-506)
  97. (Hen 1995, 232)
  98. (Riddle 2008, 182) Riddle, J M. 2008. A History of the Middle Ages, 300-1500. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
  99. (http://www.livius.org/place/chaussee-brunehaut-via-belgica/)
  100. (http://www.via-regia.org/eng/viaregiageschichte/versuch.php)
  101. (Yates and Gibson 1994, 13) Yates, N and Gibson, J M. 1994. Traffic and Politics: The Construction and Management of Rochester Bridge, AD 43-1993. Boydell & Brewer. Rochester.
  102. (Lodewijckx ed. 2004, 19) Lodewijckx, M ed. 2004. Bruc ealles well: archaeological essays concerning the peoples of North-West Europe in the first millennium AD. Leuven University Press. Leuven.
  103. (Loseby in Wood ed. 1998, 259)
  104. (Hen 1995, 232)
  105. (Wood 1994, 302)
  106. (Wood 1994, 293-297)
  107. (Wood 1994, 293-297)
  108. (Wood 1994, 293-297)
  109. (Hall in Kibler et al 1995, 1177)
  110. (Wood 1994, 153)
  111. (Wood 1994, 153)
  112. (Wood 1994, 153)
  113. (Wood 1994, 153)
  114. (Wood 1994, 323)
  115. (Wood 1994, 23)
  116. (Wood 1994, 31)
  117. (Wood 1994, 20)
  118. (Wood 1994, 24)
  119. (Wood 1994, 26)
  120. (Wood 1994, 25)
  121. (Wood 1994, 26)
  122. (Shopkow in Kibler et al 1995, 862)
  123. (Vanderjagt in Kibler et al 1995, 1385)
  124. (Wood ed. 1998, 217-219)
  125. (Wood ed. 1998, 407)
  126. (Wood 1994, 217-219)
  127. (Wood ed. 1998, 407)
  128. (Wood 1994, 217-219)
  129. People's Magazine. 1867. People's Magazine: An Illustrated Miscellany for Family Reading. Society For Promoting Christian Knowledge. London. p. 381
  130. People's Magazine. 1867. People's Magazine: An Illustrated Miscellany for Family Reading. Society For Promoting Christian Knowledge. London. p. 381
  131. (Williams 2012, 35) Alan Williams. 2012. The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century. BRILL. Leiden.
  132. (Williams 2012, 35) Alan Williams. 2012. The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century. BRILL. Leiden.
  133. (Williams 2012, 35) Alan Williams. 2012. The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century. BRILL. Leiden.
  134. (Halsall 2003, 163-176) Halsall, Guy. 2003. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900. Routledge. London.
  135. (Halsall 2003, 163-176) Halsall, Guy. 2003. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900. Routledge. London.
  136. [1]
  137. (Halsall 2003, 150) Halsall, Guy. 2003. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900. Routledge. London.
  138. (Bachrach 2001, x) Barnard S Bachrach. 2001. Early Carolingian Warfare: Prelude to Empire. University of Pennsylvania Press. Philadelphia.
  139. (Halsall 2003, 163-176) Halsall, Guy. 2003. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900. Routledge. London.
  140. (Frassetto 2003, 366) Frassetto, M. 2003. Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe: Society in Transformation. ABC CLIO
  141. (Boulton in Kibler et al 1995, 127)
  142. (Bachrach 1972, 128)
  143. (Bachrach 1972, 128)
  144. (Halsall 2003, 163-176) Halsall, Guy. 2003. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900. Routledge. London.
  145. (Halsall 2003, 163-176) Halsall, Guy. 2003. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900. Routledge. London.
  146. (Halsall 2003, 163-176) Halsall, Guy. 2003. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900. Routledge. London.
  147. p.30-32 Medieval Weapons: An Illustrated History of Their Impact By Kelly DeVries, Robert Douglas Smith
  148. (Halsall 2003, 163-176) Halsall, Guy. 2003. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900. Routledge. London.
  149. (Ellis 1998, 109) Peter Berresford Ellis. 1998. The ancient world of the Celts. Constable.
  150. (Halsall 2003, 163-176) Halsall, Guy. 2003. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900. Routledge. London.
  151. p.17 Medieval Weapons: An Illustrated History of Their Impact By Kelly DeVries, Robert Douglas Smith
  152. p.16 Medieval Weapons: An Illustrated History of Their Impact By Kelly DeVries, Robert Douglas Smith
  153. (Bachrach 1972, 58)
  154. (Halsall 2003, 163-176) Halsall, Guy. 2003. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900. Routledge. London.
  155. (Halsall 2003, 163-176) Halsall, Guy. 2003. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900. Routledge. London.
  156. (Halsall 2003, 163-176) Halsall, Guy. 2003. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900. Routledge. London.
  157. (Halsall 2003, 163-176) Halsall, Guy. 2003. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900. Routledge. London.
  158. (Halsall 2003, 163-176) Halsall, Guy. 2003. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900. Routledge. London.
  159. People's Magazine. 1867. People's Magazine: An Illustrated Miscellany for Family Reading. Society For Promoting Christian Knowledge. London. p. 381
  160. (Halsall 2003, 163-176) Halsall, Guy. 2003. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900. Routledge. London.
  161. (Halsall 2003, 163-176) Halsall, Guy. 2003. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900. Routledge. London.
  162. (Halsall 2003, 163-176) Halsall, Guy. 2003. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900. Routledge. London.
  163. (Bachrach 1972, 128) Bachrach, B S. 1972. Merovingian Military Organization 481-751. University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis.
  164. (Bachrach 1972, 128) Bachrach, B S. 1972. Merovingian Military Organization 481-751. University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis.
  165. (Bachrach 1972, 35) Bachrach, B S. 1972. Merovingian Military Organization 481-751. University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis.
  166. (Runyan 1995, 1246-1247) Timothy J Runyan. 1995. Naval Power. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York.
  167. (Jones 1999, 171-172) Richard L C Jones. Fortifications and Sieges in Western Europe, c.800-1450. Maurice Keen. ed. 1999. Medieval Warfare: A History. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  168. (Jones 1999, 171-172) Richard L C Jones. Fortifications and Sieges in Western Europe, c.800-1450. Maurice Keen. ed. 1999. Medieval Warfare: A History. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  169. (Jones 1999, 171-172) Richard L C Jones. Fortifications and Sieges in Western Europe, c.800-1450. Maurice Keen. ed. 1999. Medieval Warfare: A History. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  170. (Bachrach 1972, 19, 135) Bachrach, B S. 1972. Merovingian Military Organization 481-751. University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis.
  171. (Bachrach 1972, 55) Bachrach, B S. 1972. Merovingian Military Organization 481-751. University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis.
  172. (Bachrach 1972, 127) Bachrach, B S. 1972. Merovingian Military Organization 481-751. University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis.
  173. (Loseby in Wood ed. 1998, 245-249) Loseby, S. T. 1998. “Gregory’s Cities: Urban Functions in Sixth-Century Gaul.” In Franks and Alamanni in the Merovingian Period: An Ethnographic Perspective, edited by I. N. Wood, 239-69. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DT5E5GNS.
  174. Bauerschmidt, F.C. 2007. The Middle Ages. In Pomplun, T., F.C. Bauerschmidt and J.J. Buckley (eds) ‘’The Blackwell Companion to Catholicism’’ pp. 49-62. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
  175. Hen, Y. 2004. The Christianisation of Kingship. In Jarnut, J. and M. Becher (eds.) Der Dynastiewechsel von 751. Vorgeschichte, Legitimationsstrategien und Errinerung pp. 163-177. Munster: Scriptorium
  176. Woodhead, L. 2014. Christianity: A Short introduction p. 9. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  177. Evans, G.R. 2007. ‘’The Church in the Early Middle Ages’’ p. 65. London: I.B. Tauris & Co.
  178. James, L. 2008. The Role of Women. In Jeffries, E., J. Haldon and R. Cormack (eds) ‘’The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies’’ pp. 643-651. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
  179. Evans, G.R. 2007. ‘’The Church in the Early Middle Ages’’ p. 65. London: I.B. Tauris & Co.
  180. Evans, G.R. 2007. ‘’The Church in the Early Middle Ages’’ p. 65. London: I.B. Tauris & Co.
  181. O’Collins, G. and M.S.J. Ferrugia. 2003. ‘’Catholicism: The Story of Catholic Christianity’’ pp. 357-358. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  182. Brodman, J. 2009. Charity and Religion in Medieval Europe. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press.
  183. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  184. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  185. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html

McKinnon, J. 1995. Mass, Chants and Texts in Kibbler, G. and Zinn, W. (eds.) Medieval France An Encyclopaedia London: Garland Publishing. p.599-601

Bachrach, B S. 1972. Merovingian Military Organization 481-751. University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis.

DeVries, K and Smith, R D. 2007. Medieval Weapons: An Illustrated History of Their Impact. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara. [3]

Dupuy, E and Dupuy, T N. 2007. The Collins Encylopedia of Military History. From 3500 B.C. to the Present. 4th Edition. BCA.

Fallon, S. 2010. Paris. Lonely Planet

Frassetto, M. 2003. Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe: Society in Transformation. ABC CLIO

Glick T F, Livesey, S and Wallis, F. 2014. Medieval Science Technology and Medicine: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.

Halsall, Guy. 2003. Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900. Routledge. London.

Hen, Y. 1995. Culture and Religion in Merovingian Gaul: A.D. 481-751. Brill.

Jenkins, C. 2011. A Brief History of France. Robinson

Kazanski, M. and P. Périn. 1988. Le mobilier funéraire de la tombe de Childéric 1er ; état de la question et perspectives. In: Revue archéologique de Picardie. N°3-4, 1988. pp. 13-38.

Kilber, W W. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press

Lodewijckx, M ed. 2004. Bruc ealles well: archaeological essays concerning the peoples of North-West Europe in the first millennium AD. Leuven University Press. Leuven.

McEvedy, C and Jones, R. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Allen Lane. London

McKinnon, J. 1995. Mass, Chants and Texts in Kibbler, G. and Zinn, W. (eds.) Medieval France An Encyclopaedia London: Garland Publishing. p.599-601

Riddle, J M. 2008. A History of the Middle Ages, 300-1500. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

Schutz, H. 2004. The Carolingians in Central Europe, Their History, Arts, and Architecture: A Cultural History of Central Europe, 750-900. BRILL

Wickham, C. 2005. Framing the Middle Ages. Europe and the Mediterranean, 400-800. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

Wood, I ed. 1998. Franks and Alamanni in the Merovingian Period: An Ethnographic Perspective. Volume 3. The Boydell Press. San Marino.

Wood, I. 1994. The Merovingian Kingdoms 450-751 CE. Longman. Harlow.

Yates, N and Gibson, J M. 1994. Traffic and Politics: The Construction and Management of Rochester Bridge, AD 43-1993. Boydell & Brewer. Rochester.

Zadora-Rio, E. 2003. The Making of churchyards and parish territories in the early-medieval landscape of France and England in the 7th-12th centuries: a reconsideration. Medieval archaeology 47: 1-19.


http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/thierry-the-historical-essays-and-narratives-of-the-merovingian-era

http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/articles/m/merovingians.aspx

http://www.livius.org/place/chaussee-brunehaut-via-belgica/

http://www.via-regia.org/eng/viaregiageschichte/versuch.php