FrBurbE

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Jill Levine ♥

♠ Original name ♣ French Kingdom - Early Bourbon ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ The Ancien Regime; Kingdom of France ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1611 CE ♥ Before Sully, superintendant of finances, was fired? [1] Or Richelieu? - however, wars lead to "ruinous state of the finances" c1630 CE. [2]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1589-1660 CE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ French Kingdom - Late Valois ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ French Kingdom - Late Bourbon ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Paris ♥

♠ Language ♣ French ♥ "The jurists of the chancellery and high courts had worked essentially in French from the fourteenth century and this opened the way for the triumph of French as the literary language."[3]

General Description

The House of Bourbon (The Ancien Regime) ruled France from the death of the childless Late Valois king Henry III in 1589 CE to the re-convening of the Estates General during the French Revolution. The Early Bourbon period covers the Kingdom of France from the inheritance of the monarchy by Henry VI to the rise of Louis XIV in 1661 CE. Henry VI inherited the crown amidst the Wars of Religion between the Roman Catholics and the Reformed Protestants, and is celebrated for his tolerance because of his the Edict of Nantes, which granted some rights to Protestants.[4] The reign of Henry VI restored the French monarchy to full power, and his superintendent of finance Sully was able to double state revenues.[5] The French army was modernized by King Louis XIII’s cardinal minister Richelieu. The Fronde, a series of revolts in the 1640s against cardinal minister Mazarin, led the crown to consolidate its power even further.[6] This paved the way for the absolute rule of King Louis XIV in the Late Bourbon period.
In 1608, Samuel de Champlain founded Québec, and the surrounding territory was claimed as New France. France obtained land from Spain in the south and German land from the Holy Roman Empire in the north in treaties from the Thirty Years’ War in 1648 CE and 1659 CE. [7] Because of these new claims, the territory of the French Kingdom covered 931,000 in 1600 CE and 2.6 million square meters by 1650 CE.[8]

Population and political organization

Important institutional and military reforms were instituted in this period. King Henry IV instituted a tax on holders of government and judicial offices which gave the owners of the office the right to transfer their position. The expansion and modernization of the French army under Richelieu led to the large-scale expansion of the French bureaucracy.[9]
The population within the boundaries of present day France is estimated at 18.5 million in 1600 CE, and 21 million in 1650 CE. [10]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 931,000: 1600 CE; 2,600,000: 1650 CE ♥ in squared kilometers.

931,000: 1600 CE; 2,600,000: 1650 CE [11]


♠ Polity Population ♣ 18,500,000: 1600 CE; 21,000,000: 1650 CE ♥

Estimate, within boundaries of present day France: 18,500,000: 1600 CE; 21,000,000: 1650 CE [12]

20,000,000 at time of Richelieu. [13]


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 200,000: 1590 CE; 245,000: 1600 CE; 430,000: 1637 CE; 455,000: 1650 CE ♥ Paris.

245,000: 1600 CE; 455,000: 1650 CE [14]

200,000: 1590 CE (in aftermath of siege); 430,000: 1637 CE [15]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 6 ♥ levels.

1. Capital city

2. Provincial city
3?. Colonies
Quebec, Antilles, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Dominica. [16]
3. Large town
4. Town - Prévôt
5. Village
6. Hamlet
Urbanization: 14% 1600 CE. [17]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 6 ♥ levels.


1. King

_Central government_

2. Conseil d'en haut. Dominated by influential figure such as Cardinal Richelieu, then Marazin.
3. Officials of other councils of government. (The Conseil d'en haut being the "supreme governing council of the state.") [18]
4.
5.
2. Estates-General (until 1614 CE).
3.
Last session until 1789 CE [19]
2. Parlement of Paris
3.

_Provincial government_

2. Superintendant
3. Intendant[20] in a generalite[21]
4. Subdelegue
"the office of subdelegue quickly established itself as an essential aid to the overworked intendants, who desperately needed reliable subordinates with local knowledge. There were always some ambitious local officials who were prepared to accept these unpopular positions..."[22]
"During the 1630s the presence of an intendant became the normal rule, where it had previously been sporadic; without an clear intention, the crown was establishing a parallel system of non-venal administrators, with tremendous potential as a tool for centralization." [23]
Intendants were about 80 men [24] who "could rely on the council to issue arrets in line with their recommendations."[25]
4. City governor
Governor of Paris [26]
5.
4. Provincial governor [27]; Governors [28]
5. Lieutenant-governor [29]
5. Prévôt [30] in a Prévôté
6. Leader of a parish


♠ Religious levels ♣ 7 ♥ levels. [31]


1. Pope

de jure #1

1. King

de facto #1. made ecclesiastical appointments
2. Parlement of Paris
"issued orders in January 1535 offering rewards for those who denounced heretics and punishments for concealments." [32]
3. Council of the French Church
Cardinals, Papal legates
4. Archbishop in archbishopric
5. deputy called vicar-general?
5. Bishop in Diocese
1551 CE diocese of Lombez had 154 priests in 91 parishes (low density priests to parishes) where as diocese of Leon (Brittany) had "an exceptionally dense concentration of clergy."
under Francis I "only six known commoners promoted as bishops who in fact owed their positions to their scholarship and close relationship to the royal household."
6. Archdeacon
7. Parish priest
Priest / Cures / Vicaires. "in the 392 parishes of Beauvais, there were only 80 resident cures ... distributed unevenly, the rest replaced by vicaires."


♠ Military levels ♣ [10-12] ♥ levels.

Lieutenant-General

[33]


possibly 10-12 levels in 1450-1589 CE period (below):

1. King

Commander-in-chief
2. Secretaires des guerres / senior councillor
2. Constable
Constable of France [34]
3?. Marshall
3-5 marshals [35]
4. Captain
Captains of heavy cavalry important role among in the staff command structure [36]
5. Lieutenant-general
"A deep pocket was a crucial advantage to a commander." Expected to lavish gifts on army. [37]
"successful commanders had to navigate the labyrinth of politics and patronage in order to obtain funds for their armies."[38]
6?. Marechal de camp / Maitre de camp (cavalry / infantry)[39]
6?. Marechal de logis / maitre l'artilerie[40]
7. Sergent de bataille[41]
8. Colonel[42]
9. Captain
Captain of a company. [43]
10. Lieutenant
Could be promoted to captain. [44]
11. Sergeant[45]
12. Individual soldier


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ [absent; present] ♥ eg. Captains, commanders, colonels [46] “Parma commanded a disciplined, professional army in contrast to Henry’s largely volunteer forces, at least where the nobility were concerned.” [47] Between 1610 and 1652, French military officers were lured to the Netherlands for expert training from the Dutch. Here the most important innovation was the incorporation of drill and discipline to control a large standing army. 1652 the Royal Army created, consisting of professional officers and soldiers, marking the first major step becoming a “premier land force in Europe.” [48] Until the changes of the mid-1600s, “the officer corps reflected a unique culture of command based upon aristocratic values that attracted young nobles to the service but limited the professionalization of the army.” [49] For example, there came a need to commission rich men because of their wealth and credit were required for the proper maintenance of units, which came a at a cost to the professionalization of both officer and soldier. “The state never mastered the ability to pay for its own army.” [50] Despite efforts to create a more professional military by moving through the seventeenth century culture of command, by the close of the grand siècle, the French officer straddled archaic values of aristocratic honor and independence, on one side, and new standards of professional competence and hierarchy, on the other. [51]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Lynn notes that armies of the fifteenth, sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries were assembled for particular campaigns from a combination of native French units, foreign hired mercenary bands (usually Swiss) and the private armies of major nobles who offered their services in exchange for money or favor. This is known an “aggregate contract army” rather than a standing army composed of professional officers and soldiers. “The quality of the foreign mercenaries was much higher than the far less professional French.” [52] According to historian Henrico Davila, Henry IV was the General of a volunteer army [53] in addition to the hired mercenaries. Lynn notes that “the French army, particularly its infantry, had once been an aggregate of temporary mercenary units and private forces raised by grandees, but by the mid-1600s, it had become the province of the King alone, a royal instrument with a large permanent establishment directly commanded by the monarch,” and yet, “ostensibly voluntary enlistment provided most of the recruits.” [54] “The state never mastered the ability to pay for its own army.” [55] According to Mears, it was not until later that professionalism came under regular control. “In 1670, a uniform scale of pay was laid down for each branch of the service, and what was more important, the pay was actually forthcoming.” [56]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ 1620s were a turning point in terms of ecclesiastic growth, reaching a peak in the 1630s with nine out of every ten bishops being ordained priests, “and thereby fully committed to ecclesiastical careers.” Bergin also notes that the decision to be ordained a priest could never really be divorced from career prospects, especially that of the episcopate itself. [57] [58] Essentially, the transformation of parish priests into liturgical performers was also part of this larger effort to professionalize the secular clergy during the second half of the seventeenth century. In addition, by 1640 a new professional identity for priesthood was being forged through seminary education. [59]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥

50,000 state officials in 1661 CE. [60]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred present ♥ In theory university qualifications were required for many top posts in government.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥

Within the church, the papal Concordat of Bologna (negotiated between king of France and the pope) promulgated in Rome 1516 CE "dispensed princes of the blood and members of great families from the requirement of a University degree, although the king had the phrase: "the king will name a qualified person, that is to say a graduate or a noble" modified by deleting the last three words in order to minimise lobbying. However, the overwhelming noble status of the bishops appointed after 1516 CE is clear."[61]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Mints


Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ "After the dissolution of the Assembly, Marillac was charged with preparing an enormous ordinance, clarifying and regulating virtually every aspect of the relations between crown and subjects. Nicknamed the "code Michaud" after its draughtsman, this was an unwieldy collection of pious hopes, which inevitably contained something to upset almost everybody; all that was lacking was any plausible scheme for enforcing it. ... Like its sixteenth-century predecessors, the code soon became a dead letter in most respects; after Marillac's disgrace the government openly connived at the evasion of many of its provisions by the courts, while ignoring others itself." (Assembly refers to Assembly of Notables 1626-1627 CE).[62]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Magistrates. [63]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ [64]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥ Magistrates, advocates. [65]


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ [66]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred present ♥ "The actual conditions of life in towns were often pirmitive, even squalid; sanitation was virtually non-existent, water supplies unreliable, housing cramped and uncomfortable." [67] - what did the water supplies entail?
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ Inspectors and product regulations. [68]
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Sully (1560-1641), as superintendant of finances, improved the transport system: "under his control a higher proportion of royal expenditure went on roads, canals, and port facilities than at any other time during the century." However, "after his dismissal in 1611 progress was minimal." [69]
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ [70]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ [71]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ "France possesses no precious metal resources and little copper. Iron ores are abundant, and there are regional deposits of lead, zinc, and coal. All of these were exploited during the Middle Ages. Evidence for ironworking exists from Merovingian France onward." [72]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Bible.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Daniel de Priézac (1590-1662 CE) writer and jurist, founding member French Academy.
♠ History ♣ present ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Jean de Silhon (1596-1667 CE) founding member French Academy.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Blaise Pascal (1623-1662 CE) mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Christian philosopher. René Descartes (1596-1650 CE) philosopher, mathematician and writer (however he mostly lived abroad).
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Jean-Louis Guez de Balzac (1597-1654 CE), founding member French Academy. François de La Mothe Le Vayer (1588-1672 CE), founding member French Academy.

Money

♠ Articles ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Livre tournois. Silver livre tournois which was worth 20 sous or 240 deniers. Early in the eighteenth century two attempts were made to introduce a paper currency which both failed. [73] [74]
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ [75]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ Postal relays were for exclusive royal and administrative use until 1603 CE when relays opened to the public. Starting in Paris 1760 CE mail began to be delivered to homes. [76]
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥ Postal relays were for exclusive royal and administrative use until 1603 CE when relays opened to the public. Starting in Paris 1760 CE mail began to be delivered to homes. [77] A general service did not exist in the year 1600 CE

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Alec Vulfson ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Minor role. [78]
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ Minor role. [79]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ [80]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ [81]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery.[82] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred absent ♥ Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery.[83] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned.
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery.[84] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned.
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery.[85] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned.
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ Maybe still some use of the crossbow? Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery.[86] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned.
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ [present; absent] ♥ Cannon took over as the siege weapon. Had they eliminated other projectile machines by this time?
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred absent ♥ Absent in previous and subsequent periods.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ present ♥ Gunpowder cannon smashed through castles, keeps, towers and walls bringing down the old aristocracy with it.[87]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ present ♥ Louis XIII changed from rifled carbines to matchlock muskets (mousquets) in 1622 CE. From the 1680s CE muskets with "cheap but reliable flintlock mechanism replaced the older weapons in which the charge in the musket's breech was ignited by applying a piece of lighted, slow-burning match."[88]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred absent ♥ Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery.[89] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned.
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred absent ♥ Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery.[90] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned.
♠ Daggers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery.[91] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned.
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ Cavalry officers? Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery.[92] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned.
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery.[93] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned. Infantry armor became heavier as cavalry armor was discarded. e.g. pikeman who faced lancers. Breastplates and steel leggings were available but most wore stiff leather coats.[94] Still some lancers?
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery.[95] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned. Infantry armor became heavier as cavalry armor was discarded. e.g. pikeman who faced lancers. Breastplates and steel leggings were available but most wore stiff leather coats.[96] Still some pikemen?

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Cavalry carried guns.[97]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred absent ♥ Absent in previous and subsequent periods.
♠ Elephants ♣ inferred absent ♥ Absent in previous and subsequent periods.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ "These negatives came to outweigh suit armor's protective quality ... Instead, cloth or leather garments were worn and smaller, fleeter steeds were newly desired: the fully armed knight and the destrier retired from war together".[98]
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Montgommery and Rohan were enthusiastic proponents of the use of small shields to defend musketeers against pikes. [99] Shields not mentioned by Nolan (2006) who covers the 1000-1650 CE period.[100]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Mercenary professionals: "By the 17th century most had discarded all armor other than a helmet and cuirass".[101] "By the mid-17th century even cavalry units, which were still predominantly aristocratic in origin, discarded most armor other than the helm and breastplate. Leg armor went first, replaced by three-quarter leather skirts. ... By the end of the 17th century only bits and pieces of burnished metal survived here and there, and then mostly as polished ceremonial accouterments for officers-on-parade."[102]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ Mercenary professionals: "By the 17th century most had discarded all armor other than a helmet and cuirass".[103] "By the mid-17th century even cavalry units, which were still predominantly aristocratic in origin, discarded most armor other than the helm and breastplate."[104] Infantry armor became heavier as cavalry armor was discarded. e.g. pikeman who faced lancers. Breastplates and steel leggings were available but most wore stiff leather coats.[105]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ "By the mid-17th century even cavalry units, which were still predominantly aristocratic in origin, discarded most armor other than the helm and breastplate. Leg armor went first, replaced by three-quarter leather skirts. ... By the end of the 17th century only bits and pieces of burnished metal survived here and there, and then mostly as polished ceremonial accouterments for officers-on-parade."[106] Infantry armor became heavier as cavalry armor was discarded. e.g. pikeman who faced lancers. Breastplates and steel leggings were available but most wore stiff leather coats.[107]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Chainmail was standard in the 12th century against bladed weapons but in the 15th century was replaced by plate armour which could better deflect missiles and glancing blows.[108]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ Only references are to plate armour. "The full suit of body armor was thus a product of the end of the age of armor, and still in use into the 16th century. But personal plate became ineffective and obsolete with introduction of more powerful firearms capable of using corned gunpowder, which gave far greater penetrating power to handguns and cannon. At that point, the weight of ever-thickening plate became too great a burden: a fully articulated suit of 16th-century plate weighed 60 pounds."[109]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ Only references are to plate armour. "The full suit of body armor was thus a product of the end of the age of armor, and still in use into the 16th century. But personal plate became ineffective and obsolete with introduction of more powerful firearms capable of using corned gunpowder, which gave far greater penetrating power to handguns and cannon. At that point, the weight of ever-thickening plate became too great a burden: a fully articulated suit of 16th-century plate weighed 60 pounds."[110]
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ The cuirass counts as plate armour. "The full suit of body armor was thus a product of the end of the age of armor, and still in use into the 16th century. But personal plate became ineffective and obsolete with introduction of more powerful firearms capable of using corned gunpowder, which gave far greater penetrating power to handguns and cannon. At that point, the weight of ever-thickening plate became too great a burden: a fully articulated suit of 16th-century plate weighed 60 pounds."[111] Mercenary professionals: "By the 17th century most had discarded all armor other than a helmet and cuirass".[112] "By the mid-17th century even cavalry units, which were still predominantly aristocratic in origin, discarded most armor other than the helm and breastplate. Leg armor went first, replaced by three-quarter leather skirts. ... By the end of the 17th century only bits and pieces of burnished metal survived here and there, and then mostly as polished ceremonial accouterments for officers-on-parade."[113]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ [114]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ Richelieu one of the founders of the modern French navy. [115]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities. '
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities. '
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities. '
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ [116]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ present ♥ Fortifications at Brouage. [117]

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Throne was inherited within the Bourbon dynasty.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ "It was agreed that authority to rule came from God, a notion we know as divine right." [118]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Christianity is monotheistic.

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Jesus' message "envisages a universal society bound together by divine love in which the limited human ties of affection based on kinship, cultural identity, and self-interest give way to the unlimited love of God. It calls for an egalitarian kingdom of love without limits. Jesus likens it to a family in which all are brothers and sisters of one another and children of the one Father (‘Abba’, an informal word for father, is Jesus’ preferred name for God)." [119] However, it is worth noting that, for example, social inequality and inequality between the sexes were often justified theologically [120][121][122][123].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ "According to a long-standing, and not infrequently contested ideal, European society was composed of a series of hierarchically arranged social groups (estates, orders, and corps), each with a prescribed function and corresponding degree of honour and privileges. In its simplest form, society consisted of three basic groups: the First Estate, the clergy, who prayed; the Second Estate, the nobility, who fought; and the Third Estate, the common people, who worked. This hierarchy of superiority and inferiority was, according to some theorists of the period, inscribed in the order of the universe, so that the terrestrial human hierarchy participated in a greater, divinely sanctioned celestial hierarchy." [124]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ "According to a long-standing, and not infrequently contested ideal, European society was composed of a series of hierarchically arranged social groups (estates, orders, and corps), each with a prescribed function and corresponding degree of honour and privileges. In its simplest form, society consisted of three basic groups: the First Estate, the clergy, who prayed; the Second Estate, the nobility, who fought; and the Third Estate, the common people, who worked. This hierarchy of superiority and inferiority was, according to some theorists of the period, inscribed in the order of the universe, so that the terrestrial human hierarchy participated in a greater, divinely sanctioned celestial hierarchy." [125]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ "The instructions of Leviticus 19.15-18 set out a number of practical rules for living. One must be impartial when ‘judging’ one’s neighbour, and not judge one’s neighbour in the sense of condemning him’ one must not hate one’s brother but one must reproach him when it is appropriate. Partly upon these Jesus erected his summary of the law: one must love one’s neighbour as oneself and love God above all things." [126]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ "In testaments and in the targets of charitable giving there was greater insistence on the public good, and gifts were showered on hospitals, hospices, civic almshouses, and confraternities, all of which rationed and directed charity towards those seen as most needy. New religious orders were founded which ministered directly to the poor - most notably, perhaps, the Capuchins - and hospitals were opened to care for the sick and aged. In France Saint Vincent-de-Paul founded the Daughters of Charity, a community of nursing sisters who, during the seventeeth and eighteenth centuries, provided care to the sick and dying in hospitals across the country and offered succour to the poor." [127]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [128] [129] [130]

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