FrCaptL

From Seshat Data Browser
Revision as of 18:40, 13 December 2021 by Admin (talk | contribs) (1 revision imported)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ French Kingdom - Late Capetian ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1285-1314 CE ♥ Early 1200s increasing state revenues relative to inflation. Expansion in urbanised population after 1250 CE. Stagflation from about 1250 CE. [1] On metrics associated with strength of state peak occurred a bit later, during the reign of Philip IV.


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1150-1328 CE ♥ Capetian dynasty began with Hugo Capet 987 CE. Before 1200 CE polity held very little territory. Expansion began around 1150 CE. [2] Capetian dynasty ended 1328 CE.[3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose; unitary state ♥ loose: 1150-1200 CE; unitary state: 1200-1328 CE

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Proto-French Kingdom ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ French Kingdom - Early Valois ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Latin Christendom ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 17,000,000 ♥ km squared. Latin Christendom was roughly equivalent to the maximum extent of the former Roman Empire? The rough limits of Christianity in this period: the area that is now northeastern Germany would be converted by force under Charlemagne, while the area south of Rome, in particular Calabria, Puglia, and Basilicata, was as much part of the Eastern Orthodox world as that of Latin Christendom, although these distinctions did not exist then.


♠ Capital ♣ Paris ♥

King’s court permanently established in Paris 1250 CE. [4] Louis VI permanent resident in Paris from 1130 CE [5] but court moved with king on his travels.


♠ Language ♣ French; Langues dOil; Occitan ♥ Entry field has been edited to make it machine readable French; Langues d'Oïl; Occitan: 1000-1200 CE [6] During 11th and 12th centuries the population that lived south of the Loire spoke Occitan. [7] Celtic language still strong in Brittany, even among the aristocrats.[8]

General Description

In the history of France the Late Capetian period (1150-1328 CE) was a character-defining period of administrative centralization and demographic expansion.

Population and political organization

Before Philip II (r. 1180-1223 CE), government was very simple and closely linked to the king's court, which was still itinerant, moving wherever the king went.[9] At the core of the French king's government were a few major officials with household titles (chancellor, seneschal, butler, chamberlain and constable).[10] From the 12th century onwards, these positions were the preserve of the aristocracy.[11][12]
Philip II was likewise surrounded by a group of close counsellors,[13] but he also laid some of the foundations of a more formal administrative system.[14] More than ever, government activity was recorded in writing; registers and government records for finance and justice were placed in a dedicated archive.[15] The clergy of the Christian Church, which had long provided a pool of 'educated, literature and numerate subjects', continued to be a vital resource for the government and administration, while the Knights Templar military order advised and under Philip II controlled the treasury from the Paris Temple.[16][17] However, an indication of the increasing specialization of central government, men of lesser status, such as marshals, were increasingly often appointed to important official positions.[18] The first truly professional administration in Paris dates from about 1250 CE[19] and included distinct departments for finance, justice, the chancery and the treasury, housed within the Royal Palace on the Île de la Cité.[20]
The power of the royal centre over the regions (for instance, the power of the French king to make laws binding across the whole of his territory) steadily increased during the Late Capetian period.[21] Seneschals who had previously served as the senior officials in the households of dukes, barons, and counts were generally retained but now became royal appointees.[22] From the reign of Louis VIII (1223-1226 CE), apanages were carved out in peripheral regions and placed under the control of the sons of the ruler.[23]
From the 11th to the 14th century CE, the French population almost quadrupled from about 4 to 15 million.[24] The population of Paris may have grown from about 25,000 people in 1200 CE to 210,000 in 1328 CE.[25]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 75,000: 1150 CE; 80,000: 1200 CE; 330,000: 1250 CE; 350,000: 1300 CE ♥ in squared kilometers. [26]

Territory of French Kingdom in Km2

1150 CE: 75,000
1200 CE: 80,000
1250 CE: 330,000
1300 CE: 350,000


♠ Polity Population ♣ 3,000,000: 1150 CE; 4,000,000: 1200 CE; 14,000,000: 1250 CE; 17,000,000: 1300 CE ♥

Population of France and estimate for French Kingdom

1150 CE - 7 million
3 million
1200 CE - 10 million
4 million
1250 CE - 15 million
14 million
1300 CE - 18 million
17 million

Population of medieval France derived from Turchin and Nefedov (2009). [27] Estimates take account of territory of France in the possession of the French Kingdom.[28]

Reduction of forest cover in medieval France (estimates)[29]

1000 CE: 26 million ha forest cover
1300 CE: 13 million ha forest cover


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 25,000: 1150 CE; [25,000-30,000]: 1200 CE; 150,000: 1250 CE; 200,000: 1300 CE ♥

Paris. [30] -- need to check that the 200,000: 1300 CE figure is from this source

France c1300 CE 12 cities 20,000-50,000 population[31]
France c1300 CE 20 cities 10,000-20,000 population[32]

Paris may have grown from about 25,000 in 1200 to 210,000 in 1328 CE. [33]

Paris possibly 25,000 1200 CE.[34] -- [25,000-50,000]: 1200 CE where does the 50,000 figure in the range come from?


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

1. Capital city

Paris may have grown from about 25,000 in 1200 to 210,000 in 1328 CE. [35]
Regional City or colonial city (Kingdom of Navarre c.1200 CE)
2. Capital of a principality
France c1300 CE 12 cities 20,000-50,000 population[36]
Marseille, Montpellier, Lyon, and Bordeaux about

30,000.[37]

3. Large Town - with district administrative buildings
France c1300 CE 20 cities 10,000-20,000 population[38]
Avignon about 1300 CE population 5,000-6,000 [39] ballooned to 40,000 ten years after arrival of Pope[40] - 1319 CE.
Provins over 10,000 population 1200-1300 CE [41]
4. Small town
5. Hamlet
90% population lived in rural settlements[42]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels.


1. King

Louis IX (reign 1226-1270 CE) began the rebuilding of the royal palace on Ile de la Cite, which was completed by Philip IV [43]
Philip IV (1284-1314 CE) strongly tried to link ruler-ship to divine origin. Persuaded Pope to posthumously canonise Louis IX.


_Central government_

Foundations of administrative system laid by Philip II. [44]

Philip II had "a small group of close counsellers who held offices with particular, if not always specialized, functions. Philip also employed royal agents in the demesne, and outside, to carry on the routine work of government and to enforce the changes which he introduced./ We speak of departments, and we know of the existence of a chancery and a chamber, but we should be mistaken to see these as entirely separated organizations. Household departments do not emerge until the reign of St Louis, but they were in the process of formation in Philip's time. The close counsellors and the clerks could still move from one area of the administration to another, and often did.../ Central government was organized under a few major officials: the chancellor, the seneschal, the butler, the chamberlain and the constable. These originated as household officials with specific functions. By the beginning of the twelfth century these offices had been taken over by leading magnates. Under Philip, one or two magnates held such titles ... But the trend was to pass office, and sometimes title, to more humble men and their professional staff, for example marshals assisting the constables."[45]

"By the reign of Philip II (1180-1223), the Templars were effectively the French royal treasury. During the course of his reign, they increased the revenues from royal estates by 120 per cent, and were heavily involved in Philip's restructuring of Capetian finances. During the thirteenth century, the Templar treasurer in Paris was always a man selected by the king, and the treasurers became trusted advisers to Philip and his successors. ... That the Templars proved themselves to be so successful as bankers is due in no large part to the meticulousness of their records, and their objectivity in dealing with clients. Records survive from the Paris Temple for the period 12 March 1295 to 4 July the following year, and they give a clear indication of how busy the Paris Temple was in its role as banker. ... There were more than 60 active accounts at the Paris Temple during this period, with the account holders being a mixture of royalty, clergy, important nobles and Templar officials."[46]

2. who replaced the senechal at this level?
3. Department heads. Finance, Justice, Chancery, Treasury (from Philip IV - previously the treasury was kept by the Knights Templar at their Temple), auditors, law-courts (parlements), archives (muniments in tresor des chartres)
Government departments within the Royal Palace, Ile de la City [47]
4. Lesser officials


Law courts Parlement De Paris from 1250-1790 CE

Philip II used non-noble officers to over-see courts[48]


_Provincial government_

2. Leader of semi-autonomous city-state
3.
4.
autonomous urban governments had independent judicial institutions, legal system, and administration and managed its own relations with the church and the monarchy.[49]
Some cities were semi-autonomous city-states, e.g. Flanders [50]
2. Ruler of appanage
3.
4.
"Beginning with the sons of Blanche of Castile and Louis VIII (r. 1223-26), apanages became normal in France. By installing their sons as rulers, monarchs could control newly acquired outlying areas, as northern French nobles had long done." [51]
Apanage: "province or jurisdiction, or later for an office or annuity, granted (with the reservation that in the absence of direct heirs the land escheated to the crown)" - often granted to sons of the Capetian king [52]
2. Dukes/Barons/Counts who ruled principalities
3. Principalities had capitals with their own mini-government system [53]
4.
Example: the Dauphine of Vienne an independent principality (until 1349 CE). Territory from Rhone to The Alps. "Capital" city was Vienne. [54]
Example: Burgundy. Duke of Burgundy had his administration based at Beaune, which moved to Dijon in the 14th century.[55]
"Between 1120 and 1481, no lord in France is known to have made any regular use of prince as a title of lordship" [56]
3. District: Bailiff in a Bailliage (Northern France); seneschal in a Sénéchiaussée (Southern France)
The basic provincial administrative unit of late-medieval France from late in the reign of Philip II[57]
bailliage and sénéchiaussé were administrative subdivisions of France established by Philip II after 1190.[58]
seneschals of dukes, barons, counts became royal appointees, continued their role as chief administrative officers. the lands under their control became known as sénéchaussées.[59]
baillis of royal provinces, particularly important under Philip II (1180-1222 CE) [60]
late Middle Ages 30-40 districts governed by a bailiff or a seneschal.[61]
4. Prévôt in a Prévôté.
The district for which a prévôt was responsible was called the prévôté, and there were half a dozen of these in each bailliage.[62]
prévot farmed the revenues of the royal domain and rendered justice at a local level.
a "prevote" was a military region used in the raising of armed forces (end 12th century)[63]
5. Leader of a parish
Cities could be divided into parishes [64]

♠ Religious levels ♣ [6-7] ♥

King as divine ruler, especially encouraged by Philip IV who was the first of the Valois kings.


Note: hierarchy might need fine-tuning to conditions in Carolingian France


1. King as divine ruler, especially encouraged by Philip IV who was the first of the Valois kings.

1. Pope

Pope is primus inter pares among the five patriarchs.[65]
2. Metropolitans and archbishops
"the term 'bishop' applies to patriarchs, metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops (both suffragan and assistant bishops or chorepiskopoi) throughout the Byzantine period. After the 'ecumenical' patriarch of Constantinople, who after the seventh century occupied the only remaining patriarchal seat under Byzantine rule, metropolitans held the second highest rank in the Orthodox Church."[66]
"The title 'archbishop' emerged in special cases, for example in important cities such as Athens which did not possess a metropolitan."[67]
3. Bishops and Chorepiskopoi
Bishops and Chorepiskopoi form one rank below the metropolitans and archbishops[68]
3. Priest
"In the early Church, priests or presbyters served as advisers, teachers, and ministers who assisted the bishops to whom they were assigned."[69]
4. Deacon
"Deacons assisted the priest or bishop at the Divine Liturgy, baptisms, and other sacraments. ... Various administrative and pastoral jobs were delegated to deacons from an early period; they helped bishops to dispense charity to the community, manage the diocese's finances and property, and to deal with other official business (Laodikeia, canons 21, 23, 25). Deacons were subject to the authority of both bishops and priests, but they came to exercise considerable power, especially in the patriarchate of Constantinople."[70]
4. Deaconess (diakonissa)
"The deaconess's chief liturgical role was to assist at the baptisms of women; she also acted as a mediator between women parishioners and their bishops, kept order among female members of the congregation, and ministered especially to women."[71]
5. Subdeacon
"The rank of subdeacon provided a stepping-stone to that of deacon; its duties were similar to those of the deacon."[72]
6. Reader (anagnostesj
"A reader is a member of the lower clergy with the responsibility of reading, usually from the ambo, passages from the Epistles and the Old Testament prescribed for offices and the Divine Liturgy."[73]
7. Minor orders
"Other members of the minor clerical orders included doorkeepers, exorcists, cantors, and widows. All of these officials helped in either liturgical, administrative, or pastoral functions. Most would have received payment from their dioceses, or, in the case of private foundations, from their donors, but it is likely that most would have been engaged in secular professions in order to supplement their incomes."[74]


♠ Military levels ♣ [5-6] ♥ levels. 6: 1150-1314 CE; 6-7: 1314-1328 CE

1. King

2. Constable (from 1091 CE)
regional armies usually commanded by relatives of king[75]
senechal was the senior royal official, and senior military commander [76] - only until 1091 CE[77]
3. Marshal (sometime after 1226 CE - 14th century, by 1314 CE)
Without responsibilities under Philip II and Louis VIII. [78]
gained military command duties in 14th century. Philip VI "appointed two marshals as second in command of the French army below the constable."[79]
"Helped by a provost and some lieutenants, they were responsible for recruiting captains, inspecting the troops, and organizing the pay for the army."[80]
4. Knight
During a crisis the garrison at Bordeaux had 4 bannerets, 23 knights, 227 squires and 192 sergeants" and local militia.[81]
Grand Master of the Crossbowmen (from 1200 CE) - additional level?
5. Sergeant
"In the military context, sergeants were lightly armed fighting men who served and

supported knights." [82] Also had civilian "enforcer" role.

Mid-12th century professional sergeants equipped by nobles[83]
Infantry sergeants paid 9 deniers a day[84]
Also mounted sergeants[85]
6. Individual soldier
lower level below Sergeant?


Militia leader (this level also called constable?)

Lead a milita, paid slightly less than a sergeant [86]

Captains[87]

Each city parish had its own captain

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥

Professional sergeants in the mid 12th century.[88]

Permanent command structure under Philip IV (reign 1284-1314 CE) but no permanent army [89]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present: 1150-1199 CE; present: 1200-1283 CE; inferred absent: 1284-1328 CE ♥

Dates currently based on estimates.

Present: "By the first years of the 13th century the French king could maintain a virtual standing army on his frontier with English-ruled Normandy. [90]
Absent: Permanent command structure under Philip IV (reign 1284-1314 CE) but no permanent army [91]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Christianity

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥

Professional administration in Paris from 1250 CE. "[92]

Professional maitres des comptes in auditing department. [93]
secretaries, or greffiers, of the Parlement de Paris. Records of its decisions, called the Olim, "and from the 14th century and thereafter they produced series of records of most of the

Parlement’s work."[94]

"By the reign of Philiph II (1180-1223), the Templars were effectively the French royal treasury. During the course of his reign, they increased the revenues from royal estates by 120 per cent, and were heavily involved in Philip's restructuring of Capetian finances. During the thirteenth century, the Templar treasurer in Paris was always a man selected by the king, and the treasurers became trusted advisers to Philip and his successors. ... That the Templars proved themselves to be so successful as bankers is due in no large part to the meticulousness of their records, and their objectivity in dealing with clients. Records survive from the Paris Temple for the period 12 March 1295 to 4 July the following year, and they give a clear indication of how busy the Paris Temple was in its role as banker. ... There were more than 60 active accounts at the Paris Temple during this period, with the account holders being a mixture of royalty, clergy, important nobles and Templar officials."[95]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred present ♥ University required examinations?

Department of Chancery hired university trained bureaucrats.[96]


♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred present ♥ Philip II used non-noble officers to over-see courts[97]

Department of Chancery hired university trained bureaucrats.[98]


♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Royal mint. Offices of the government departments in Paris. [99] Philip II made an effort to preserve registers and government records for finance and justice in a dedicated archive.[100]


Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ absent ♥

French customary law not written down until 13th century. "Roman and canon law provided the inspiration for this activity. Customary law varied from one region of France to another, and the writing of such law took place within regional or provincial boundaries." [101]

Autonomous urban governments developed a legal system "neither feudal, Roman, nor customary, that administered the legal needs of the urban population" [102]


♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ [103]

Justice system with courts set up for fairs to enable dispute resolution. [104]

In 1260 CE Montpellier University had a law department and its graduates became judges and administrators in southern France in the 13th century.[105]


♠ Courts ♣ present ♥

Law courts called parlements established at the Royal Palace in Paris by Philip IV. Justice administration "in the hands of parlements staffed by professional lawyers organized in three chambers." [106]

Under Louis IX (reign 1226-1270 CE), Parlement de Paris became the highest court of appeal in France. [107]

Justice system with courts set up for fairs to enable dispute resolution. [108]


♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥ [109]

In 1260 CE Montpellier University had a law department and its graduates became judges and administrators in southern France in the 13th century.[110]


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Irrigation canals. [111] (from 10th century?). 12th and 13th centuries flaz and hemp cultivated from networks of shallow canals. [112]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ Cisterns. By 1000 CE most communities obtained water from rivers, wells and cisterns and this was still the case at the end of the Middle Ages. However, in the 11th and 12th centuries new water supply systems were developed which became installed in towns. [113] (within this time period?) "Pilgrims, crusaders, university students, and merchants would have encountered conduits and fountains in the course of their travels."[114] By end of Middle Ages[115]: piped water to public fountains; artificial lifting devices and water towers
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Halles au ble[116]: Established by Philip II (reign 1180-1222 CE); Market in Paris for sales of wheat/grain. "French kings conceded fairs as privileges to some locales by regalian right, uncontested except in the case of the most rebellious of lords, such as the duke of Burgundy under Louis XI.[117] International fairs and markets not polity owned under patronage and protection of counts, who levied tolls:[118] Provins; Troyes; Lagny; Bar-Sur-Aube
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥


Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ By early 14th century Paris had paved streets. Roads around Ile de France region also improved.[119] Royal toll stations, e.g. at Bapaume. [120] Mud roads linked towns. Major towns paved through-fares.[121] The Saint-Gothard pass, 1237 CE. Enabled overland travel "between northern Italy and Flanders via the Rhine, eliminating passage through Champagne." [122]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Bridge built over Saone at St-Jean-de-Losne. [123] Bridge of St. Laurent at Macon. [124] Bridge at Avignon 1177 CE over Rhone funded by alms givers. [125]
♠ Canals ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Bordeaux [126] Many ports at mouth of Rhone. Louis IX in the 1260s CE built a new fortified port on royal lands called Aigues Mortes. [127] Ports[128] North Sea: Montreuil-sur-Mer, Boulogne, and Calais. Mediterranean: Collioure, Agde, Aigues-Mortes (late Capetian), and Marseille.


Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ "France possesses no precious metal resources and little copper. Iron ores are abundant, and there are regional deposits of lead, zinc, and coal. All of these were exploited during the Middle Ages. Evidence for ironworking exists from Merovingian France onward." [129]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Anything written by the era's literati.
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ French language.
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ French language.
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ French language.

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ Weight standard of Troyes - became an international standard [130]
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Bible.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ "academic community may have numbered 3,000 or 4,000 by the end of the 12th century.Whatever the precise number, by 1200 Paris was the leading center in Europe for the study of the Liberal Arts and theology" [131]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ University of Paris established. Paris was a cultural and intellectual centre. [132] "great collection of customary law made by Philippe de Beaumanoir ca. 1283, the Coutumes de Clermont en Beauvaisis." [133]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Biography of Louis IX by Joinville. [134]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Schools of Paris early 1140s CE: Abélard, Albéric de Monte, Robert of Melun, Peter Helias, Adam du Petit-Pont, Gilbert of Poitiers, Thierry of Chartres, and Peter Lombard.[135]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ "Secular Latin plays were produced in the 12th century alongside religious and liturgical drama." [136] "By the late 12th century, plays were being written in French, though a few nonliturgical Latin plays were also performed." [137] Miracle plays, written for the Guild of Parisian Goldsmiths, 14th Century. [138]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ "Philip II to Louis IX gradually standardized coinage into two main types, the denier of Paris, called the parisis, and that of Tours, the tournois, with a specific relationship between the two. Barons in France continued to mint coins, but the kings increasingly interferred, and in 1263 Louis IX established the principle that royal money be acceptable as legal tender throughout the kingdom."[139] Local mint in Provins operated since the 10th century: By 1170s CE provided the dominant currency in Eastern France and widely used as far as central Italy. [140]; Minted silver deniers, called provinois[141]; These were the coins of the Champagne Fairs[142]; Later the Provins mint struck royal money, the denier tournois [143]; Philip IV moved the royal mint from Provins to Troyes.[144]; Silver until Philip IV (reign 1284-1314 CE) reintroduced gold coinage.
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ Foot messengers and couriers.[145] End of 13th century there were "specialised carriers" of goods from Italian merchants in Italy. They could deliver spices directly to Paris. This by-passed and helped lead to the demise of the International Fairs. [146]
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥ unknown End of 13th century there were "specialised carriers" of goods from Italian merchants in Italy. They could deliver spices directly to Paris. This by-passed and helped lead to the demise of the International Fairs. [147]
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Alec Vulfson ♥

Military Technologies

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Bronze possibly used in the construction of wooden shields.[148]
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ Bronze possibly used in the construction of wooden shields.[149]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ c1250-1330 CE: "development of weapons capable of piercing mail: the gradual introduction of pieces of plate (at first of whalebone, horn, and boiled leather, as well as of the iron and steel that ultimately prevailed) to cover an ever larger part of the mail). By 1330, every part of the body of a knight was normally protected by one or several plates... By 1410, the various pieces of plate, including a breastplate and backplate instead of the earlier coat of plates, were all connected by straps and rivets in an articulated suit, or 'harness,' of polished steel."[150]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Writing in the 14th century, Ibn Hudhayl "described Frankish swords as mudakkar with 'steel edges on an iron body, unlike those of India.'"[151] "The carbon content of Western blades is much lower, but their hardness can be increased by quenching (an easier process when only thin bands of steel along the edges are involved). Despite the evident superiority of crucible steels, Western blades offered a useful combination of properties, at presumably a much lower price, than Oriental ones, and there are references to their being exported to Muslim lands, for examples, Saracen pirates demanded 150 Carolingian swords as part of the ransom for Archbishop Rotland of Arles in 869."[152]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ No mention of javelin in this review of medieval weapons in France.[153] Weapons that might challenge the military order were suppressed, especially missile bases weapons, like javelins.[154]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ present: 1150-1200 CE; inferred present: 1201-1328 CE ♥ Simple bow was little used.[155] Was it used a little? With the influx of crossbows, the use of short bows died out in French armies, and by the 13th century they were not considered a weapon of war.[156] Indicative: In the 1475-1477 Swiss-Burgundian War, Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, hired Italian and English mercenaries - especially English longbowmen."[157]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Composite bows.[158] Designated unit in army from 11th century [159] Designated unit in army from 11th century [160]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ Crossbow/arbaleste reintroduced c950 CE.[161] "The rise of crossbows lead to the virtual disappearance of the simple bows as war weapons in France and no hand bows are recorded in surviving castle inventories from 1230 to the mid-14th century."[162] Crossbow armed infantry gained in importance during the 13th century.[163]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ Motte and Bailey castles proliferated[164] so siege warfare no doubt increased in this period. Traction trebuchets preceded counter-weight trebuchets. "A drawing of a thirteenth-century stone carving at the Church of Saint-Nazaire in Carcassonne that is believed to depict the siege of Toulouse in 1218. It shows a traction trebuchet, and illustrates two important points. First, some of the hauliers (who include a woman in their number) are pulling horizontally, a method that is implied by Chinese illustrations. Second, there is apparently a heavy weight on the pulling end of the beam to assist the effort, thus showing the transition of the traction trebuchet toward the full counterweight version with no hauliers."[165]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent: 1150-1199 CE; present: 1200-1328 CE ♥ Simon de Montford's stone throwing trebuchets.[166] [167] First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[168]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Cannon used in greater numbers late 14th century, and at sea. [169]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ First handguns after c1350 CE.[170]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ "Lesser weapons were also employed by knights after 1050. Special forms of ax, hammer (bec), mace, club, and flail were introduced in the 12th and 13th centuries to supplement the sword, but it was only after 1300 that these were both fully developed and commonly used."[171] Mace armed cavalry at Battle of Bouvines. [172] Maces used by infantry in 13th century.[173]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Common 12th century infantry weapon.[174] "Lesser weapons were also employed by knights after 1050. Special forms of ax, hammer (bec), mace, club, and flail were introduced in the 12th and 13th centuries to supplement the sword, but it was only after 1300 that these were both fully developed and commonly used."[175]
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ Most knights and squires used a dagger after 1350 CE[176] but maybe in use more rarely before this time as well?
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Long, straight, double-edged, sword.[177]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Lance/spear.[178]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ New forms of polearm introduced in the 14th and 15th centuries[179] - implies there were old forms of polearm, or spears used as a polearm. Early 13th century Brabancon mercenaries from modern Brabant, Belgium fought with pikes or long spears. [180]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ War horses brought from Italy.[181] Lance armed cavalry (late 12th century) [182] Aristocrats "usually dismounted and fought on foot throughout the Merovingian, Carolingian, and post-Carolingian periods."[183] 12th century saddle innovations made the horseback charge with a lance possible.[184]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ Medieval armour was much like that worn by Germanic warriors in 100 CE still consisting of a shield, helmet and coat.[185]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Medieval armour was much like that worn by Germanic warriors in 100 CE still consisting of a shield, helmet and coat (usually mail).[186] From 1150 CE a surcoat "generally sleeveless cloth coat probably borrowed from the Muslims - over the coat of mail."[187] Early 13th century Brabancon mercenaries often wore leather, quilted armour.[188] Whalebone, horn, boiled leather used as plate.[189]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Medieval armour was much like that worn by Germanic warriors in 100 CE still consisting of a shield, helmet and coat.[190] Rarely carried from mid-14th century.[191]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Medieval armour was much like that worn by Germanic warriors in 100 CE still consisting of a shield, helmet and coat.[192]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred absent ♥ Breastplate late 13th century.[193] c1250-1330 CE: "development of weapons capable of piercing mail: the gradual introduction of pieces of plate (at first of whalebone, horn, and boiled leather, as well as of the iron and steel that ultimately prevailed) to cover an ever larger part of the mail). By 1330, every part of the body of a knight was nomally protected by one or several plates... By 1410, the various pieces of plate, including a breastplate and backplate instead of the earlier coat of plates, were all connected by straps and rivets in an articulated suit, or 'harness,' of polished steel."[194]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ 9th CE neck guard (halsbergen). Late 12th CE elbow and wrist protection, then mittens, and mail leggings (chausses) now became very widely used.[195] Miles of 12th century wore leg armour.[196][197]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Medieval armour was much like that worn by Germanic warriors in 100 CE still consisting of a shield, helmet and coat (usually mail).[198] Miles of the 12th century wore a mail haubeck.[199]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The miles (mounted knight) was the core fighting unit and in this period he became a landed aristocrat.[200] Called a "heavy cavalryman"[201] which implies at least the wealthiest nobles had access to the full panoply of armour.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The miles (mounted knight) was the core fighting unit and in this period he became a landed aristocrat.[202] Called a "heavy cavalryman"[203] which implies at least the wealthiest nobles had access to the full panoply of armour.
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent: 1150-1249 CE; present: 1250-1328 CE ♥ The miles (mounted knight) was the core fighting unit and in this period he became a landed aristocrat.[204] Called a "heavy cavalryman".[205] Coat of plates "a defence made of several butted plates attached to a poncho-like fabric garment".[206] c1250-1330 CE: "development of weapons capable of piercing mail: the gradual introduction of pieces of plate (at first of whalebone, horn, and boiled leather, as well as of the iron and steel that ultimately prevailed) to cover an ever larger part of the mail). By 1330, every part of the body of a knight was nomally protected by one or several plates... By 1410, the various pieces of plate, including a breastplate and backplate instead of the earlier coat of plates, were all connected by straps and rivets in an articulated suit, or 'harness,' of polished steel."[207]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ "Roman vessels utilized the rivers and coastal waters to transport merchandise and military personnel. The early Franks developed fleets for use in trade and war. Their vessels were propelled by oars and probably a single square sail."[208]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ present ♥ "French fleets consisted mainly of merchant vessels recruited for royal service. Galleys were built or hired to fight, but by the 15th century these were replaced by large sailing ships over a hundred feet in length with carrying capacities of up to 1,000 tons."[209]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ "The English possessions in France led to Anglo-French warfare in the 13th and 14th centuries. The French pieced together a navy for use in the Atlantic and the Channel, often hiring Genose galleys to fight the English, especially in the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE). France also built a naval base and shipyard, the Clos des Galées, at Rouen."[210] The 'cog' was mostly used in the northern waters while galleys were used in the Mediterranean.[211]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Motte and bailey castles proliferated.[212]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ A Bailey consists of a ditch with a wooden rampart. "In the 11th century, local rulers led in the construction of fortifications, at first small earth and wood motte-and-bailey castles, but soon larger and stronger structures of masonry." [213] Motte and bailey castles proliferated.[214]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Motte and bailey castles proliferated.[215]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ "In the 11th century, local rulers led in the construction of fortifications, at first small earth and wood motte-and-bailey castles, but soon larger and stronger structures of masonry." [216] Motte and bailey castles proliferated.[217] Baileys (ditch and wooden rampart) "Built at Eure in Normandy in 1196-98 at the behest of the English king Richard the Lionhearted, Château-Gaillard stands on a precipitous cliff 300 feet above the Seine River. The castle consists of three baileys arranged in a line, with a donjon, which may have been a later addition, standing on the edge of the precipice, principally within but also projecting outside of the inner bailey."[218] "At the height of the Middle Ages, great castles were built with deep, defensive ditches or moats and several concentric rings of stone walls reinforced with towers that required attackers to fight their way through several layers of defense to achieve victory."[219]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ "The so-called Palace of the Viscounts was actually built, according to Héliot, in the 13th century by Simon de Montfort and especially Louis IX. Constructed of rough-worked sandstone, it is surrounded on three sides by a deep moat and protected by nine towers." [220] "At the height of the Middle Ages, great castles were built with deep, defensive ditches or moats and several concentric rings of stone walls reinforced with towers that required attackers to fight their way through several layers of defense to achieve victory." [221]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ From the 11th century, local rulers constructed earth and wood "motte-and-bailey castles" and later built with stone.[222] Fortified towns [223] Fortified port Aigues Mortes [224]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ From the 11th century, local rulers constructed earth and wood "motte-and-bailey castles" and later built with stone.[225] "At the height of the Middle Ages, great castles were built with deep, defensive ditches or moats and several concentric rings of stone walls reinforced with towers that required attackers to fight their way through several layers of defense to achieve victory." [226]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Throne was inherited within the Capetian dynasty.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Christianity is monotheistic.

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Jesus' message "envisages a universal society bound together by divine love in which the limited human ties of affection based on kinship, cultural identity, and self-interest give way to the unlimited love of God. It calls for an egalitarian kingdom of love without limits. Jesus likens it to a family in which all are brothers and sisters of one another and children of the one Father (‘Abba’, an informal word for father, is Jesus’ preferred name for God)." [227] However, it is worth noting that, for example, social inequality and inequality between the sexes were often justified theologically [228][229].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “Medieval society was hierarchical, not merely in social reality but as a matter of principle. Its hierarchical character was understood in cosmological terms. It was taken for granted that the universe was designed in such a way that some of God’s creatures were intended to be at the topand some below them. Human beings were a ‘higher’ form of being than cattle. Cattle were ‘higher’ than the grass they ate. The grass was ‘higher’ than the earth it grew in. So thoroughgoing was the sense that this was how the universe worked that the nine orders of angels identified by the fifth-century Greek authors Pseudo-Dionysus began to be lined up alongside their human ‘counterparts’ on the understanding that each person’s place in heaven would be related to that of the equivalent angel. So the seraphim and cherubim, the contemplatives among the angels, would be accompanied for eternity by members of the contemplative orders, their human equivalents. In modern terms, this was like suggesting that post-men and motorcycle messengers would spend eternity in the company of ordinary angels, while diplomats and emissaries could expect to find themselves among archangels.//Within human society itself no premium was put upon equality. Until late in the Middle Ages, few appear to have seen anything wrong with the idea that there should be rulers and ruled, for hierarchical arrangements of parts within wholes were a normal way of making an organism ‘work’. A body needs a head but it also needs feet (I Corinthians 12.20). In fragmentary survivals of the teaching which was given in the cathedral school at Laon at the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth centuries, there is a discussion of the passage in Ephesians 6.5 where servants are told to obey their masters. ‘It is no sin to have a servant or to be a servant.’ It was argued at Laon that there are two reasons why ‘servitude is given by God.’ It may be a punishment for the sins of those who are slaves or servants. Or it may have a purpose of proving or testing them, so that, humbled, they may be better people.” [230] “Until well into the modern period, the anointing of monarchs at their coronations lent them a particular lustre and a particular status as mediator between God and the people.//So, the ‘royal religion’ that emerged from the fusion of different elements served to raise the king above his subjects and to give the French people a means of identification that was rich in potential.” [231]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “Medieval society was hierarchical, not merely in social reality but as a matter of principle. Its hierarchical character was understood in cosmological terms. It was taken for granted that the universe was designed in such a way that some of God’s creatures were intended to be at the topand some below them. Human beings were a ‘higher’ form of being than cattle. Cattle were ‘higher’ than the grass they ate. The grass was ‘higher’ than the earth it grew in. So thoroughgoing was the sense that this was how the universe worked that the nine orders of angels identified by the fifth-century Greek authors Pseudo-Dionysus began to be lined up alongside their human ‘counterparts’ on the understanding that each person’s place in heaven would be related to that of the equivalent angel. So the seraphim and cherubim, the contemplatives among the angels, would be accompanied for eternity by members of the contemplative orders, their human equivalents. In modern terms, this was like suggesting that post-men and motorcycle messengers would spend eternity in the company of ordinary angels, while diplomats and emissaries could expect to find themselves among archangels.//Within human society itself no premium was put upon equality. Until late in the Middle Ages, few appear to have seen anything wrong with the idea that there should be rulers and ruled, for hierarchical arrangements of parts within wholes were a normal way of making an organism ‘work’. A body needs a head but it also needs feet (I Corinthians 12.20). In fragmentary survivals of the teaching which was given in the cathedral school at Laon at the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth centuries, there is a discussion of the passage in Ephesians 6.5 where servants are told to obey their masters. ‘It is no sin to have a servant or to be a servant.’ It was argued at Laon that there are two reasons why ‘servitude is given by God.’ It may be a punishment for the sins of those who are slaves or servants. Or it may have a purpose of proving or testing them, so that, humbled, they may be better people.” [232]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The instructions of Leviticus 19.15-18 set out a number of practical rules for living. One must be impartial when ‘judging’ one’s neighbour, and not judge one’s neighbour in the sense of condemning him’ one must not hate one’s brother but one must reproach him when it is appropriate. Partly upon these Jesus erected his summary of the law: one must love one’s neighbour as oneself and love God above all things.” [233]

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Public Goods refer to anything that incurs cost to an individual or group of individuals, but that can be used or enjoyed by others who did not incur any of the cost, namely the public at large. They are non-excludable and non-rivalrous goods. Examples are roads, public drinking fountains, public parks or theatres, temples open to the public, etc.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [234] [235] [236]

References

  1. (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 111, 117-118)
  2. (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 111)
  3. (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 3)
  4. (Pegues 1995, 1333)
  5. (Clark and Henneman 1995, 1317)
  6. (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 112)
  7. (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 3)
  8. (Nicolle and McBridge 2000, 6)
  9. (Clark and Henneman 1995, 1317) Clark, William W., and John Bell Henneman, Jr. 1995. “Paris.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 1314-30. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/HS8644XK.
  10. (Bradbury 2013, 249) Bradbury, Jim. 2013. Philip Augustus: King of France 1180-1223. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/XSFRWX7E.
  11. (Bradbury 2013, 249) Bradbury, Jim. 2013. Philip Augustus: King of France 1180-1223. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/XSFRWX7E.
  12. (Pegues 1995, 1333) Pegues, Franklin J. 1995. “Parlement de Paris.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 1332-33. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/HHFUSQER.
  13. (Bradbury 2013, 249) Bradbury, Jim. 2013. Philip Augustus: King of France 1180-1223. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/XSFRWX7E.
  14. (Spufford 2006, 67) Spufford, Peter. 2006. Power and Profit: The Merchant in Medieval Europe. London: Thames and Hudson. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/N7ZCQTEW.
  15. (Bradbury 2013, 248-49) Bradbury, Jim. 2013. Philip Augustus: King of France 1180-1223. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/XSFRWX7E.
  16. (Martin 2011) Martin, Sean. 2011. The Knights Templar: The History and Myths of the Legendary Military Order. Harpenden: Pocket Essentials. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/S2RA6VRR.
  17. (Bradbury 2013, 249) Bradbury, Jim. 2013. Philip Augustus: King of France 1180-1223. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/XSFRWX7E.
  18. (Bradbury 2013, 249) Bradbury, Jim. 2013. Philip Augustus: King of France 1180-1223. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/XSFRWX7E.
  19. (Pegues 1995, 1333) Pegues, Franklin J. 1995. “Parlement de Paris.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 1332-33. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/HHFUSQER.
  20. (Spufford 2006, 68) Spufford, P. 2006. Power and Profit: The Merchant in Medieval Europe. Thames and Hudson. London.
  21. (Pegues 1995, 1007-08) Pegues, Franklin J. 1995. “Law and Justice.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 1005-11. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/UH73VNTJ.
  22. (Henneman, Jr. 1995, 1645) Henneman, Jr., John Bell. 1995. “Seneschal.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 1645. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/H7UJDBAS.
  23. (Suarez 1995, 97) Suarez, Pedro J. 1995. “Apanage.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 97-98. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ZVMB3BUD.
  24. (Percy, Jr. 1995, 1416) Percy, Jr., William A. 1995. “Population and Demography.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 1415-17. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QI73FMSM.
  25. (Percy, Jr. 1995, 1416) Percy, Jr., William A. 1995. “Population and Demography.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 1415-17. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QI73FMSM.
  26. (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 113)
  27. (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 113)
  28. (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 113)
  29. (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 115)
  30. (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 120)
  31. (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 118)
  32. (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 118)
  33. (Percy Jr 1995)
  34. (Percy Jr 1995)
  35. (Percy Jr 1995)
  36. (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 118)
  37. (Percy Jr 1995)
  38. (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 118)
  39. (Spufford 2006, 169)
  40. (Spufford 2006, 84)
  41. (Kibler and Clark 1995, 1446)
  42. (Percy Jr 1995)
  43. (Spufford 2006, 68)
  44. (Spufford 2006, 67)
  45. (Bradbury 2013, 249) Jim Bradbury. 2015. Philip Augustus: King of France 1180-1223. Routledge.
  46. (Martin 2011) Sean Martin. 2011. The Knights Templar. Oldcastle Books.
  47. (Spufford 2006, 68)
  48. (Bouchard 1995, 316)
  49. (Pegues 1995, 1005-1010)
  50. (Nicolle and McBridge 2000, 3)
  51. (Medieval France: An Encyclopedia 1995, 97)
  52. (Suarez 1995, 97-98)
  53. (Spufford 2006, 74-76)
  54. (Spufford 2006, 165)
  55. (Spufford 2006, 154-155)
  56. (Boulton 1995, 1430)
  57. (Henneman 1995, 147)
  58. (Pegues 1995, 1333)
  59. (Henneman 1995, 1645)
  60. (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 10)
  61. (Henneman 1995, 1645)
  62. (Henneman 1995, 1427-1428)
  63. (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 6)
  64. (Nicolle and McBridge 2000, 4)
  65. (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)
  66. (Cunningham 2008, 529) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  67. (Cunningham 2008, 529) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  68. (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)
  69. (Cunningham 2008, 529) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  70. (Cunningham 2008, 531) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  71. (Cunningham 2008, 531) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  72. (Cunningham 2008, 532) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  73. (Cunningham 2008, 532) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  74. (Cunningham 2008, 532) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  75. (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 35)
  76. (Henneman 1995, 1645)
  77. (Henneman 1995, 486-487)
  78. (De Vries 1995, 1122)
  79. (De Vries 1995, 1122)
  80. (De Vries 1995, 1122)
  81. (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 35)
  82. (Henneman 1995, 1658)
  83. (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 6)
  84. (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 10)
  85. (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 10)
  86. (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 10)
  87. (Nicolle and McBridge 2000, 4)
  88. (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 6)
  89. (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 35)
  90. (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 7)
  91. (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 35)
  92. (Pegues 1995, 1333)
  93. (Spufford 2006, 68)
  94. (Pegues 1995, 1333)
  95. (Martin 2011) Sean Martin. 2011. The Knights Templar. Oldcastle Books.
  96. (Spufford 2006, 68)
  97. (Bouchard 1995, 316)
  98. (Spufford 2006, 68)
  99. (Spufford 2006, 148)
  100. (Bradbury 2013, 249) Jim Bradbury. 2015. Philip Augustus: King of France 1180-1223. Routledge.
  101. (Pegues 1995, 1005-1010)
  102. (Pegues 1995, 1005-1010)
  103. (Spufford 2006, 68)
  104. (Spufford 2006, 146)
  105. (Pegues 1995, 1005-1010)
  106. (Spufford 2006, 68)
  107. (Bouchard 1995, 317)
  108. (Spufford 2006, 146)
  109. (Spufford 2006, 68)
  110. (Pegues 1995, 1005-1010)
  111. (Glick, Steven Livesey and Wallis 2014, 115)
  112. (Glick, Steven Livesey and Wallis 2014, 115)
  113. (Glick, Steven Livesey and Wallis 2014, 505-506)
  114. (Glick, Steven Livesey and Wallis 2014, 505-506)
  115. (Glick, Steven Livesey and Wallis 2014, 505-506)
  116. (Spufford 2006, 99)
  117. (Reyerson 1995, 640)
  118. (Spufford 2006, 146)
  119. (Spufford 2006, 101)
  120. (Spufford 2006, 162)
  121. (Reyerson 1995, 1740-1741)
  122. (Reyerson 1995, 1740-1741)
  123. (Spufford 2006, 155)
  124. (Spufford 2006, 164)
  125. (Spufford 2006, 169)
  126. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1256
  127. (Spufford 2006, 171-172)
  128. (Reyerson 1995, 1740-1741)
  129. (Hall in Kibler et al 1995, 1177)
  130. (Spufford 2006, 146)
  131. (Radding 1995, 1775-1779)
  132. (Clark and Henneman 1995, 1327)
  133. (Pegues 1995, 1005-1010)
  134. (Bouchard 1995, 317)
  135. (Radding 1995, 1775-1779)
  136. (Bates 1995, 1716 CE)
  137. (Knight 1995, 1714 CE)
  138. (Knight 1995, 1714-1715 CE)
  139. (Hunt and Murry, 1999 46)
  140. (Spufford 2006, 146)
  141. (Spufford 2006, 149)
  142. (Spufford 2006, 149)
  143. (Spufford 2006, 148)
  144. (Spufford 2006, 148)
  145. (Boyer 1995, 1748-1751)
  146. (Spufford 2006, 148)
  147. (Spufford 2006, 148)
  148. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  149. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  150. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  151. (Williams 2012, 35) Alan Williams. 2012. The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century. BRILL. Leiden.
  152. (Williams 2012, 36) Alan Williams. 2012. The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century. BRILL. Leiden.
  153. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  154. (Nicolle 1991, 8) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.
  155. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  156. (De Vries in Kibler et al 1995, 114)
  157. (Devries and Smith 2007, 166) Kelly Devries. Robert D Smith. 2007. Medieval Weapons: An Illustrated History of Their Impact. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.
  158. (De Vries 1995, 114)
  159. (De Vries 1995, 114)
  160. (De Vries 1995, 114)
  161. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  162. (Nicolle 1991, 11-12)
  163. (Nicolle 1991, 11)
  164. (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.
  165. (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.
  166. (Nicolle 1991, 15)
  167. (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.
  168. (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.
  169. (Nicolle 2000, 21-22)
  170. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  171. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  172. (Nicolle 1991, 10)
  173. (Nicolle 1991, 12)
  174. (Nicolle 1991, 6)
  175. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  176. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  177. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  178. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  179. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  180. (Nicolle 1991, 10)
  181. (Spufford 2006, 156, 167)
  182. (Nicolle 1991, 4-5)
  183. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  184. (Fanning 1995, 346)
  185. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  186. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  187. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  188. (Nicolle 1991, 10)
  189. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  190. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  191. (Nicolle 2000, 15)
  192. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  193. (Nicolle 2000, 19)
  194. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  195. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  196. (Nicolle 1991, 6)
  197. 13th and 14th centuries. (Nicolle 2000, 15-17)
  198. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  199. (Nicolle 1991, 6)
  200. (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.
  201. (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.
  202. (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.
  203. (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.
  204. (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.
  205. (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.
  206. (Nicolle 2000, 15)
  207. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  208. (Runyan 1995, 1246-1247) Timothy J Runyan. 1995. Naval Power. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York.
  209. (Runyan 1995, 1246-1247) Timothy J Runyan. 1995. Naval Power. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York.
  210. (Runyan 1995, 1246-1247) Timothy J Runyan. 1995. Naval Power. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York.
  211. (Nicolle 2000, 39)
  212. (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.
  213. (DeVries in Kibler et al 1995, 1838)
  214. (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.
  215. (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.
  216. (DeVries in Kibler et al 1995, 1838)
  217. (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.
  218. (DeVries in Kibler et al 1995, 401)
  219. (Newman 2001, 75) Paul B Newman. 2001. Daily Life in the Middle Ages. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Jefferson.
  220. (Kibler in Kibler et al 1995, 322)
  221. (Newman 2001, 75) Paul B Newman. 2001. Daily Life in the Middle Ages. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Jefferson.
  222. (De Vries 1995, 1837-1839)
  223. (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 128)
  224. (Spufford 2006, 172)
  225. (De Vries 1995, 1837-1839)
  226. (Newman 2001, 75) Paul B Newman. 2001. Daily Life in the Middle Ages. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Jefferson.
  227. Woodhead, L. 2014. Christianity: A Short introduction p. 9. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  228. Evans, G.R. 2007. ‘’The Church in the Early Middle Ages’’ p. 65. London: I.B. Tauris & Co.
  229. James, L. 2008. The Role of Women. In Jeffries, E., J. Haldon and R. Cormack (eds) ‘’The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies’’ pp. 643-651. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
  230. Evans, G.R. 2007. ‘’The Church in the Early Middle Ages’’ p. 65. London: I.B. Tauris & Co.
  231. Schneidmuller, B. 2002. Constructing identities of Medieval France. In Bull, M. (ed) France in the Central Middle Ages pp. 15-42. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  232. Evans, G.R. 2007. ‘’The Church in the Early Middle Ages’’ p. 65. London: I.B. Tauris & Co.
  233. Evans, G.R. 2007. ‘’The Church in the Early Middle Ages’’ p. 67. London: I.B. Tauris & Co.
  234. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  235. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  236. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html

Ball, P. 2009. Universe of stone: a biography of Chartres cathedral. London: HarperCollins.

Glick T F, Livesey, S and Wallis, F. 2014. Medieval Science Technology and Medicine: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.

Gaude-Ferragu, M. 2005. D'or et de cendres: La mort et les funérailles des princes dans le royaume de France au Bas Moyen-Age. Villeneuve d'Ascq: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion.

Spufford, P. 2006. Power and Profit: The Merchant in Medieval Europe. Thames and Hudson. London.

Turchin, P and Nefedov S, A. 2009. Secular Cycles. Princeton University Press. Princeton.

Nicolle, D and McBride, A. 1991. French Medieval Armies 1000-1300. Osprey Publishing Ltd. London.

Nicolle, D and McBride, A. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

Dupuy, R, Dupuy, T (2007) The Collins Encyclopedia of Military History, 4th Edition, BCA

Hunt, E S and Murrary, J. 1999. A History of Business in Medieval Europe, 1200-1550. Cambridge University Press.

Kibler, W W and Zinn, G A. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.

McEvedy, C and Jones, R. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Allen Lane. London.

Hallam, E M and Everard, J. Capetian France: 987-1328 CE. 2nd edition. Pearson Education Limited. Harlow.