FrCaptE

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Proto-French Kingdom ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Capetian dynasty; House of Capet ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1150 CE ♥

"The peace and prosperity resulting from the efforts of Louis VI led to an increase in the number of monks at Saint-Germain-des-Prés." [1] Louis VI (reign 1108-1137 CE)

Louis VI: "vigorous measures made the existing domain far more profitable, as did a favorable economy." [2]

"Urban revival and the growth of a merchant class in the late 10th and 11th centuries" linked by some scholars to better international trade in Europe.[3]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 987-1150 CE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ nominal; loose ♥ nominal: 987-1130 CE; loose: 1130-1150 CE

Capetians had little authority outside the region of Paris. Count of Bois and Count of Troyes arguably had more power, while Capetians more legitimacy with stronger links to Catholic church.[4]

Centralization under Louis VI (reign 1108-1137 CE): "was effective in making the king’s vassals recognize royal suzerainty; the great lords of France presented the Capetians with few problems after the first decades of the 12th century." [5]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Carolingian Empire II ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ French Kingdom - Late Capetian ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Latin Christendom ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 17,000,000 ♥ km squared. Latin Christendom was roughly equivalent to the maximum extent of the former Roman Empire? The rough limits of Christianity in this period: the area that is now northeastern Germany would be converted by force under Charlemagne, while the area south of Rome, in particular Calabria, Puglia, and Basilicata, was as much part of the Eastern Orthodox world as that of Latin Christendom, although these distinctions did not exist then.


♠ Capital ♣ Paris ♥ 1130-1150 CE

Louis VI resident in Paris from 1130 CE [6] but court moved with king on his travels.


♠ Language ♣ French; Langues dOil; Occitan ♥ French; Langues d'Oïl; Occitan: 1000-1200 CE [7] During 11th and 12th centuries the population that lived south of the Loire spoke Occitan. [8]

General Description

The Capetian period in France began with the accession of Hugh Capet to the Frankish throne in 987 CE. In the early period (987-1150 CE), the area under the control of the Capetian monarchs was relatively restricted in comparison to the late period (1150-1328 CE), which saw a massive expansion in territory and increasing urbanization.[9]

Population and political organization

The Capetian monarchs ruled their kingdom via decree. Louis VI (r. 1108-1137 CE) was recognized as the legitimate ruler by his vassals and, after the early 12th century, the great lords of France generally submitted to Capetian authority.[10] However, the dynasty had less power outside the region of Paris and the Counts of Bois and Troyes were arguably more powerful than the king in some respects. The Capetians drew their legitimacy from their stronger links to the Catholic church.[11]
Before Philip II (r. 1180-1223 CE), government was very simple and closely linked to the king's court, which was still itinerant, moving wherever the king went.[12] At the core of the French king's government were a few major officials with household titles (chancellor, seneschal, butler, chamberlain and constable).[13] From the 12th century onwards, these positions were the preserve of the aristocracy.[14][15] The clergy of the Church provided a pool of 'educated, literature and numerate subjects' and were a vital resource for the government and administration of the Capetian Kingdom.[16]
Innovations in agriculture resulted in population increases during this period, especially in northern and western France, but demographic expansion would not begin in earnest until the later Capetian era.[17] From the 11th to the 14th century CE, the French population almost quadrupled from about 4 to 15 million.[18]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [12,000-18,000] ♥ in squared kilometers.

Estimate of known Royal lands.

1137-1152 CE

In 1137 CE Louis VI acquired Aquitaine for Louis VII through an arranged marriage (which became part of the Kingdom on his accession?). Lost after divorce 1152 CE.[19]


♠ Polity Population ♣ [500,000-1,000,000] ♥


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 25,000 ♥

Paris

Significant expansion under Louis VI[20] (reign 1108-1137 CE).
Louis VII first king resident in Paris


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels.


1. City

Paris 25,000? 1200 CE [21]
2. Town
"no town surpassed 10,000 inhabitants between the 8th century and the year 1000."[22]
Avignon about 1300 CE population 5,000-6,000 [23]
Provins over 10,000 population 1200-1300 CE [24]
3. Small town
4. Hamlet
90% population lived in rural settlements[25]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

Philip II (1180-1223 CE) had "a small group of close counsellers who held offices with particular, if not always specialized, functions. Philip also employed royal agents in the demesne, and outside, to carry on the routine work of government and to enforce the changes which he introduced./ We speak of departments, and we know of the existence of a chancery and a chamber, but we should be mistaken to see these as entirely separated organizations. Household departments do not emerge until the reign of St Louis, but they were in the process of formation in Philip's time. The close counsellors and the clerks could still move from one area of the administration to another, and often did.../ Central government was organized under a few major officials: the chancellor, the seneschal, the butler, the chamberlain and the constable. These originated as household officials with specific functions. By the beginning of the twelfth century these offices had been taken over by leading magnates. Under Philip, one or two magnates held such titles ... But the trend was to pass office, and sometimes title, to more humble men and their professional staff, for example marshals assisting the constables."[26]

1. King

Robert II (reign 996-1031) stopped partitioning the realm, crowned his eldest son during his lifetime. this was done by all Capetian monarchs until Philip II [27]
ruled by decree


_Court institution_

2. senechal was the senior royal official, and senior military commander
whilst the king's household dominated government in the 11th and 12th centuries the senechal was the senior royal official, and senior military commander [28]
3. Treasury. From Louis VII until the end of the 13th century, the royal treasury was housed in the Knights Templar Temple’s keep [29]
3. Other high officials. Under Philip I (reign 1060-1108 CE) "obscure household officials emerged as important figures in the making and executing of royal policies ... the seneschal, butler, chamberlain, and constable — to whom we should add the chancellor, who supervised those who wrote and authenticated royal documents.[30]
3. Chancellor
4. Scribes. "those who wrote and authenticated royal documents."[31]


_Regional government_

2. Rulers of Apanages
Apanage: "province or jurisdiction, or later for an office or annuity, granted (with the reservation that in the absence of direct heirs the land escheated to the crown)" [32]
Example: Acquitaine?
2. Feudal lords (dukes, barons and counts)
Former territories of the Carolingian state "became counties, duchies and other feudal lordships, each with its own court." [33]
3. senechal. The senechal was also the senior official of households of dukes, barons and counts[34]
4.
Pagus?
2. Prevots
prevots reported to the senechal. used to administer "scattered parts of the royal domain" [35] ET - whose senechal did the prevots report to, the king's senechal or the senechal of the local lord? Coded on the assumption they report to the king's senechal
At a local level, they were responsible for justice, military defense, and collection of the king’s seigneurial revenues [36]
3. Castellans of the Île-de-France [37]
"With the growth of the feudal system, however, the title gained in France a special significance which it never acquired in England, as implying the jurisdiction of which the castle became the centre" - wikipedia


♠ Religious levels ♣ [6-7] ♥ levels.

Note: hierarchy might need fine-tuning to conditions in Carolingian France


1. Pope

Pope is primus inter pares among the five patriarchs.[38]
2. Metropolitans and archbishops
"the term 'bishop' applies to patriarchs, metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops (both suffragan and assistant bishops or chorepiskopoi) throughout the Byzantine period. After the 'ecumenical' patriarch of Constantinople, who after the seventh century occupied the only remaining patriarchal seat under Byzantine rule, metropolitans held the second highest rank in the Orthodox Church."[39]
"The title 'archbishop' emerged in special cases, for example in important cities such as Athens which did not possess a metropolitan."[40]
3. Bishops and Chorepiskopoi
Bishops and Chorepiskopoi form one rank below the metropolitans and archbishops[41]
3. Priest
"In the early Church, priests or presbyters served as advisers, teachers, and ministers who assisted the bishops to whom they were assigned."[42]
4. Deacon
"Deacons assisted the priest or bishop at the Divine Liturgy, baptisms, and other sacraments. ... Various administrative and pastoral jobs were delegated to deacons from an early period; they helped bishops to dispense charity to the community, manage the diocese's finances and property, and to deal with other official business (Laodikeia, canons 21, 23, 25). Deacons were subject to the authority of both bishops and priests, but they came to exercise considerable power, especially in the patriarchate of Constantinople."[43]
4. Deaconess (diakonissa)
"The deaconess's chief liturgical role was to assist at the baptisms of women; she also acted as a mediator between women parishioners and their bishops, kept order among female members of the congregation, and ministered especially to women."[44]
5. Subdeacon
"The rank of subdeacon provided a stepping-stone to that of deacon; its duties were similar to those of the deacon."[45]
6. Reader (anagnostesj
"A reader is a member of the lower clergy with the responsibility of reading, usually from the ambo, passages from the Epistles and the Old Testament prescribed for offices and the Divine Liturgy."[46]
7. Minor orders
"Other members of the minor clerical orders included doorkeepers, exorcists, cantors, and widows. All of these officials helped in either liturgical, administrative, or pastoral functions. Most would have received payment from their dioceses, or, in the case of private foundations, from their donors, but it is likely that most would have been engaged in secular professions in order to supplement their incomes."[47]



♠ Military levels ♣ 5: 987-1090 CE; [5-6]: 1091-1150 CE ♥ levels.


1. King

2. Seneschal
Senechal was the senior royal official, and senior military commander [48]
Only until 1091 CE[49] - job taken over by Constable
3. Constable
originated 9th-10th centuries as "count of the stable". [50]
during the reign of Philip I (1060-1108), the constable was one of the four "great officers" of the crown [51]
11th and 12th centuries drawn from the nobility of the Île de-France [52]
4. Knight
had a squire
5. Sergeant
"In the military context, sergeants were lightly armed fighting men who served and supported knights." [53] Also had civilian "enforcer" role.
Mid-12th century professional sergeants equipped by nobles[54]
6.
Was Sergeant the lowest level?


Militia leader (this level also called constable?) - from mid-12th century?

Lead a milita, paid slightly less than a sergeant [55]


Captains[56] - from mid-12th century?

Each city parish had its own captain

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥ during the reign of Philip I (1060-1108), the constable was one of the four "great officers" of the crown [57]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥ "In the military context, sergeants were lightly armed fighting men who served and supported knights." [58] Also had civilian "enforcer" role.

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Christianity


Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent ♥ inferred from apparent change in 1250: Professional administration in Paris from 1250 CE. [59]

Before this time there were permanent officials within the king's household, probably sourced from the aristocracy.

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥ permanent officials within the king's household, probably sourced from the aristocracy.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ absent ♥

Carolingian legal system of of 10th century had mostly "vanished" and no legislation survives from early Capetian kings. [60]

King ruled by decree. In 1144 CE Louis VII issued an ordinance to "banished the relapsed Jews from the kingdom" and in 1155 CE "established the Peace of God for ten years."

French customary law not written down until 13th century. "Roman and canon law provided the inspiration for this activity. Customary law varied from one region of France to another, and the writing of such law took place within regional or provincial boundaries." [61]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Courts ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Irrigation canals. [62]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ Cisterns. By 1000 CE most communities obtained water from rivers, wells and cisterns and this was still the case at the end of the Middle Ages. However, in the 11th and 12th centuries new water supply systems were developed which became installed in towns. [63] (within this time period?) "Pilgrims, crusaders, university students, and merchants would have encountered conduits and fountains in the course of their travels."[64] By end of Middle Ages[65]: piped water to public fountains; artificial lifting devices and water towers
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Greve market transferred to Les Champeaux (near Les Halles), and "the concession of the Grèveport to the newly established “Marchands de l’Eau” in 1141".[66] "By 1070 Italian merchants were frequenting the Saint-Denis fairs." [67] "French kings conceded fairs as privileges to some locales by regalian right, uncontested except in the case of the most rebellious of lords, such as the duke of Burgundy under Louis XI.[68]
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Paved roads e.g. in Paris only later, from Philip II (?) [69] Dense network of mud roads linked towns. Old Roman road system "still partially functional, which favored straight, paved thoroughfares between major urban sites." [70]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Beginning in the 11th century. [71] Polity funded/owned?
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ absent ♥ Polity was landlocked.


Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ "France possesses no precious metal resources and little copper. Iron ores are abundant, and there are regional deposits of lead, zinc, and coal. All of these were exploited during the Middle Ages. Evidence for ironworking exists from Merovingian France onward." [72]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Anything written by the era's literati.
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ French language.
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ French language.
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ French language.

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Bible.
♠ Religious literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ "The earliest western European guidebook for pilgrims was written by a Frenchman (ca. 1135-39) for those going from France to Compostela. The author gives four routes through France toward Spain, mostly following old Roman roads.[73]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Biographer of Louis VI, Suger, abbot of Saint-Denis.[74]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Schools of Paris early 1140s CE: Abélard, Albéric de Monte, Robert of Melun, Peter Helias, Adam du Petit-Pont, Gilbert of Poitiers, Thierry of Chartres, and Peter Lombard.[75]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ "Secular Latin plays were produced in the 12th century alongside religious and liturgical drama." [76] "Medieval theater originated in the 10th century in the Latin liturgical drama that was associated with the Easter rites of the church." [77]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ Local mint in Provins operated since the 10th century. By 1170s CE provided the dominant currency in Eastern France and widely used as far as central Italy. [78] Minted silver deniers, called provinois[79] These were the coins of the Champagne Fairs[80]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred present ♥ "During the late 8th century under Charlemagne, the livre esterlin was fixed at 5,760 grains (367.1 grams) and consisted of 20 sous, 12 onces, 240 deniers, 480 oboles. This livre was the first national standard; it was retained until the middle of the 14th century, when the government of King John II the Good authorized the employment of a new, heavier, livre called the livre poids de marc." [81]
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ Foot messengers and couriers.[82]
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Bronze possibly used in the construction of wooden shields.[83]
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ Bronze possibly used in the construction of wooden shields.[84]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ c1250-1330 CE: "development of weapons capable of piercing mail: the gradual introduction of pieces of plate (at first of whalebone, horn, and boiled leather, as well as of the iron and steel that ultimately prevailed) to cover an ever larger part of the mail). By 1330, every part of the body of a knight was normally protected by one or several plates... By 1410, the various pieces of plate, including a breastplate and backplate instead of the earlier coat of plates, were all connected by straps and rivets in an articulated suit, or 'harness,' of polished steel."[85]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Writing in the 14th century, Ibn Hudhayl "described Frankish swords as mudakkar with 'steel edges on an iron body, unlike those of India.'"[86] "The carbon content of Western blades is much lower, but their hardness can be increased by quenching (an easier process when only thin bands of steel along the edges are involved). Despite the evident superiority of crucible steels, Western blades offered a useful combination of properties, at presumably a much lower price, than Oriental ones, and there are references to their being exported to Muslim lands, for examples, Saracen pirates demanded 150 Carolingian swords as part of the ransom for Archbishop Rotland of Arles in 869."[87]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ No mention of javelin in this review of medieval weapons in France.[88]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ Carolingian period: "Carolingian military organization was based primarily on that of their Merovingian predecessors, who had built on later Roman institutions ... Archers and slingers fighting on foot supported the battle line."[89]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Simple bow was little used.[90] Was it used a little? - Yes. With the influx of crossbows, the use of short bows died out in French armies, and by the 13th century they were not considered a weapon of war.[91]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Composite bows.[92] Designated unit in army from 11th century [93]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ Crossbow/arbaleste reintroduced c950 CE.[94]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ Motte and Bailey castles proliferated[95] so siege warfare no doubt increased in this period.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[96]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ First handguns after c1350 CE.[97]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown: 987-1049 CE; present: 1050-1150 CE ♥ "Lesser weapons were also employed by knights after 1050. Special forms of ax, hammer (bec), mace, club, and flail were introduced in the 12th and 13th centuries to supplement the sword, but it was only after 1300 that these were both fully developed and commonly used."[98]
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown: 987-1049 CE; present: 1050-1150 CE ♥ "Lesser weapons were also employed by knights after 1050. Special forms of ax, hammer (bec), mace, club, and flail were introduced in the 12th and 13th centuries to supplement the sword, but it was only after 1300 that these were both fully developed and commonly used."[99]
♠ Daggers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Most knights and squires used a dagger after 1350 CE[100] but maybe in use more rarely before this time as well?
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Long, straight, double-edged, sword.[101]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Lance/spear.[102]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ New forms of polearm introduced in the 14th and 15th centuries[103] - implies there were old forms of polearm, or spears used as a polearm.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Aristocrats "usually dismounted and fought on foot throughout the Merovingian, Carolingian, and post-Carolingian periods."[104] 12th century saddle innovations made the horseback charge with a lance possible.[105]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ Medieval armour was much like that worn by Germanic warriors in 100 CE still consisting of a shield, helmet and coat.[106]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Medieval armour was much like that worn by Germanic warriors in 100 CE still consisting of a shield, helmet and coat (usually mail).[107] From 1150 CE a surcoat "generally sleeveless cloth coat probably borrowed from the Muslims - over the coat of mail."[108]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Medieval armour was much like that worn by Germanic warriors in 100 CE still consisting of a shield, helmet and coat.[109]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Medieval armour was much like that worn by Germanic warriors in 100 CE still consisting of a shield, helmet and coat.[110]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred absent ♥ Breastplate late 13th century.[111] c1250-1330 CE: "development of weapons capable of piercing mail: the gradual introduction of pieces of plate (at first of whalebone, horn, and boiled leather, as well as of the iron and steel that ultimately prevailed) to cover an ever larger part of the mail). By 1330, every part of the body of a knight was nomally protected by one or several plates... By 1410, the various pieces of plate, including a breastplate and backplate instead of the earlier coat of plates, were all connected by straps and rivets in an articulated suit, or 'harness,' of polished steel."[112]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ 9th CE neck guard (halsbergen). Late 12th CE elbow and wrist protection, then mittens, and mail leggings (chausses) now became very widely used.[113]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Medieval armour was much like that worn by Germanic warriors in 100 CE still consisting of a shield, helmet and coat (usually mail).[114]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The miles (mounted knight) was the core fighting unit and in this period he became a landed aristocrat.[115] Called a "heavy cavalryman"[116] which implies at least the wealthiest nobles had access to the full panoply of armour.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The miles (mounted knight) was the core fighting unit and in this period he became a landed aristocrat.[117] Called a "heavy cavalryman"[118] which implies at least the wealthiest nobles had access to the full panoply of armour.
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ The miles (mounted knight) was the core fighting unit and in this period he became a landed aristocrat.[119] Called a "heavy cavalryman".[120] c1250-1330 CE: "development of weapons capable of piercing mail: the gradual introduction of pieces of plate (at first of whalebone, horn, and boiled leather, as well as of the iron and steel that ultimately prevailed) to cover an ever larger part of the mail). By 1330, every part of the body of a knight was nomally protected by one or several plates... By 1410, the various pieces of plate, including a breastplate and backplate instead of the earlier coat of plates, were all connected by straps and rivets in an articulated suit, or 'harness,' of polished steel."[121]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ "Roman vessels utilized the rivers and coastal waters to transport merchandise and military personnel. The early Franks developed fleets for use in trade and war. Their vessels were propelled by oars and probably a single square sail."[122]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "French fleets consisted mainly of merchant vessels recruited for royal service."[123] Does this reference apply to this period? - Perhaps not. "The English possessions in France led to Anglo-French warfare in the 13th and 14th centuries. The French pieced together a navy for use in the Atlantic and the Channel, often hiring Genose galleys to fight the English, especially in the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE). France also built a naval base and shipyard, the Clos des Galées, at Rouen."[124]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The English possessions in France led to Anglo-French warfare in the 13th and 14th centuries. The French pieced together a navy for use in the Atlantic and the Channel, often hiring Genose galleys to fight the English, especially in the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE). France also built a naval base and shipyard, the Clos des Galées, at Rouen."[125]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Motte and bailey castles proliferated.[126]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ A Bailey consists of a ditch with a wooden rampart. "In the 11th century, local rulers led in the construction of fortifications, at first small earth and wood motte-and-bailey castles, but soon larger and stronger structures of masonry." [127] Motte and bailey castles proliferated.[128]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Motte and bailey castles proliferated.[129]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ A Bailey consists of a ditch with a wooden rampart. "In the 11th century, local rulers led in the construction of fortifications, at first small earth and wood motte-and-bailey castles, but soon larger and stronger structures of masonry." [130] Motte and bailey castles proliferated.[131]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ Loches Keep: "The 11th-century tower, a rectangle 82 feet long by 43 feet wide with walls 9 feet thick, is one of the earliest and finest examples of a stone keep; it was here that the chronicler Philippe de Commynes, among many others, was incarcerated. Of the original double curtain walls and broad moat (35-40 feet), only one wall still stands." [132]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ From the 11th century, local rulers constructed earth and wood "motte-and-bailey castles" and later built with stone.[133] A donjon was a stone tower.[134]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred present ♥ From the 11th century, local rulers constructed earth and wood "motte-and-bailey castles" and later built with stone.[135] "At the height of the Middle Ages, great castles were built with deep, defensive ditches or moats and several concentric rings of stone walls reinforced with towers that required attackers to fight their way through several layers of defense to achieve victory." [136] Was any of this Early Capetian period 'the height of the Middle Ages'? Inferred yes.
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Throne was inherited within the Capetian dynasty.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Christianity is monotheistic.

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Jesus' message "envisages a universal society bound together by divine love in which the limited human ties of affection based on kinship, cultural identity, and self-interest give way to the unlimited love of God. It calls for an egalitarian kingdom of love without limits. Jesus likens it to a family in which all are brothers and sisters of one another and children of the one Father (‘Abba’, an informal word for father, is Jesus’ preferred name for God)." [137] However, it is worth noting that, for example, social inequality and inequality between the sexes were often justified theologically [138][139].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “Medieval society was hierarchical, not merely in social reality but as a matter of principle. Its hierarchical character was understood in cosmological terms. It was taken for granted that the universe was designed in such a way that some of God’s creatures were intended to be at the topand some below them. Human beings were a ‘higher’ form of being than cattle. Cattle were ‘higher’ than the grass they ate. The grass was ‘higher’ than the earth it grew in. So thoroughgoing was the sense that this was how the universe worked that the nine orders of angels identified by the fifth-century Greek authors Pseudo-Dionysus began to be lined up alongside their human ‘counterparts’ on the understanding that each person’s place in heaven would be related to that of the equivalent angel. So the seraphim and cherubim, the contemplatives among the angels, would be accompanied for eternity by members of the contemplative orders, their human equivalents. In modern terms, this was like suggesting that post-men and motorcycle messengers would spend eternity in the company of ordinary angels, while diplomats and emissaries could expect to find themselves among archangels.//Within human society itself no premium was put upon equality. Until late in the Middle Ages, few appear to have seen anything wrong with the idea that there should be rulers and ruled, for hierarchical arrangements of parts within wholes were a normal way of making an organism ‘work’. A body needs a head but it also needs feet (I Corinthians 12.20). In fragmentary survivals of the teaching which was given in the cathedral school at Laon at the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth centuries, there is a discussion of the passage in Ephesians 6.5 where servants are told to obey their masters. ‘It is no sin to have a servant or to be a servant.’ It was argued at Laon that there are two reasons why ‘servitude is given by God.’ It may be a punishment for the sins of those who are slaves or servants. Or it may have a purpose of proving or testing them, so that, humbled, they may be better people.” [140]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “Medieval society was hierarchical, not merely in social reality but as a matter of principle. Its hierarchical character was understood in cosmological terms. It was taken for granted that the universe was designed in such a way that some of God’s creatures were intended to be at the topand some below them. Human beings were a ‘higher’ form of being than cattle. Cattle were ‘higher’ than the grass they ate. The grass was ‘higher’ than the earth it grew in. So thoroughgoing was the sense that this was how the universe worked that the nine orders of angels identified by the fifth-century Greek authors Pseudo-Dionysus began to be lined up alongside their human ‘counterparts’ on the understanding that each person’s place in heaven would be related to that of the equivalent angel. So the seraphim and cherubim, the contemplatives among the angels, would be accompanied for eternity by members of the contemplative orders, their human equivalents. In modern terms, this was like suggesting that post-men and motorcycle messengers would spend eternity in the company of ordinary angels, while diplomats and emissaries could expect to find themselves among archangels.//Within human society itself no premium was put upon equality. Until late in the Middle Ages, few appear to have seen anything wrong with the idea that there should be rulers and ruled, for hierarchical arrangements of parts within wholes were a normal way of making an organism ‘work’. A body needs a head but it also needs feet (I Corinthians 12.20). In fragmentary survivals of the teaching which was given in the cathedral school at Laon at the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth centuries, there is a discussion of the passage in Ephesians 6.5 where servants are told to obey their masters. ‘It is no sin to have a servant or to be a servant.’ It was argued at Laon that there are two reasons why ‘servitude is given by God.’ It may be a punishment for the sins of those who are slaves or servants. Or it may have a purpose of proving or testing them, so that, humbled, they may be better people.” [141]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The instructions of Leviticus 19.15-18 set out a number of practical rules for living. One must be impartial when ‘judging’ one’s neighbour, and not judge one’s neighbour in the sense of condemning him’ one must not hate one’s brother but one must reproach him when it is appropriate. Partly upon these Jesus erected his summary of the law: one must love one’s neighbour as oneself and love God above all things.” [142]

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Public Goods refer to anything that incurs cost to an individual or group of individuals, but that can be used or enjoyed by others who did not incur any of the cost, namely the public at large. They are non-excludable and non-rivalrous goods. Examples are roads, public drinking fountains, public parks or theatres, temples open to the public, etc.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [143] [144] [145]

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