YeZiyad

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Banu Ziyad ♥ "Effective Abbasid rule in Yemen ended when Muhammad bin 'Ubaidallah bin Ziyad, appointed in 822 by Ma'mum to govern the Tihama, threw off all pretense of obedience of Baghdad beyond causing the Friday prayers to be said in the caliph's name, and founded the Banu Ziyad state, laying out and building the city of Zabid as its capital."[1]

♠ Alternative names ♣ Ziyadid Dynasty ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1000 CE ♥ "In 1007 a Yu'firid prince of the Ismaili persuasion, 'Abdullah ibn Qahtan, suceeded to the rule of Sanaa, and even made a successful foray against that stronghold of Sunnism, the Ziyad state in the Tihama, now in its decline."[2]

A Zaidi chronicler reported that "From [1014-1056] ruin prevailed in Sanaa and elsewhere in the country of Yemen by reason of the prevalence of disputes, rivalries, and disunity within this single nation. Darkness fell over Yemen, its desolation became universal, and public order disappeared. Sanaa and its suburbs became as if they had burned down. Every year, even every month, some new sultan seized power; the inhabitants became so extenuated that they dispersed in all directions. The city fell into ruin. Construction declined to the point where there were only a thousand houses, whereas in the time of al-Rashid there had been one hundred thousand. However, Sanaa recovered somewhat in the time of the Sulayhids, who gathered the lords of Yemen around themselves."[3]

"The mid-to-late-800s is a period of struggle between the Banu Ziyad of the Tihama and the Yufirids of the highlands, as well as intense Ismaili (Fatimid) missionary efforts in Yemen."[4]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 822-1037 CE ♥

"Effective Abbasid rule in Yemen ended when Muhammad bin 'Ubaidallah bin Ziyad, appointed in 822 by Ma'mum to govern the Tihama, threw off all pretense of obedience of Baghdad beyond causing the Friday prayers to be said in the caliph's name, and founded the Banu Ziyad state, laying out and building the city of Zabid as its capital."[5]

"In A.D. 822, in Yemen, Muhammad ibn Ziyad founds the Banu Ziyad dynasty in the new city of Zabid in the Red Sea coastal desert".[6]

"In 1037, Ali al-Sulayhid, acting for the Ismaili Fatimid caliphate in Cairo, founds the Sulayhid dynasty, which based itself in Sanaa and then Jibla, lasts for a century, and concludes with the long rule of fabled Queen Arwa."[7]

"Following the end of the Ziyadid dynasty in the early 11th century, two former slaves of the kingdom founded the Najahid dynasty. Control of the Tihama swayed back and forth between the Najahid rulers and the Sulayhid power of the highlands."[8]

Ziyadid dynasty ruled southern Tihama 819-1012 CE, then by the Najahids.[9]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose ♥

"The Ziyadi state was firmly entrenched in the Tinhama, and enjoyed loose suzerainty over a sultan at Aden, whose authority extended eastward along the coast. The Banu Ziyad, on the other hand, had no influence in the highlands."[10]

Tihama = coastal plain.

"For a century and a half no central power of consequence existed in the Yemen inland from the Tihama. Most of the local rulers invoked the Abbasid caliph in the Friday prayers; they repressed overt manifestations of Ismaili sentiment, but offered no persuaive ideological alternative."[11]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ nominal ♥

"The Abbasid court continued to send governors to Sanaa. By 845 the Abbasid's authority was effectively disputed by Yu'fir bin 'Abd al-Rahman al-Huwali, a descendant of the pre-Islamic Himyarite kings. He expelled the Abbasid governor, Himyar ibn al-Harith, in 861, and ruled an area from Sanaa south to Janad, while acknowledging Abbasid symbolic sovereighty and paying tribute to the Ziyadi state. Yu'fir's son Mhuammad, whose influence extended over Hadramaut, was formally invested with the rule of Sanaa by the Abbasid caliph al Mu'tamid about 872."[12]

"In 1007 a Yu'firid prince of the Ismaili persuasion, 'Abdullah ibn Qahtan, suceeded to the rule of Sanaa, and even made a successful foray against that stronghold of Sunnism, the Ziyad state in the Tihama, now in its decline."[13]

"For a century and a half no central power of consequence existed in the Yemen inland from the Tihama. Most of the local rulers invoked the Abbasid caliph in the Friday prayers; they repressed overt manifestations of Ismaili sentiment, but offered no persuaive ideological alternative."[14]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ IqAbbs1 ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ YeWarLd ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Zabid ♥ "Effective Abbasid rule in Yemen ended when Muhammad bin 'Ubaidallah bin Ziyad,appointed in 822 by Ma'mum to govern the Tihama, threw off all pretense of obedience of Baghdad beyond causing the Friday prayers to be said in the caliph's name, and founded the Banu Ziyad state, laying out and building the city of Zabid as its capital."[15]


Language ♠ Language ♣ Arabic ♥

General Description

The Ziyadid dynasty occupied and ruled southern Tihama coastal plains between 822 CE and 1037 CE from the city of Zabid in the Red Sea coastal desert. In 893 CE, Al-Hadi ila al-Haqq (al-Hadi) founds the Zaydi imamate based on the Zaydi Shii teachings, which popularized throughout at least part of North Yemen until the 1962 Revolution.[16] In 1007 CE, Yu’frid prince ‘Abdullah ibn Qahtan ruled Sanaa and “made a successful foray against the stronghold of Sunnism.”[17]

No population estimates could be found in the consulted literature; however, the polity territory is estimated to be around 100,000 square kilometers.[18]

Moreover, the Ziyadid dynasty had a loose political organization under the control of a sultan at Aden, who held less authority over the highlands. The settlement hierarchy is three-tiered, while administrative levels are four-tiered. The Abbasid court sent governors to Sanaa with lower hierarchy levels governed by rulers of petty states and tribal chiefs.[19]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 100,000 ♥ in squared kilometers. Based on the following quotes, it seems that this polity was roughly equivalent to the coastal region of modern Yemen. "The Ziyadi state was firmly entrenched in the Tinhama, and enjoyed loose suzerainty over a sultan at Aden, whose authority extended eastward along the coast. The Banu Ziyad, on the other hand, had no influence in the highlands."[20] "Ephemerally, the Banu Ziyad reunited nearly in its entirety the South Arabian state of the Himyarites. They were unable to hold the hinterland, however, against the many separatist movements which arose."[21] The Zaydi Imamate formed one of the borders of this polity: "In 893, Al-Hadi ila al-Haqq (al-Hadi), invited to the North Yemeni town of Saada to mediate local disputes, proceeds to found there the Zaydi imamate that, based on Zaydi Shii teachings, was to hold sway over at least part of North Yemen nearly continuously until the 1962 Revolution."[22]

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Sanaa

1050 CE 'a thousand houses'.
'the time of al-Rashid': 'one hundred thousand' houses.

A Zaidi chronicler reported that "From [1014-1056] ruin prevailed in Sanaa and elsewhere in the country of Yemen ... the inhabitants became so extenuated that they dispersed in all directions. The city fell into ruin. Construction declined to the point where there were only a thousand houses, whereas in the time of al-Rashid there had been one hundred thousand."[23]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

1. Capital

2.
3. Village
"Northerners are grouped into broad confederations - Hashid, Bakil, Madhij, Himyar, Quda'a - all united ultimately by a remote common ancestor, Qahtan."[24] "Among the people of the southern Yemen highlands, social solidarity beyond the extended family rests mainly on common residence in a town or village ... no firm social basis exists for the formation of powerful coalitions to challenge or sustain a ruler."[25]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [3-4] ♥ levels.

1.

"The Abbasid court continued to send governors to Sanaa."[26]
2. Court-based administrator?
In the ninth century "the livelihood of the people was not particularly dependent upon efficient, centralized government, the attachment was strong to small social units which central control was likely to threaten."[27]
3.
2. Ruler of a petty state.
In the ninth century attempts were made to unify Yemenis under Islamic rule but there was no agreement on any one person having an "exclusive right to rule" and "central authority tended to be fragile and weak. The region was in fact fragmented into several petty states, each enfeebled by domestic disaffection and the hostility of its neighbours."[28]
"The Ziyadi state was firmly entrenched in the Tinhama, and enjoyed loose suzerainty over a sultan at Aden, whose authority extended eastward along the coast. The Banu Ziyad, on the other hand, had no influence in the highlands. The Abbasid court continued to send governors to Sanaa."[29]
3. Tribal chiefs
Tribal chiefs: "The ruler's authority inevitably impinged upon the freedom of action of the tribal chiefs, whose loyalty was intermittent and often a matter of expediency."[30]
"In the tenth century as in the twentieth, detailed knowledge of tribal interrelationships, and accommodation to their sensibilities, were necessary elements of effective government in northern Yemen."[31]
"The Himyarites asserted their autonomy in the central highlands, at times acknowledging a vague Ziyadi suzerainty, and invoking the Abbasid caliph in public prayers. The tribes in the north, between Nejran and Sa'da, refused any outside control or interference in their mutual quarrels until they themselves called in the first Zaidi imam as umpire. In the southern and west-central mountains, the continuing development of Shi'a sentiment provided opportunity for founding the first Fatimid regimes in Yemen. At the beginning of the tenth century, thus, Yemen was divided among four essentially independent entities."[32]


♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

"In 1007 a Yu'firid prince of the Ismaili persuasion, 'Abdullah ibn Qahtan, suceeded to the rule of Sanaa, and even made a successful foray against that stronghold of Sunnism, the Ziyad state in the Tihama, now in its decline."[33]

"By the late ninth century the Fatimids were conducting a ramified international underground movement centered in Iraq. It was out of the question to move directly against the base of Abbasid power, and planning focused upon the provinces - successively Syria, Yemen, and the Maghreb - where conditions appeared propitious for a secessionist state. ... In 880 two remarkable individuals were chosen to lead the movement in Yemen, both being first converted from the 'twelver' sect of Shi'ism."[34]

"For a century and a half no central power of consequence existed in the Yemen inland from the Tihama. Most of the local rulers invoked the Abbasid caliph in the Friday prayers; they repressed overt manifestations of Ismaili sentiment, but offered no persuaive ideological alternative."[35]

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

This time was part of an "era of the 'war lords'" which existed "until Rasulid times."[36]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥ This time was part of an "era of the 'war lords'" which existed "until Rasulid times."[37]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥ This time was part of an "era of the 'war lords'" which existed "until Rasulid times."[38]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ The Ziyad state in the Tihama was a "stronghold of Sunnism".[39]


Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Andrey Korotayev told us that full-time specialist bureaucrats were present in the Ziyad state.[40]

In the ninth century "the livelihood of the people was not particularly dependent upon efficient, centralized government, the attachment was strong to small social units which central control was likely to threaten."[41]

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Andrey Korotayev told us that specialized government buildings, separate from the ruler's residence, were present in the Ziyad state.[42]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥ Islamic law. The Ziyad state in the Tihama was a "stronghold of Sunnism".[43]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred present ♥ Qadis. The Ziyad state in the Tihama was a "stronghold of Sunnism".[44]

♠ Courts ♣ ♥ Unclear whether there were dedicated buildings for legal proceedings. The Ziyad state in the Tihama was a "stronghold of Sunnism", which suggests that Islamic law was followed.[45]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ The Ziyad state, ruled by a Sunni dynasty, was a breakaway state from the Abbasid Empire and so retained the tradition of Arabic literacy.[46]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Arabic.
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Arabic.
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Arabic.

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥ Islamic calendar. The Ziyad state in the Tihama was a "stronghold of Sunnism".[47]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred present ♥ Koran. The Ziyad state in the Tihama was a "stronghold of Sunnism".[48]
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Islamic writings. The Ziyad state in the Tihama was a "stronghold of Sunnism".[49]
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ ♥
♠ Iron ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[50] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Steel ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[51] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[52] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[53] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[54] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[55] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ Torsion engines in use in Arabic warfare in this period. [56]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred absent ♥ First known use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[57] Abbasids had the manjaniq, a swing beam engine similar to the Western Trebuchet.[58] but the Manjaniq was man-powered not gravity powered.[59]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not in use until the 14th century.[60]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not in use until the 15th century.[61]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[62] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[63] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[64] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[65] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[66] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Horses ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[67] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Camels ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[68] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Used for shields. Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[69] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Used for shields. Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[70] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[71] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[72] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[73] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[74] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ "The early Islamic sources treat the coast of mail as a standard piece of military equipment." Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[75] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[76] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[77] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[78] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[79] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[80] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE. Greek fire was being used: "by the year 850 even crew members of Arab trading vessels in the Indian Ocean would use it to protect their ships against pirates".[81]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[82] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[83] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[84] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[85] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[86] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[87] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Ziyādid dynasty. [88]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [89]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [90]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[91]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[92]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[93]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [94] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [95]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [96]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [97] [98] [99]

References

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