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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron; Jill Levine ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Longshan ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Lungshan; Chalcolithic China; Jade Age; Lungshanoid horizon ♥ "The cultural landscape of the third millennium B.C., which has been defined by Yan Wenming (1992b) as the Longshan era (Longshan shidai, 2600-2000 B.C.) and by K. C. Chang as the Lungshan or Lungshanoid horizon (Chang 1977: 144-184, 1986: 238), is often indicated as the beginning of Chinese civilization, complex political organization, and, possibly, writing. Due to the incipient emergence of copper and bronze technology, and its chronological position between the end of the Neolithic and the beginning of the Bronze Age in the Xia-Shang, it has also been suggested that Longshan be termed Chalcolithic (Yan Wenming 1986). The existence of a sophisticated technology for the production of jade artifacts and the comparative wealth of jade finds dating to this period and slightly earlier have prompted some scholars to suggest that the term "Jade Age," a term first found in the text Yuejueshu "Waijuan Ji Baojian" (juan II, vol. 2) (1966: 3), may also be appropriate. 1 The concepts of stone, bronze, and iron ages were devised within the tradition of Western prehistory, and as they are problematic even within that framework, they should not be uncritically applied to other parts of the world." [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 3000-1900 BCE ♥ "The earlier part of this trajectory is associated with the so-called Henan and Shanxi Longshan (龙山) cultures, also known by other more localized names and dating to c. 3000-1900 BC." [2] "Even in the area of the middle Yellow River, the trajectory is not the same for all subregions. Taosi seems to have undergone a process of decline; sometime around 2000 BC the large rammed-earth enclosure was destroyed, and stone and bone debris found in the area of the public buildings suggest that it was converted into a workshop for craft production (Liu 2004, pp. 110-111). However, Taosi was not abandoned altogether, and evidence, including radiocarbon dates, suggests that it remained occupied until around 1700 BC (Zhongguo 2003, pp. 566, 838)." [3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥ "In most regions, population growth during the Late Neolithic was coupled with the clustering of sites and the formation of site hierarchies. The few sites that were fortified stood at the top of the settlement hierarchy. More than 20 walled sites, some very large in scale, are known from the lower and middle Yellow River area. The relatively regular spacing of these sites, at a distance of some 30-50 km from one another (Guojia 2006, 2007; Liu 2004), suggests that they were central nodes of small-scale polities each covering some 1,500-2,000 km2. Other evidence, such as the association of fortified sites with prestigious buildings and artifacts and specialized production activities, also supports this hypothesis (Liu 2004, pp. 104- 105; Underhill et al. 2008)." [4]

"The late Longshan period, that is, the latter part of the third millennium and the earlier part of the second millennium B.C., was the period of the legendary wan guo (ten thousand states), a term often seen in the later, classical period. The surge in interactions among these many states made the Longshan one of the most active periods in ancient Chinese history." [5]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Yangshao ♥ "Such remains obviously indicate a society at a stage of development between that of the Yangshao culture, which until the 1950s was the only known Neolithic culture earlier than the Longshan, and the later Shang civilization." [6]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ "Thus, when I say, for example, that the Yangshao tradition was followed by the Longshan tradition, it should not be taken to imply that the break between the two is clear and discrete, or that all people changed in exactly the same ways at precisely the same time. Nor should such a statement imply that there was a population replacement between the two traditions. More important, such a statement should not be taken to imply that the peoples of either tradition knew they were living in any sort of unity with other people who we, from our perspective today, suggest they shared a common archaeological tradition." [7]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Erlitou ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥ Chang (1999) suggests the entity of China, but other expert input is needed. "When the chronologies of the various cultural types and systems are carefully traced, it becomes apparent that by approximately 4000 B.C. some of the adjacent regional cultures had come into contact as an inevitable result of expansion and that a number of ceramic styles began to assume a sphere-wide instead of merely a region-wide distribution. For example, among pottery vessel types, the ding and the dou are found in every region, often in large numbers, suggesting the wide distribution of a style of cooking formerly prevailing only in the Dawenkou and Daxi cultures. The perforated slate rectangular and semilunar knives represent another horizon marker, as do some pottery and jade art motifs that, as pointed out earlier, may reflect deeper substratal commonalities than recent contact. With the definition of "interaction spheres," for the first time we can discuss the issue of the name "China." I suggest that from this point on, as the regions with which we are concerned came to be joined together in archaeological terms and exhibit increasing similarities, the interaction sphere may be referred to as "Chinese." " [8]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Taosi ♥ "Other evidence, such as the association of fortified sites with prestigious buildings and artifacts and specialized production activities, also supports this hypothesis (Liu 2004, pp. 104- 105; Underhill et al. 2008). Of these fortified sites, Taosi (陶寺) in Shanxi is the most impressive (Fig. 1)." [9]

"A preliminary report on a recently discovered site named Shimao (石峁) in Shenmu County, Shaanxi Province, suggests that it covered an area of 400 ha, was surrounded by a wall made of stone, and had an inner area divided into three enclosures. Such parameters would make it the largest and most labor-intensive site of the late third millennium BC in China, but because data on this site are currently found only in journalistic sources (including its inclusion in the list of the “Top 10 archaeological finds in China” for 2012), those reports cannot yet be corroborated. Especially worrisome is the dating of the site to the Longshan and Xia dynasties without any supporting radiocarbon data that would convincingly locate it in this period." [10]

♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

Longshan culture (Chalcolithic China, Jade Age, Lungshanoid horizon) evolved from the Yangshao culture in the Lower Yellow River Valley and the Majiabang culture in the Lower Yangzi River Valley.[11] It is characterized by the presence of dark grey and black polished pottery.[12] The culture was named after Mount Long in Shandong[13], and major sites have been uncovered in modern Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, Hebei, Hubei, and Shandong.[14]

Longshan people used ground stone and chipped stone tools used for agriculture and carving.[15] Millet was the main agricultural staple, and evidence of domesticated rice was found in more than on site.[16] Settlements feature circular ground-level homes with wattle and daub walls, and large square homes built on platforms. Hang-tu earth walls and adobe bricks were also used in settlement construction.[17]

Longshan culture was the precursor of the Zhou dynasty in Shaanxi, the state of Qi in Shandong, and Yue and Wu in the Yangzi River Delta.[18]

Population and political organization

There is evidence that the Longshan people lived in hierarchical societies. Symbolic jade and other prestige goods including thin walled stemmed cups have been found in elite Longshan burials.[19] Lineages or ranked patronages may have been important in Longshan society, and walled towns with surrounding villages could have been chiefdoms.[20] Scholars believe that violent conflicts increased during the Longshan period, which could be a sign of competition for power.[21] More research is necessary to estimate the population of Longshan sites.[22]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [1,500-2000] ♥ in squared kilometers "In most regions, population growth during the Late Neolithic was coupled with the clustering of sites and the formation of site hierarchies. The few sites that were fortified stood at the top of the settlement hierarchy. More than 20 walled sites, some very large in scale, are known from the lower and middle Yellow River area. The relatively regular spacing of these sites, at a distance of some 30-50 km from one another (Guojia 2006, 2007; Liu 2004), suggests that they were central nodes of small-scale polities each covering some 1,500-2,000 km2. Other evidence, such as the association of fortified sites with prestigious buildings and artifacts and specialized production activities, also supports this hypothesis (Liu 2004, pp. 104- 105; Underhill et al. 2008)." [23]

In Zhengzhou there were sites during the Longshan that were 3 square kilometers at the center. Note: Don't know how far these sites controlled. [24]

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People. Unknown. "More information on spatial and chronological relations of features at sites needs to be obtained before estimates of population can be made." [25]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [5000-20000]: 3000-2601 BCE; [14,000-56,000]: 2600-1900 BCE ♥ Inhabitants. "Population density reached its peak in the late Neolithic" period; largest settlment pre-Taosi phase approximately 100 ha,[26][27] so if we estimate 50-200 inhabitants per hectare, then it would have been occupied by between 5,000 to 20,000. "In the early Taosi phase, the largest site reached 280 ha in size,"[28] so if we estimate 50-200 inhabitants per hectare, then it would have been occupied by between 14,000 and 56,000 people.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [3-4] ♥ levels.

1. Taosi (280 ha)
2. More than 100ha (3)
3. Between 10 and 99 ha (23)
4. Smaller than 10 ha (27)

"It is argued that Taosi controlled a three- (Liu and Chen 2012, p. 221) or four-tier (He 2013) settlement hierarchy in the area between the Fen River and the Kuai River. A recent study counted 54 Taosi-period sites in this region; at least 3 of them, not including Taosi itself, are more than 100 ha in size, 23 are between 10 and 99 ha, and the rest are smaller (He 2013). Regardless of the exact number of hierarchical tiers (which in any case may be impossible to determine based on current data), the range in size, the more-or-less even distribution of the largest sites, and the association between labor investment and the largest site (Taosi) do suggest the development of a regional settlement hierarchy and the ability of the center(s) to recruit labor and accumulate resources." [29]

"At the same time, there was an increase in the size of settlements. All the Longshan settlements in the Zhengzhou-Luoyang region can be classified into four different size groups: (1) from 40-100ha, (2) 15-40ha, (3) 5-15 ha, and (4) smaller than 5 ha. So far there are only 10 sites in the large size class, just 1 percent of the known sites, including two sites of the Wangwan Type north of the Songshan mountains: Cuoli in the Luoyang city area (50ha) and Miaodian in Jiyuan city (80ha); and two sites of the Meishan Type south of the Songshan mountains: Xinzhai (over 100ha) and Wadian in Yuxian county (40ha). Although the quantity of small sites also had increased in comparison to the late Yangshao period, the sizes of the other, smaller sites had not increased (Zhao Chunqing 1999). The six other large sites are: Taipu 太仆 in Shanxian county (70ha), Boluoyao 菠萝窑 in Mengjin county (40ha), Xi- wangcun 西王村 in Luoning county (45ha), Laofandian 老樊店 in Songxian county (50 ha), Dasima 大司马 in Wuzhi county (100 ha), and Yangxiang 杨香 in Qinyang county (75ha)." [30]

"Settlement System. Scholars have focused on understanding individual sites rather than regions. Settlement hierarchies have been proposed for more than one region, primarily on the basis of large-scale reconnaissances. However, as noted above, a few systematic, regional surveys have begun. Relatively large settlements surrounded by walls Of rammed earth are present in several regions and are thought to represent political centers (such as Wangchenggang, Pingliangtai, Haojiatai, Mengzhuang, all in Henan; Dinggong, Bianxianwang, Jingyanggang in Shandong; Shijiahe in Hubei). For several areas, surveys and reconnaissances suggest three levels in the settlement hierarchies. It appears that good agricultural soils and water sources were important factors affecting site location. Regional surveys are beginning to reveal evidence for use of upland areas as well." [31]

"Recent intensive surveys in Shandong and Henan have disclosed clusters of ruins of walled Longshan culture towns of different sizes, forming settlement hierarchies of at least two levels, some stretching over an area of several hundred square kilometers." [32]

"From the network of small, largely self-sufficient villages of the middle Neolithic phase, the archaeological record of the Longshan era shows a hierarchical complex of territorial relationships gravitating around a single, increasingly large, political center. These hierarchical relationships probably included the creation of strong codependent ties between the center and its surrounding villages." [33]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [3-4] ♥ levels.

1. King
"Issuing the calendar would have been the duty of the king. Associated ritual activities also would have taken place at the observatory. It is likely the king held ceremonies there by himself or entrusted officials to perform rituals on his behalf. This was not a public ritual building freely accessible to commoners."[34]
2. Top adviser and/or priest and/or someone who administered building and maintenance projects e.g. Yao's observatory inferred
"The walls indicate social differentiation in Longshan society for more than one reason. The resources needed for building a large walled settlement were far more than those used in ordinary settlements, thus requiring a very powerful central authority to organize the necessary labor. In addition, there is evidence at some sites for sacrifice of humans in rituals associated with the construction of wall foundations. For instance, in the western walled portion of Wangchenggang, 13 sacrificial pits filled with at least 17 human skeletons were found. The original number would have been more than this because of selective excavation." [35]
3. Official astronomer
"recording time at Yao’s observatory was entrusted to the official astronomers of names Xi 羲 and He 和.”2"[36]
4. Lower Level Advisers (Inferred)


♠ Religious levels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ levels. Differences between religious hierarchy and political hierarchy is possible unknowable. [37]

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels. No evidence for military

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No evidence for military so one could infer that regularly paid professional military officers were absent. Would there have been a full-time trained and paid personal retainer/bodyguard to a king?

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Unknown. No evidence for military so one could infer that regularly paid professional soldiers were absent. Would there have been a full-time trained and paid personal retainer/bodyguard to a king?

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Religious Practitioners. Artifactual and textual data (from later periods) suggest to some scholars that shamans were important religious specialists during the late Neolithic period." [38]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Unknown. According to the Shangshu Yaodian 尚书·尧典 there was a king and officials.[39]

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ "Before the Northern Sung, the principal means of entry into the social and political elite was by official recommendation or kinship relations." [40]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥ Unknown.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ ♥ Unknown.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥ Specialist judges require a culture of high degree of literacy not present at this time.

♠ Courts ♣ inferred absent ♥ Specialist courts require a culture of high degree of literacy not present at this time.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Specialist lawyers require a culture of high degree of literacy not present at this time.

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ ♥ Unknown.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ Water wells [41], but some sort of pipe network is needed for drinking water supply system to be considered present.
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ "The well-preserved Zhouli 妯娌 site in Mengjin county provides good information about internal settlement organization during the early Longshan period in central Henan. The Zhouli settlement is composed of three well-arranged segments: parallel residential and storage areas in the north, and a cemetery in the south. Within the residential area, which is protected by a 4m deep moat to the southwest, 15 round, semi-subterranean houses were excavated. Elaborate ones may be as big as 3sqm to 12sqm in area, with hearths, steps (at the entrance) and floors covered by pulverized stone or sand. To the west of the moat, an aggregation of more than 50 pits in a small area likely represents a common storage area." [42] Storage pits, although not confirmed to be used for food storage or to be public: "Within the walls are houses, kilns, tombs, and ash-pits, as well as evidence of violent deaths (human remains were found in disused storage pits) and human sacrifices of both adults and children at the foundation of large buildings (He Deliang 1993: 2)." [43]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ "There also was an early-period city road system. A survey by the geologist Li Rongquan 李荣权 showed that the small southern gully Xiaonan Gou 小南沟, the large southern gully Danan Gou 大南沟, and southern gully Nan Gou 南沟 were all roads used during the city’s occupation. Due to flooding during subsequent eras, they became gullies (Li Rongquan, pers. comm., Sept. 2003). Therefore, it appears the early-period city road system ran from southeast to northwest in a linear design. The road stretched from the southern royal cemetery, northwest into the city, and ran between the palace area and lower elite residential area. From the northern and southern portions of the palace area it converged with a large road at Xiaonan Gou, after which it crossed through the residential area for commoners to the hypothesized ritual area (Zhongguo et al. 2005b). The road was not entirely straight or as developed as roads in later Chinese cities." [44]
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥ "An exception to this is Tenghualuo (Liuyungang, Jiangsu), an apparently unwalled dwelling site complete with a canal and a pier, which covers an area of 10 ha (Anonymous 1996a)." [45] Not necessarily a canal used for transport, but since there was a pier, this can be inferred.
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ "Obtaining lithic material (hornfel) from the Dagudui quarry, 6 kilometers south of the site, Taosi was also a manufacturing center of stone artifacts, both tools and ritual paraphernalia such as chime stone." [46]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥ Unknown.
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ inferred present ♥ "While there is an ongoing debate about the presence of writing in pre-Shang China, archaeological evidence indicates that simple recording systems occurred before the Longshan period, and that by the Longshan era some simple form of writing may have appeared (Dematte 1999). Particularly crucial are the discoveries of pictographic signs structurally similar to later Chinese characters in the area of the eastern coastal cultures (such as Dawenkou, Liangzhu, and Yueshi)." [47]
♠ Written records ♣ inferred absent ♥ Pat Savage: Barend ter Har distrusted this and other references claiming early origins of writing as being politically motivated to establish early Chinese invention. He says the first true writing isn't attested until the Shang oracle bone script [48] [49]. "Not only did political chiefdoms, hierarchical settlements, and high shamanism begin in this period, but it may have witnessed the invention of true writing as well; many inscribed but yet to be deciphered pottery pieces have come to light (Fig. I.IO)." [50] "A recurring characteristic of Longshan walled settlements in Shandong appears to be the presence of incipient forms of writing; at four of the six sites (Chengziyai, Dinggong, Shijia, and ]ingyanggang) excavators have found inscribed pottery or bones." [51] "While there is an ongoing debate about the presence of writing in pre-Shang China, archaeological evidence indicates that simple recording systems occurred before the Longshan period, and that by the Longshan era some simple form of writing may have appeared (Dematte 1999). Particularly crucial are the discoveries of pictographic signs structurally similar to later Chinese characters in the area of the eastern coastal cultures (such as Dawenkou, Liangzhu, and Yueshi)." [52] However, anything written on perishable materials such as bamboo, for instance, unlikely to be preserved.
♠ Script ♣ inferred present ♥ "Not only did political chiefdoms, hierarchical settlements, and high shamanism begin in this period, but it may have witnessed the invention of true writing as well; many inscribed but yet to be deciphered pottery pieces have come to light (Fig. I.IO)." [53] "A recurring characteristic of Longshan walled settlements in Shandong appears to be the presence of incipient forms of writing; at four of the six sites (Chengziyai, Dinggong, Shijia, and ]ingyanggang) excavators have found inscribed pottery or bones." [54] "While there is an ongoing debate about the presence of writing in pre-Shang China, archaeological evidence indicates that simple recording systems occurred before the Longshan period, and that by the Longshan era some simple form of writing may have appeared (Dematte 1999). Particularly crucial are the discoveries of pictographic signs structurally similar to later Chinese characters in the area of the eastern coastal cultures (such as Dawenkou, Liangzhu, and Yueshi)." [55]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥ Unknown.

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥ Unknown. "Not only did political chiefdoms, hierarchical settlements, and high shamanism begin in this period, but it may have witnessed the invention of true writing as well; many inscribed but yet to be deciphered pottery pieces have come to light (Fig. I.IO)." [56]
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥ Unknown but possible, given both evidence for astronomy ("recording time at Yao’s observatory was entrusted to the official astronomers of names Xi 羲 and He 和.”2"[57]) and for writing ("Not only did political chiefdoms, hierarchical settlements, and high shamanism begin in this period, but it may have witnessed the invention of true writing as well; many inscribed but yet to be deciphered pottery pieces have come to light (Fig. I.IO)." [58])
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥ Unknown but possible, given simultaneous occurrence of high shamanism and early writing. "Not only did political chiefdoms, hierarchical settlements, and high shamanism begin in this period, but it may have witnessed the invention of true writing as well; many inscribed but yet to be deciphered pottery pieces have come to light (Fig. I.IO)." [59]
♠ Religious literature ♣ ♥ Unknown but possible, given simultaneous occurrence of high shamanism and early writing. "Not only did political chiefdoms, hierarchical settlements, and high shamanism begin in this period, but it may have witnessed the invention of true writing as well; many inscribed but yet to be deciphered pottery pieces have come to light (Fig. I.IO)." [60]
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥ Unknown but possible. "Not only did political chiefdoms, hierarchical settlements, and high shamanism begin in this period, but it may have witnessed the invention of true writing as well; many inscribed but yet to be deciphered pottery pieces have come to light (Fig. I.IO)." [61]
♠ History ♣ ♥ Unknown but possible. "Not only did political chiefdoms, hierarchical settlements, and high shamanism begin in this period, but it may have witnessed the invention of true writing as well; many inscribed but yet to be deciphered pottery pieces have come to light (Fig. I.IO)." [62]
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥ Unknown but possible. "Not only did political chiefdoms, hierarchical settlements, and high shamanism begin in this period, but it may have witnessed the invention of true writing as well; many inscribed but yet to be deciphered pottery pieces have come to light (Fig. I.IO)." [63]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥ Unknown but possible, given both evidence for astronomy ("recording time at Yao’s observatory was entrusted to the official astronomers of names Xi 羲 and He 和.”2"[64]) and for writing ("Not only did political chiefdoms, hierarchical settlements, and high shamanism begin in this period, but it may have witnessed the invention of true writing as well; many inscribed but yet to be deciphered pottery pieces have come to light (Fig. I.IO)." [65])
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥ Unknown but possible. "Not only did political chiefdoms, hierarchical settlements, and high shamanism begin in this period, but it may have witnessed the invention of true writing as well; many inscribed but yet to be deciphered pottery pieces have come to light (Fig. I.IO)." [66]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥ Unknown.
♠ Tokens ♣ inferred present ♥ "Long-distance trade in exotic valuables was a further major development." [67]
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ "Long-distance trade in exotic valuables was a further major development."[68]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥ Coins were invented at a later time.
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ Coins were invented at a later time.
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ Paper did not exist at this time.

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ It is possible that the rulers at this time used messengers even over short distances for both convenience, the ability to transmit more than one message simultaneously and perhaps to enhance their status.
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred absent ♥ No data on whether the elite used relay stations to transmit messages faster. This might be considered unlikely as elsewhere relay stations evolved and were used in context of much larger states and bureaucracies where long distances needed to be traversed.
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥ Little or no literacy so there would have been nobody to use a general postal service, if such had existed.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron; Jill Levine ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Present.[69]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Bronze weapons were first developed in the Longshan period.[70]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Not discovered at this time.
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Not discovered at this time.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ "spears projectile points"[71] - could be just for hunting but dual-use possible.
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ Technology used in the new world. Unlikely.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ Sling stones used for hunting could have been used for warfare. Known from the Zhou period, when: "The conscripted foot soldiers wore sheepskin jackets and used slings and bows with bronze-tipped arrows."[72]' Sling stones used for hunting could have been used for warfare. "Polished stone tools are abundant at Wangwan III sites. It appears that specific forms of tools were made for particular functions, such as shovels for digging, knives, and lian 镰 sickles for harvesting, and grinding stones and slabs for processing millet. No doubt the wide use of sickles greatly increased crop yields while pits plastered with lime provided good storage for cereals. There were other specialized tools as well such as axes, adzes, chisels, and zuan 钻 drills for woodwork; mao 矛 spears projectile points, arrowheads ,and sling stones (danwan 弹丸) for hunting; barbs (gou 钩), net weights (wangzhui 网坠), and darts (yubiao 鱼镖) for fishing; anvils (paizi 拍子) for pottery-making; and needles and spindle whorls for preparing cloth. These various implements clearly show that agriculture was supplemented by hunting and gathering."[73]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ At Miaodigou II (Early Longshan) sites in Central Henan "Several different kinds of stone and bone tools have been found that indicate an agricultural subsistence economy supplemented by hunting and gathering. The stone tools include fu 斧 axes, ben 锛 adzes, chan 铲 shovels, and zu 镞 arrowheads. The bone tools include zhui 锥 awls, zhen 针 needles, zu arrowheads, and yucha 鱼叉 spears for fishing. "[74]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ Composite bow not known to have been developed at this early time. First evidence for the composite bow comes from the Late Shang.
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Technology first seen in Warring States period [75]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Catapults first used in Warring States Period [76]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Earliest references to siege weaponry is in the Warring States period [77]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Earliest evidence of cannons and firearms is in the Song [78]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Gunpowder not invented for another couple of thousand years.

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Clubs known in subsequent Erlitou. [79]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ Axes for subsistence, but could probably have been used for warfare. At Miaodigou II (Early Longshan) sites in Central Henan "The stone tools include fu 斧 axes, ben 锛 adzes, chan 铲 shovels, and zu 镞 arrowheads. The bone tools include zhui 锥 awls, zhen 针 needles, zu arrowheads, and yucha 鱼叉 spears for fishing."[80]
♠ Daggers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Daggers were imported from an outside culture, first seen in the Shang.[81] however doubts about validity of this source. Bronze knives. "The earliest dated bronze object in China, a knife cast from a mold found in Gansu province, is from about 3000 BC".[82]. However, Gansu is too far west to code present for this polity
♠ Swords ♣ inferred absent ♥ First reference to swords in the Erligang period.
♠ Spears ♣ inferred absent ♥ The "spear appears to have remained relatively uncommon prior to the late Shang."[83]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred absent ♥ No reference to evidence of polearms yet encountered in sources. Horses not used for battle until the invention of chariots in 1300 bce [84] and polearms often used by infantry as defence against horse-back soldiers.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ inferred absent ♥ Dogs were domesticated at this time, but never known to be used in warfare. [85]
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ Donkeys used as pack animals in China, not in warfare. [86]
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Horses not used in battle until the invention of the chariot in 1300 BCE [87]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Animal not present in region.
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Animal not present in region.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ We would expect the earliest defenses to not have been made of metal and so unlikely to have been preserved
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ we would expect the earliest defenses to not have been made of metal and so unlikely to have been preserved
♠ Shields ♣ inferred absent ♥ Helmet found at Dayangzhou, Xin'gan, brings helmets to the Erligang period.[88]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred absent ♥ Helmet found at Dayangzhou, Xin'gan, brings helmets to the Erligang period.[89]
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c bce [90][91]
♠ Limb protection ♣ absent ♥ widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c bce [92][93]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c bce [94][95]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c bce [96][97]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c bce [98][99]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c bce [100][101]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ absent ♥ "The first recorded use of ships in a military operation occurred circa 1045 B.C.E." [102]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ "The first recorded use of ships in a military operation occurred circa 1045 B.C.E." [103]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ "The first recorded use of ships in a military operation occurred circa 1045 B.C.E." [104]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Fortified towns. Ch'u-chia-ling had a wall and moat in 2800 bce, "their defensive needs [may have been] different from those of the so-called core Lungshan area in Hubei and Shandong." [105] Arguments that city walls were to protect against floods, not defensive because they were not maintained. [106]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ "Late Paleolithic Chinese roamed the grasslands of the great Northern Plain, gathering wild varieties of millet. Around 7000-6000 B.C.E. they began creating a village culture along the Yellow River, elevating their villages above the floodplain, often enclosing them with ditches or wooden palisades."[107]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Tamped-earth walls [108] Rammed-earth walls. "So far, about 30 cities with massive defensive hangtu walls dating to the Longshan era have been identified. Several others are under excavation, and new ones are being identified with regular frequency. While most of the best known are located in the middle-lower Yellow River Valley (in the Henan-Shandong there are about ten), several others are found throughout China, such as in the Hunan- Hubei area, in Inner Mongolia, and in Sichuan. What is most relevant is that all appear to be arranged in significant regional clusters (Fig. 4; Appendix 1)."[109] "Of these fortified sites, Taosi (陶寺) in Shanxi is the most impressive (Fig. 1). Its walls are up to 10 m wide, and at the peak of the site’s expansion they would have enclosed an area of some 280 ha." [110]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ "Haojiatai, whose walled enclosure covers an area of 6.5 ha, is also built on an elevated platform and is further protected by an external ditch, most likely a defensive moat." [111] "Some of the walled settlements have surrounding ditches that may have served as moats. One of the functions of the walls probably was defense." [112]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ In the Guchengzhai site, "The moat, which used water from the Qinshui river, was another important defensive barrier around the site. Its width ranges from 34m to 90 m. Coring/probing (zuantan 钻探) determined that the now buried moat is over 4.5m deep in the eastern section, but the river bed is still visible today." [113] "Haojiatai, whose walled enclosure covers an area of 6.5 ha, is also built on an elevated platform and is further protected by an external ditch, most likely a defensive moat." [114] "Some of the walled settlements have surrounding ditches that may have served as moats. One of the functions of the walls probably was defense." [115]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ The Pao-tun in the late Longshan and Erlitou used "river pebbles on exterior wall faces to improve weathering."[116] The river pebbles were apparently to "improve weathering" so archaeologists did not believe they had a role strengthening the wall as a fortification.
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ The Pao-tun in the late Longshan and Erlitou used "river pebbles on exterior wall faces to improve weathering."[117] The river pebbles were apparently to "improve weathering" so archaeologists did not believe they had a role strengthening the wall as a fortification. However, depending on how fast they were to the earth it would have been more difficult to climb up a pebbled wall.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred absent ♥ No military organization[118] so there was no army to make a fortified camp.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ No evidence settlements defended by consecutive rings of walls. However, walls were surrounded by moats or ditches. "Some of the walled settlements have surrounding ditches that may have served as moats. One of the functions of the walls probably was defense." [119]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km. There were city walls but no "long walls". "Even in the Lungshan period (3,000 to 2,000 BC)...Chinese walls had already reached astonishing dimensions and sometimes exceeded twenty-five meters in length." [120] "Yin-hsiang-ch’eng consists of a significant wall system that at one time underwent a major reconstruction. Although both of the wall’s phases date to early in the Ch’ü-chia-ling cultural phase, the site must have been strategically advantageous, because the fortifications were erected over a Ta-hsi Wen-hua cultural layer and the town was continuously occupied down through the Shang and Chou dynasties. Constructed on massive foundations that attain an expansive 46 meters on the eastern side, the walls generally vary between 10 and 25 meters wide. Even though major portions are missing, the 900-meter remnants suggest that the total length may have been 1,500 to 1,600 meters." [121] Arguments that city walls were to protect against floods, not defensive because they were not maintained. [122]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Defences against gunpowder weapons not necessary until the invention of gunpowder, a few thousand years after this period.

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ There was a king.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [123] [124] [125]

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