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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Hallstatt A-B1 ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ European Bronze Age; Late European Bronze Age; Urnfield culture; Hallstatt culture; Hallstatt; North-Alpine Complex; Atlantic Complex ♥ The Paris Basin region straddles the "North-Alpine Complex" and the "Atlantic Complex" culture. [1] This time period straddles end of the Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron Age in Europe.

♠ Peak Date ♣ 900 BCE ♥

Most developed at the end of this period?

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1000-900 BCE ♥

At the end of the European Bronze Age at the transition to Hallstatt culture

"The European Bronze Age lasted from approximately 2500-800 BC. It was the period in which the production and use of metal tools and weapons first became widespread."[2]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose ♥

2500-800 BCE (European Bronze Age)

"centralization of power but only at a restricted scale and in three forms (Brun and Pion 1992): 1. A cluster of dispersed farms gravitate around a monument, a sort of tomb-sanctuary, which symbolizes the unity of the territorial community. This community is ruled by a chief who occupies one of the farms. 2. A cluster of farmsteads polarized by a village, near which is found the territorial sanctuary. ... 3. Identical in organization to #2, but the central role of the village is held by a fortification. It appears that this type of settlement owes its existence to the control it exerted over long-distance exchange, especially over exchange in metal." [3]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Atlantic Complex ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Hallstatt B2-3 ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Hallstatt ♥ 2500-800 BCE (European Bronze Age) "The principal characteristics of the Bronze Age appear during the middle of the third millennium BC." [4]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Unknown ♥


♠ Language ♣ ♥ Unknown?

General Description

The Hallstatt culture, named after an archaeological site in Austria and traditionally divided into four phases, was the main cultural complex in Western Europe during the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age. It coincides with the North Alpine complex, extending over modern-day central and southern Germany, northern Italy, and Switzerland.[5]

Population and political organization

Across Europe, thousands of small-scale polities coexisted in the Hallstatt A period (c. 1100-1000 BCE);[6] the average independent political unit controlled a zone with a radius of 20 kilometres.[7] Most settlements identified archaeologically consisted of dispersed farms gravitating around a significant monument, a village or a fortification.[8]
At this time, elites had control over long-distance exchange networks, which encouraged the production of bronze objects such as helmets.[9] These elites also distinguished themselves in death, as they were buried in elaborate complexes of tumuli, which could include protective walls, stone markers and even four-wheeled wagons.[10]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [750-1250] ♥ in squared kilometers

Around 1000-900 BCE, politically independent polities in the northern alpine region (which includes central France [11]) had a radius of about 20 km, which gives an area of about 1,257 sq kilometers. [12]

[13]

2500-800 BCE (European Bronze Age) - this is earlier research from the same author. Since it is earlier research and the same author I defer to the more recent research. However, the upper limit is similar.

"Each politically autonomous territory measured from 7 to 15 km in diameter during the whole period, except during periods of temporary expansion." [14]
"The Wessex communities seem to have succeeded in organizing polities 1000 km2 in extent" however "Evidence of similar polities is very rare in Europe during the same period." [15]


♠ Polity Population ♣ [100-1000] ♥ People. There is a mismatch between polity territory and polity population. Very rough estimate assuming small communities of ~10 100-or-so person villages

2500-800 BCE (European Bronze Age)

"Each autonomous political community consisted of around a hundred people on average, distributed in five to eight small settlements." [16]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 100 ♥ Inhabitants.

2500-800 BCE (European Bronze Age)

"Each autonomous political community consisted of around a hundred people on average, distributed in five to eight small settlements." [17]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels.

1. Village

2. Farmstead


2500-800 BCE (European Bronze Age)

"centralization of power but only at a restricted scale and in three forms (Brun and Pion 1992): 1. A cluster of dispersed farms gravitate around a monument, a sort of tomb-sanctuary, which symbolizes the unity of the territorial community. This community is ruled by a chief who occupies one of the farms. 2. A cluster of farmsteads polarized by a village, near which is found the territorial sanctuary. ... 3. Identical in organization to #2, but the central role of the village is held by a fortification. It appears that this type of settlement owes its existence to the control it exerted over long-distance exchange, especially over exchange in metal." [18]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels.

1. Chief

2. Headman

2500-800 BCE (European Bronze Age)

"centralization of power but only at a restricted scale and in three forms (Brun and Pion 1992): 1. A cluster of dispersed farms gravitate around a monument, a sort of tomb-sanctuary, which symbolizes the unity of the territorial community. This community is ruled by a chief who occupies one of the farms. 2. A cluster of farmsteads polarized by a village, near which is found the territorial sanctuary. ... 3. Identical in organization to #2, but the central role of the village is held by a fortification. It appears that this type of settlement owes its existence to the control it exerted over long-distance exchange, especially over exchange in metal." [19]. "The production of bronze objects has suggested to many scholars that, just as trade became more complex, sociopolitical organization may have become more complex as well. This idea seems to be reinforced by the presence of fortified towns, suggesting some degree of political integration, at least at a local level. Unfortunately, there is little formal data on sociopolitical organization for the Earlier Bronze Age. Scholars analyzing the contents of burials have suggested a two-tiered division was present in Earlier Bronze Age society, with one tier being "elites" buried with considerable wealth, the other being commoners buried with very few goods. Most scholars believe that such differences were probably achieved during the life of the individual, particularly since many of the "elite" burials contain goods associated with warriors. However, both women and men, and even some children, were buried in the "elite" style, suggesting that ascribed status differences may have been present." [20]

♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Quasi-Polities were unified by their sanctuaries and monuments. [21]


♠ Military levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred absent ♥ Full-time specialists


Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
previous code: inferred present | primitive irrigation system known from Beaker culture. "Silo" present during this time period. [22] Does this refer to food storage? Surplus production might also indicate irrigation systems. DH: is there evidence or reason to believe Beaker irrigation, if existed, remained?

♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Silo" present during this time period. [23] Does this refer to food storage?

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Script ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ History ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ suspected unknown ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥ Interpolating between the previous and succeeding periods
♠ Tokens ♣ [present; absent] ♥ Possibly present for Atlantic Complex.
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ "In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [24]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ "In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [25]
♠ Iron ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ "Spears were used from the Palaeolithic period for hunting, both handheld and as projectiles, and also served as weapons in early times, though it was not until the Middle Bronze Age when socketed metal spearheads began to be developed that spear superseded arrows as the preferred projectile. Their frequency in Bronze and Iron Age burials shows that they were used by all warriors and par- ticularly by fighters who did not own a sword." [26]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ "The story of the Bronze Age is also to some extent the story of the inven- tions that occurred during it. High up on the list of these come the series of new weapons created during the period. The bow and arrow had existed since at least the Mesolithic, the dagger since the Neolithic." [27]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from previous and succeeding (quasi)polities.
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous quasi-polities.
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous quasi-polities.
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "a very fine decorated one-edged knife of advanced Hallstatt A type ... also a dagger with notched hilt"[28]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Sword found in Loire Valley dates to 1000-820 BCE time period. [29] "Bronze age swords found by Lake Neuchâtel, Switzerland, estimated to be 3,000 year old."[30]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ Spears were used from the Palaeolithic period for hunting, both handheld and as projectiles, and also served as weapons in early times, though it was not until the Middle Bronze Age when socketed metal spearheads began to be developed that spear superseded arrows as the preferred projectile. Their frequency in Bronze and Iron Age burials shows that they were used by all warriors and par- ticularly by fighters who did not own a sword." [31]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent periods.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Horses ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent periods
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Shields ♣ inferred absent ♥ No finds within France until 620-560 BCE. ("Umbo" = shield boss?) [32]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Helmet found in Loire Valley dates to 1000-820 BCE time period. [33]
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent periods.
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Iron chain mail was introduced in the third century BCE, probably by the Celtic peoples.[34] The French Chronocarto database mentions "Chaîne de suspension" for the later Hallstatt periods. Either way, the technology was not present at this time.
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ "Similarities between the logboats and plank boats of the period 600 BC to AD 600 and those of earlier times suggest that the roots of Celtic boatbuilding lie in the second millennium BC or earlier." [35] However there is no geographical resolution, even if the term 'Celtic' implies La Tène and Hallstatt.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ Some fortified villages that appear to be associated with long-distance exchange networks. [36]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ Some fortified villages that appear to be associated with long-distance exchange networks. [37]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the presence of complex fortifications in previous and subsequent polities in the Paris Basin.
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km. Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ suspected unknown ♥ 2500-800 BCE European Bronze Age: "A cluster of dispersed farms gravitate around a monument, a sort of tomb-sanctuary, which symbolizes the unity of the territorial community. This community is ruled by a chief who occupies one of the farms."[38]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [39] [40] [41]

References

  1. (Brun 1995, 14)
  2. (Allen 2007, 18)
  3. (Brun 1995, 15)
  4. (Brun 1995, 13)
  5. (Brun 1995, 14) Brun, Patrice. 1995. “From Chiefdom to State Organization in Celtic Europe.” In Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State: The Evolution of Complex Social Systems in Prehistoric Europe, edited by Bettina Arnold and D. Blair Gibson, Cambridge University Press, 13-25. Cambridge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RZWRCEPH.
  6. (CNRS-ENS 2017) CNRS-ENS. 2017. “Atlas de L’âge Du Fer.” Accessed July 7. http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/patlas. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/HUKZMF9J.
  7. (Brun 2007, 381) Brun, Patrice. 2007. “Une Période de Transition Majeure En Europe: De La Fin Du IVe Au Début Du IIe s. Av. J.-C.(La Tène B2 et C).” In La Gaule Dans Son Contexte Européen Aux IV e et III e Siècle Avant Notre Ère, edited by Christine Mennessier-Jouannet, Anne-Marie Adam, and Pierre-Yves Milcent, 377-84. Lattes: Edition de l’Association pour le Développement de l’Archéologie en Languedoc-Roussillon. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/D2ET47FZ.
  8. (Brun 1995, 15) Brun, Patrice. 1995. “From Chiefdom to State Organization in Celtic Europe.” In Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State: The Evolution of Complex Social Systems in Prehistoric Europe, edited by Bettina Arnold and D. Blair Gibson, Cambridge University Press, 13-25. Cambridge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RZWRCEPH.
  9. (Allen 2007, 119) Allen, Stephen. 2007. Lords of Battle: The World of the Celtic Warrior. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F9D9PI8A.
  10. Pare, Christopher FE. 1992. Wagons and Wagon-Graves of the Early Iron Age in Central Europe. Vol. 35. Oxford: Oxford University School of Archaeology. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/XPKX7SNP.
  11. (Brun 2007, 380)
  12. (Brun 2007, 381)
  13. (Brun 2007, 381)
  14. (Brun 1995, 15)
  15. (Brun 1995, 14)
  16. (Brun 1995, 14)
  17. (Brun 1995, 14)
  18. (Brun 1995, 15)
  19. (Brun 1995, 15)
  20. (Peregrine 2001, 413)
  21. (Brun 1995, 15)
  22. (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)
  23. (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)
  24. (Allen 2007, 119)
  25. (Allen 2007, 119)
  26. (McIntosh 2006, 298)
  27. (Harding 2000, 275)
  28. (Sandars 1957, 90) N K Sandars. 2014 (1957). Bronze Age Cultures in France. The Later Phases From The Thirteenth To The Seventh Century B.C. Cambridge At The University Press. Cambridge.
  29. (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)
  30. (https://twitter.com/europeshistory/status/630725341313548288)
  31. (McIntosh 2006, 298)
  32. (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)
  33. (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)
  34. (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  35. (Green 1995, 271)
  36. (Brun 1995, 15)
  37. (Brun 1995, 15)
  38. (Brun 1995, 15)
  39. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  40. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  41. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html


Gibson D B, Arnold, B. ed. 1995. Celtic chiefdom, Celtic state. New Directions in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press.


Collis, J. "States without centers? The middle La Tene period in temperate Europe." in Gibson D B, Arnold, B. ed. 1995. Celtic chiefdom, Celtic state. New Directions in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press.

Brun, P. "From chiefdom to state organization in Celtic Europe." in Gibson D B, Arnold, B. ed. 1995. Celtic chiefdom, Celtic state. New Directions in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press.


Crumley, C L. "Building an historical ecology of Gaulish polities." in Gibson D B, Arnold, B. ed. 1995. Celtic chiefdom, Celtic state. New Directions in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press.

Green, M. J. 1995. The Celtic World. New World: Routledge.

Fischer, F and Arnold, B (trans). "The early Celts of west central Europe: the semantics of social structure." in Gibson D B, Arnold, B. ed. 1995. Celtic chiefdom, Celtic state. New Directions in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press.


Arnold, B. "The material culture of social structure: rank and status in early Iron Age Europe." in Gibson D B, Arnold, B. ed. 1995. Celtic chiefdom, Celtic state. New Directions in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press.


Dietler, M. "Early 'Celtic' socio-political relations: ideological representation and social competition in dynamic comparative perspective." in Gibson D B, Arnold, B. ed. 1995. Celtic chiefdom, Celtic state. New Directions in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press.


Haselgrove, C. "Late Iron Age society in Britain and north-west Europe: structural transformation or superficial change?" in Gibson D B, Arnold, B. ed. 1995. Celtic chiefdom, Celtic state. New Directions in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press.


Wells, P S. "Settlement and social systems at the end of the Iron Age." in Gibson D B, Arnold, B. ed. 1995. Celtic chiefdom, Celtic state. New Directions in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press.


Patterson, N T. "Clans are not primordial: pre-Viking Irish society and the modelling of pre-Roman societies in northern Europe." in Gibson D B, Arnold, B. ed. 1995. Celtic chiefdom, Celtic state. New Directions in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press.

Allen, S. 2007. Lords of Battle: The World of the Celtic Warrior. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

Albessard, L. 2011. “Home is where one starts from”: the mechanics of cultural diffusion in Iron Age Atlantic Europe as evidenced by British and French circular architecture. Dissertation MSc Archaeology. University of Edinburgh.

Henderson, J. 2007. The Atlantic Iron Age, Settlement and Identity in the First Millenium BC. Routledge. London and New York.

Sandars, N. K. 1957. Bronze Age Cultures in France. Cambridge: CUP.