YeWarLd

From Seshat Data Browser
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Era of the War Lords ♥ Quasi-Polity. The 12th century was characterized by decentralization.[1] An "era of the 'war lords'" existed "until Rasulid times."[2]

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1067-1091 CE ♥

Sulayhids: under al-Mukarram "the kingdom reached its maximum geographic extent and the apogee of its influence abroad."[3]

The 12th century was characterized by decentralization.[4]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1038-1174 CE ♥

"Following the end of the Ziyadid dynasty in the early 11th century, two former slaves of the kingdom founded the Najahid dynasty. Control of the Tihama swayed back and forth between the Najahid rulers and the Sulayhid power of the highlands. In the mid 12th century, 'Ali bin Mahdi finally brought about the end of the Najahid dynasty."[5]

An "era of the 'war lords'" existed "until Rasulid times."[6]

"The Sulayhids [like Charlemagne] revived an ancient empire by their talents, basing their work on lofty political and religious principle. The latter, however, did not coincide with the aspirations of many of their subjects. Nor do the Sulayhids seem to have had a clear concept of Yemen as an economic unit to be strengthened and articulated."[7]

"Sulayhids: Shi'i dynasty which ruled over Yemen as nominal vassals of the Fatimids from 1047 till 1138. It was founded by 'Ali b. Muhammad, who chased the Abyssinian slave dynasty of the Najahids from Zabid, fought the Zaydi Imam al-Qasim b. 'Ali and took San'a' in 1063, Zabid in 1064 and Aden in 1065. He restored order in Mecca and appointed Abu Hashim Muhammad (r. 1063-1094) as Sharif. He was killed by the Najahid Sa'id b. Najah (d. 1088) in 1067. His son al-Mukarram (r. 1067-1091) again conquered Zabid from the Najahids and rescued his other Asma' bint Shihab (d. 1086). In the same year 1086 he instituted a new coinage called 'Maliki Dinars', but left state affairs to his wife al-Sayyida Arwa (b. 1052, r. 1084-1138), who transferred her residence from San'a' to Dhu Jibla in winter, making the castle of Ta'kar, where the treasures of the Sulayhids were stored, her residence in summer. In 1119 the Fatimid Caliph al-'Amir sent Ibn Najib al-Dawla as an emissary to Yemen. He reduced the smaller principalities to obedience but Queen Arwa was able to resist his endeavours. At her death the Sulayhid dynasty came to an end, and power passed to the Zuray'ids, who were to hold it until the arrival of the Ayyubid Turan-Shah in 1174."[8]

Sulayhids: Queen Arwa died aged 92 in 1137 CE.[9]

"the rise and fall of the Najahid princes of Zabid (1020s-1150s), a city that was one of the early recipients of Abyssinian slaves through Dahlak, illustrates the closeness of ties between the Yemeni coast and its opposite shores across the Red Sea, as well as the multifaceted impact of slavery networks in this region. ... On losing their city to the rising Sulayhid power of the Yemeni highlands, the defeated Najahid rulers, who were of Abyssinian slave origin, took refuge in Dahlak, where they plotted their return. In preparation for storming the Najahid city, the Sulayhid leader, al-Mukarram, instructed his troops to refrain from killing black Africans in Zabid, and instead to subject them first to a linguistic test; if when asked to pronounce the Arabic phoneme 'z,' they produced a 'z', then they were fair game, their accent having just betrayed them as pure Abyssinians and presumably part of what was percieved as a foreign Abyssinian cadre ruling the city; but if they pronounced the phoneme in the standard peninsular Arabic way, they were to be considered Arabs and spared, because 'Arab men in these coastal regions have children with black slaves and black skin is shared by free and slave alike.'"[10]


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ ♥

"From the foregoing brief account, it may be seen that in one sense there was a Yemeni polity during these troubled centuries. At no time did the values and objectives of would-be rulers and of the population at large agree. Tribes, dynasties, and religious leaders nevertheless acted frequently, if intermittently, over most of Yemen's territory ... The ad hoc, evanescent coalitions formed are characteristic of a segmental pattern of authority, and thus of weakness of the political system as a whole. Some dynasties - the Sulayhids, the Zuray'ids, the Najab - succeeded in assembling substantial material resources, and were wealthy by the standards of the time; but they failed in the essential task of mobilizing the human energies needed to build and defend a viable Yemeni state. This consequent debility made Yemen an attractive target for foreign ambitions, and the country was in fact to become a family colony of the Ayyubids."[11]


♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ nominal ♥

Sulayhids: In 1110 CE the Fatimids in Egypt "sent an Armenian commander, Ibn Najib al-Dawla, as a da'i to reign in the chaotic situation in Yemen. Soon the local tribes revolted against him and the authority of the queen was much constrained by him."[12]

"The Sulayhids ruled in Yemen as adherents of Ismailism and as nominal vassals of the Fatimids."[13]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ YeZiyad ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ EgAyyub ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Sanaa; Dhu Jibla ♥ Sulayhids: Queen Arwa moved the court from Sanaa to Dhu Jibla.[14] Sa'da was the capital of the Zaidi Imamate until it was destroyed 943-977 CE.[15]


Language ♠ Language ♣ Arabic ♥

General Description

The Era of the Warlords was a quasi-polity that existed in Tihama coastal plains between 1067 and 1091 CE, primarily characterized by a two-power tension between the Najahid dynasty and the Sulayhid dynasty. The Najahid dynasty was founded by two former slaves of the predated Ziyadid dynasty, while the Sulyahids occupied the highlands until their ruler ‘Ali bin Mahdi brought a denouement to the Najahid power in the mid-12th century.[16] In 1086 CE, Mukarram of the Sulyahids instituted a new coinage called “Maliki Dinars.”[17] When the Najahid rulers were driven out into refuge, many plotted their return to take back their territory in Tihama, but were defeated at the end.[18]

No population estimates could be found in the consulted literature; however, the polity territory was estimated to be between 250,000 and 350,000 square kilometers.[19]

The settlement hierarchy was between three- and five-tiered with a capital followed by towns and villages. The administrative levels were between four and five, with the political organization headed by a king and queen and followed by court and provincial governments.[20]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [250,000-350,000] ♥ in squared kilometers

"In 429/1038, at a pilgrimage at Mecca, ['Ali ibn Muhammad ibn 'Ali of the Sulayhi family] gathered enough followers to declare his mission on behalf of the Fatimids and to embark on a campaign of conquests that culminated in the taking of San'a' in 439/1047 from the Yu'firids." Sulayhids had conquered all of Yemen by 1063 CE.[21]

In 1063 CE the Sulayhids had unified Yemen "within the extent of the pre-Islamic Himyarite state".[22]

Sulayhids: under al-Mukarram "the kingdom reached its maximum geographic extent and the apogee of its influence abroad."[23] Al-Mukarram extended the rule to Hadramaut. Dhofar and Hijaz were "under Sulayhid political suzerainty."[24]

Sulayhids: lost the region of Saba in 1097 CE.[25]

"From the foregoing brief account, it may be seen that in one sense there was a Yemeni polity during these troubled centuries. At no time did the values and objectives of would-be rulers and of the population at large agree. Tribes, dynasties, and religious leaders nevertheless acted frequently, if intermittently, over most of Yemen's territory ... The ad hoc, evanescent coalitions formed are characteristic of a segmental pattern of authority, and thus of weakness of the political system as a whole. Some dynasties - the Sulayhids, the Zuray'ids, the Najab - succeeded in assembling substantial material resources, and were wealthy by the standards of the time; but they failed in the essential task of mobilizing the human energies needed to build and defend a viable Yemeni state. This consequent debility made Yemen an attractive target for foreign ambitions, and the country was in fact to become a family colony of the Ayyubids."[26]

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [3-5] ♥ levels. Capital, provincial capital, town, village.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels.

1. King and Queen

The founder of the state consulted and at times deferred to his queen, Asma; their son al-Mukarram continued to rely on her counsel during the years between his father's demise and her death (1067-1074)."[27] Queen Arwa who was married to al-Mukarram in 1065 CE also was influential from 1074 CE.[28]
2. Viceroy
Sulayhids: when the king was absent he could have a viceroy, such as his heir, rule in his place.[29]

_Court government[30]_

2. Chief minister first appointed by Queen Arwa 1097 CE
Individual's role was "commander of the army and head of administration." Queen Arwa "relied heavily on his advice, and channeled her orders through him."[31]
3. Lower administrator
The Sulayhids had administrators.[32]

_Provincial government_

2. Governors
Ali al-Sulayhi moved defeated princes into palaces in Sanaa and replaced them with governors "often his own close relatives, whose administration he supervised personally and minutely, without the intermediary of a chief minister (an office which became customary in both the Abbasid and Fatimid courts, to the detriment of royal authority)."[33]
Amirs? Sulayhid queen not in full control: "another Amir, al-Mufaddal al-Himyari, who guarded her treasure at the fortress of Ta'kar but was also responsible for creating man enemies against her by his constant warfare."[34]
3. Assistant to the governor
3. Civil administrator
3. Revenue collector
Sulayhids had officials. Provincial administration had an executive (civil administrator, revenue collection) and judicial branch and an assistant to the governor, all appointed by the king (3 officials in total below the governor). There also was a chief secretary to the governor.[35]
4.


Sulayhids: In 1110 CE the Fatimids in Egypt "sent an Armenian commander, Ibn Najib al-Dawla, as a da'i to reign in the chaotic situation in Yemen. Soon the local tribes revolted against him and the authority of the queen was much constrained by him."[36]

In the early 12th century "Another administrator was appointed at this time from the Sulayhid family, 'Ali ibn 'Abd Allah, with the title of Fakhr al-khilafa. The queen, however, relied on the Da'wa under Yahya ibn Lamak and its military arm, Sultan al-Khattab ibn al-Hasan al-Hamdani, the baron of Jurayb in the Hajur district. He is also called a da'j, for many works of the Yemeni da'wa were authored by him. He became the queen's defender of faith and the protector of her realm. He never attained the position of a Da'i mutlaq under the queen as a Hujja, which went to his mentor - the Da'i Dhu'ayb ibn Musa al-Wadi'i - on Da'i Yahya's death in 520/1126."[37]

Najahids: "Whether specimens of the 438 Rayy issue could have reached the Yemen by the following year, there to serve as models for the Najahid coinage, seems to me highly questionable, although there is evidence, architectural and epigraphic, to support the theory of a strong cultural link between Iran and the Yemen in the 11th century a.d. 17 What matters is that at this moment in history the title of Sultan could have been used only with reference to the head of state, the immediate deputy of the Caliph in the country of province concerned. At Zabid in 440 this authority was none other than Najah. The appearance of the title Sultan on coins 3 and 4 therefore reinforces the theory that coins of the ruler named al-Muzaffar must be Najahid, even if the name Najah does not figure on them."[38]

"Even before al-Mukarram's death, the Fatimid court had sent a chief justice to Yemen, Lamak bin Malik, who remained in the office until his death in 1116; his son Yahya succeeded him for the remainder of Arwa's reign. The judge's responsibility extended to advising the queen on the management of the Ismaili missionary effort in Yemen itself and to the east in Oman, the Persian Gulf, and India."[39]


♠ Religious levels ♣ [3-4] ♥ levels.

Sulayhids: "'Ali and al-Mukarram had been, by appointment of the Fatimid caliph, commanders of their armed forces, chiefs of the civil administration, and heads of the state religion."[40]

Fatimid Egypt: "an autonomous da'wa was set up under the Sulayhid sovereigns."[41]

1. Da'i.

"The term as it had applied to Mansur al-Yaman and 'Ali al-Sulayhi implied the concentration in one person of all powers, spiritual and temporal, exercised in the name of the Fatimids. The title was now becoming diluted, and prominent members of several governing families bore it".[42]
2. al-hujja
Queen Arwa of the Sulayhids conducted missionary efforts with the title al-hujja "a rank in the Fatimid hierarchy second only to that of da'i and to that of the caliph's chief doorkeeper."[43]
3
4.
"a specialized professional class, the ulama, grew up to preserve, perfect, and administer" the Islamic jurisprudence.[44]


"In eleventh-century Yemen the ulama fostered a modicum of social integration which might not otherwise have existed in the absence of central political authority, and where local power was the object of chronic contention among petty notables."[45]

Sulayhids were founded by a Sunni of the Shafi'i rite who was taught Ismaili doctrine as a boy.[46] Fatimids were Shia?

Ali al-Sulayhi led the pligrimage to Mecca between 1031-1046 CE. In 1046 CE obtained permission from Fatimids to create a regime in Yemen.[47]

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

In the Sulayhid state: "The queen was supported by two military chiefs - Amir Abu Himyar Saba ibn Ahmad of the Sulayhid family and Amir Abu l-Rabi' 'Amir ibn Sulayman of the Zawahi family - both in constant conflict with each other, thus weakening the Sulayhid state."[48]

Sulayhids: "'Ali and al-Mukarram had been, by appointment of the Fatimid caliph, commanders of their armed forces, chiefs of the civil administration, and heads of the state religion."[49]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥ In the Sulayhid state: "The queen was supported by two military chiefs - Amir Abu Himyar Saba ibn Ahmad of the Sulayhid family and Amir Abu l-Rabi' 'Amir ibn Sulayman of the Zawahi family - both in constant conflict with each other, thus weakening the Sulayhid state."[50]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ The Sulayhids used African mercenaries.[51]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ "a specialized professional class, the ulama, grew up to preserve, perfect, and administer" Islamic jurisprudence.[52]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ The Sulayhids had administrators.[53]

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Najahid dynasty: mints for coinage.[54]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥

"Evidence that the magistrates who judged the citizens and counselled them were following sound doctrine was a psychologically necessary reassurance. Within a few centuries after the rise of Islam the rules were compiled into voluminous compendia of law by various schools of jurists working for the most part independently of the secular authorities."[55]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥

Sulayhids: provincial administration included a chief judge.[56]

"When al-Mukarram died in 477/1084, the queen faced a rivalry between the two Qadis - 'Imran ibn al-Fadl and Lamak ibn Malik. Imran was stationed in San'a' and was the commander-in-chief of the Sulayhid army."[57]

"Evidence that the magistrates who judged the citizens and counseled them were following sound doctrine was a psychologically necessary reassurance. Within a few centuries after the rise of Islam the rules were compiled into voluminous compendia of law by various schools of jurists working for the most part independently of the secular authorities."[58]

"a specialized professional class, the ulama, grew up to preserve, perfect, and administer" the Islamic jurisprudence.[59]

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Zaidi Imamate: had "land irrigated from wells or impoundments."[60]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Sulayhids: government was able to take action to lower prices in the markets.[61]
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Arabic
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Arabic.
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Arabic.

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ Used by government administrators.
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Islamic calendar.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Koran.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Men "learned in Islamic theology and jurisprudence".[62]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Marriage contracts.[63]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Yemeni chroniclers.[64] Queen Arwa was a "fine writer" said to be "versed in the chronicles, poetry, and history".[65]
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Mention of doctors and licenses.[66]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Queen Arwa was a "fine writer" said to be "versed in the chronicles, poetry, and history".[67]



Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Zaidi Imamate: took revenue in kind or in money.[68]
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ Sulayhids: governors received gifts of money 'dinars' from the king.[69]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ "Whether specimens of the 438 Rayy issue could have reached the Yemen by the following year, there to serve as models for the Najahid coinage, seems to me highly questionable, although there is evidence, architectural and epigraphic, to support the theory of a strong cultural link between Iran and the Yemen in the 11th century a.d."[70]
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ Sulayhids: Al-Mukarram remained in "close correspondence" with Abbasid caliph al-Mustansir.[71] Sulayhids: Ambassadors.[72]
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Iron ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[73] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Steel ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[74] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ The Sulayhids used African mercenaries[75] Sudanic cavalry used double-bladed lances, spears and javelins.[76]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[77] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[78] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[79] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ Torsion engines in use in Arabic warfare in this period. [80]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred absent ♥ First known use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[81] Abbasids had the manjaniq, a swing beam engine similar to the Western Trebuchet.[82] but the Manjaniq was man-powered not gravity powered.[83]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not in use until the 14th century.[84]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not in use until the 15th century.[85]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[86] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[87] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ Swords.[88] The Sulayhids used African mercenaries[89] and Sudanic warriors traditionally used the sword. [90] Code also can be inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[91] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ Spears.[92] The Sulayhids used African mercenaries[93] Sudanic cavalry used double-bladed lances, spears and javelins.[94]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ The Sulayhids used African mercenaries[95] Sudanic cavalry used double-bladed lances, spears and javelins.[96] Code also can be inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[97] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[98] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Horses ♣ inferred present ♥ The Sulayhids used African mercenaries[99] and Sudanic warriors had cavalry.[100] Code also can be inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[101] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Camels ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[102] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Elephants ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the absence of elephants in previous and subsequent polities in the Yemeni Coastal Plain.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Used for shields. Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[103] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Used for shields. Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[104] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE. The Sulayhids used African mercenaries[105] and Central Sudanic Bornu horseback warriors often wore quilted armour and chainmail and a iron cap-helmet.[106]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[107] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[108] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE. The Sulayhids used African mercenaries[109] and Central Sudanic Bornu horseback warriors often wore quilted armour and chainmail and a iron cap-helmet.[110]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[111] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[112] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[113] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE. The Sulayhids used African mercenaries[114] and Central Sudanic Bornu horseback warriors often wore quilted armour and chainmail and a iron cap-helmet.[115]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[116] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[117] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[118] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[119] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[120] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE. Greek fire was being used: "by the year 850 even crew members of Arab trading vessels in the Indian Ocean would use it to protect their ships against pirates".[121]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[122] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[123] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[124] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[125] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[126] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate[127] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE. Yemeni forts and walls.[128]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Gunpowder artillery not in use until the 14th century.[129]


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Ṣulayḥid dynasty [130]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [131]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [132]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[133]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[134]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[135]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [136] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [137]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [138]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [139] [140] [141]

References

  1. (Stookey 1978, 76) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  2. (Stookey 1978, 45) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  3. (Stookey 1978, 66-67) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  4. (Stookey 1978, 76) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  5. (McLaughlin 2007, 159) Daniel McLaughlin. 2007. Yemen. Bradt Travel Guides Ltd. Chalfont St Peter
  6. (Stookey 1978, 45) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  7. (Stookey 1978, 77) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  8. (van Donzel 1994, 427) E J van Donzel. 1994. Islamic Desk Reference. BRILL. Leiden.
  9. (Stookey 1978, 69) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  10. (Margariti 2013, 216) Roxani Margariti. An Ocean of Islamds: Islands, Insularity, and Historiography of the Indian Ocean. Peter N Miller ed. 2013. The Sea: Thalassography and Historiography. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor.
  11. (Stookey 1978, 99) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  12. (Hamdani 2006, 777) Hamdani, Abbas. Sulayhids. Josef W Meri ed. 2006. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Volume 1, A - K, Index. Routledge. Abingdon.
  13. (Bosworth 2014) Clifford Edmund Bosworth. 2014. The New Islamic Dynasties. Edinburgh University Press. Edinburgh.
  14. (Stookey 1978, 68) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  15. (Stookey 1978, 97) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  16. (McLaughlin 2007, 159) Daniel McLaughlin. 2007. Yemen. Bradt Travel Guides Ltd. Chalfont St Peter
  17. (van Donzel 1994, 427) E J van Donzel. 1994. Islamic Desk Reference. BRILL. Leiden.
  18. (Margariti 2013, 216) Roxani Margariti. An Ocean of Islamds: Islands, Insularity, and Historiography of the Indian Ocean. Peter N Miller ed. 2013. The Sea: Thalassography and Historiography. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor.
  19. (Stookey 1978, 99) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  20. (Stookey 1978, 65-74) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  21. (Hamdani 2006, 776-777) Hamdani, Abbas. Sulayhids. Josef W Meri ed. 2006. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Volume 1, A - K, Index. Routledge. Abingdon.
  22. (Stookey 1978, 62) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  23. (Stookey 1978, 66-67) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  24. (Stookey 1978, 67) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  25. (Stookey 1978, 71) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  26. (Stookey 1978, 99) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  27. (Stookey 1978, 67) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  28. (Stookey 1978, 68) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  29. (Stookey 1978, 65) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  30. (Stookey 1978, 74) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  31. (Stookey 1978, 72) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  32. (Hamdani 2006, 777) Hamdani, Abbas. Sulayhids. Josef W Meri ed. 2006. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Volume 1, A - K, Index. Routledge. Abingdon.
  33. (Stookey 1978, 62-63) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  34. (Hamdani 2006, 777) Hamdani, Abbas. Sulayhids. Josef W Meri ed. 2006. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Volume 1, A - K, Index. Routledge. Abingdon.
  35. (Stookey 1978, 63) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  36. (Hamdani 2006, 777) Hamdani, Abbas. Sulayhids. Josef W Meri ed. 2006. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Volume 1, A - K, Index. Routledge. Abingdon.
  37. (Hamdani 2006, 777) Hamdani, Abbas. Sulayhids. Josef W Meri ed. 2006. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Volume 1, A - K, Index. Routledge. Abingdon.
  38. (? 1990, 190) Nicholas M Lowick. Joe Cribb. ed. 1990. Coinage and History of the Islamic World. Variorum Reprints.
  39. (Stookey 1978, 72) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  40. (Stookey 1978, 69) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  41. (Hamdani 2006, 776-777) Hamdani, Abbas. Sulayhids. Josef W Meri ed. 2006. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Volume 1, A - K, Index. Routledge. Abingdon.
  42. (Stookey 1978, 71-72) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  43. (Stookey 1978, 72) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  44. (Stookey 1978, 58) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  45. (Stookey 1978, 59) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  46. (Stookey 1978, 59) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  47. (Stookey 1978, 60) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  48. (Hamdani 2006, 777) Hamdani, Abbas. Sulayhids. Josef W Meri ed. 2006. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Volume 1, A - K, Index. Routledge. Abingdon.
  49. (Stookey 1978, 69) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  50. (Hamdani 2006, 777) Hamdani, Abbas. Sulayhids. Josef W Meri ed. 2006. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Volume 1, A - K, Index. Routledge. Abingdon.
  51. (Stookey 1978, 66) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  52. (Stookey 1978, 58) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  53. (Hamdani 2006, 777) Hamdani, Abbas. Sulayhids. Josef W Meri ed. 2006. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Volume 1, A - K, Index. Routledge. Abingdon.
  54. (? 1990, 190) Nicholas M Lowick. Joe Cribb. ed. 1990. Coinage and History of the Islamic World. Variorum Reprints.
  55. (Stookey 1978, 58) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  56. (Stookey 1978, 63) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  57. (Hamdani 2006, 777) Hamdani, Abbas. Sulayhids. Josef W Meri ed. 2006. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Volume 1, A - K, Index. Routledge. Abingdon.
  58. (Stookey 1978, 58) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  59. (Stookey 1978, 58) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  60. (Stookey 1978, 88) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  61. (Stookey 1978, 74) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  62. (Stookey 1978, 58) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  63. (Stookey 1978, 71) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  64. (Stookey 1978, 58) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  65. (Stookey 1978, 68) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  66. (Stookey 1978, 58) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  67. (Stookey 1978, 68) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  68. (Stookey 1978, 88) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  69. (Stookey 1978, 63) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  70. (? 1990, 190) Nicholas M Lowick. Joe Cribb. ed. 1990. Coinage and History of the Islamic World. Variorum Reprints.
  71. (Stookey 1978, 67) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  72. (Stookey 1978, 74) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  73. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  74. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  75. (Stookey 1978, 66) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  76. Jacquelin A Blair. Nicholas Roumas. Fernando Martell advised by Jeffrey L Forgeng. 2011. The Progression of Arms and Armor from Ancient Greece to the European Renaissance across Eurasia and Africa. Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
  77. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  78. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  79. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  80. (Kennedy 2001, 184; Kelly DeVries, 'siege engines' in The Oxford Companion to Military History, Eds. Holmes, Singleton, and Jones Oxford University Press: 2001)
  81. (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.
  82. (Kennedy 2001, 184) Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  83. (Nicolle 2003, 14) Nicolle, David. 2003. Medieval Siege Weapons (2): Byzantium, the Islamic World and India AD 476-1526. Osprey Publishing.
  84. (Baily 2001) Jonathan B A Bailey. Canon. Richard Holmes. Hew Strachan. Chris Bellamy. Hugh Bicheno. eds. 2001. The Oxford Companion to Military History. Oxford University Press.
  85. (Wood 2001) Stephen Wood. Matchlock. Richard Holmes. Hew Strachan. Chris Bellamy. Hugh Bicheno. eds. 2001. The Oxford Companion to Military History. Oxford University Press.
  86. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  87. (Nicolle 1982, 20) Nicolle, D. 1982. The Armies of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Osprey Publishing.
  88. (Stookey 1978, 68) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  89. (Stookey 1978, 66) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  90. Jacquelin A Blair. Nicholas Roumas. Fernando Martell advised by Jeffrey L Forgeng. 2011. The Progression of Arms and Armor from Ancient Greece to the European Renaissance across Eurasia and Africa. Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
  91. (Nicolle 1982, 20) Nicolle, D. 1982. The Armies of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Osprey Publishing.
  92. (Stookey 1978, 68) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  93. (Stookey 1978, 66) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  94. Jacquelin A Blair. Nicholas Roumas. Fernando Martell advised by Jeffrey L Forgeng. 2011. The Progression of Arms and Armor from Ancient Greece to the European Renaissance across Eurasia and Africa. Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
  95. (Stookey 1978, 66) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  96. Jacquelin A Blair. Nicholas Roumas. Fernando Martell advised by Jeffrey L Forgeng. 2011. The Progression of Arms and Armor from Ancient Greece to the European Renaissance across Eurasia and Africa. Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
  97. (Nicolle 1982, 20) Nicolle, D. 1982. The Armies of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Osprey Publishing.
  98. (Nicolle 1982, 20) Nicolle, D. 1982. The Armies of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Osprey Publishing.
  99. (Stookey 1978, 66) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  100. Jacquelin A Blair. Nicholas Roumas. Fernando Martell advised by Jeffrey L Forgeng. 2011. The Progression of Arms and Armor from Ancient Greece to the European Renaissance across Eurasia and Africa. Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
  101. (Nicolle 1982, 20) Nicolle, D. 1982. The Armies of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Osprey Publishing.
  102. (Nicolle 1982, 20) Nicolle, D. 1982. The Armies of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Osprey Publishing.
  103. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  104. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  105. (Stookey 1978, 66) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  106. Jacquelin A Blair. Nicholas Roumas. Fernando Martell advised by Jeffrey L Forgeng. 2011. The Progression of Arms and Armor from Ancient Greece to the European Renaissance across Eurasia and Africa. Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
  107. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  108. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  109. (Stookey 1978, 66) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  110. Jacquelin A Blair. Nicholas Roumas. Fernando Martell advised by Jeffrey L Forgeng. 2011. The Progression of Arms and Armor from Ancient Greece to the European Renaissance across Eurasia and Africa. Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
  111. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  112. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  113. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  114. (Stookey 1978, 66) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  115. Jacquelin A Blair. Nicholas Roumas. Fernando Martell advised by Jeffrey L Forgeng. 2011. The Progression of Arms and Armor from Ancient Greece to the European Renaissance across Eurasia and Africa. Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
  116. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  117. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  118. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  119. (Gabrieli 1964, 57-65) Francesco Gabrieli. 1964. Greeks and Arabs in the Central Mediterranean Area. Papers 18. Dumbarton Oaks.
  120. (Gabrieli 1964, 57-65) Francesco Gabrieli. 1964. Greeks and Arabs in the Central Mediterranean Area. Papers 18. Dumbarton Oaks.
  121. Z Bilkadi. 1984. Bitumen: A History. Saudi Aramco World. November/December. pp 2-9. https://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/198406/bitumen.-.a.history.htm
  122. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  123. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  124. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  125. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  126. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  127. Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy
  128. (Stookey 1978, 73) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.
  129. (Baily 2001) Jonathan B A Bailey. Canon. Richard Holmes. Hew Strachan. Chris Bellamy. Hugh Bicheno. eds. 2001. The Oxford Companion to Military History. Oxford University Press.
  130. Smith, G.R., “Ṣulayḥids”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/9CWVWV9U/itemKey/R36QUTMK
  131. Tibi, Bassam . "Authority and Legitimation." In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t236/e0085 (accessed 11-Aug-2016).
  132. Yaran, C. 2007. ‘’Understanding Islam’’ pp. 23-28. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  133. Yaran, C. 2007. ‘’Understanding Islam’’ p. 12. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  134. Yaran, C. 2007. ‘’Understanding Islam’’ p. 12. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  135. Yaran, C. 2007. ‘’Understanding Islam’’ p. 12. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  136. Yaran, C. 2007. ‘’Understanding Islam’’ pp. 39-40. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  137. Yaran, C. 2007. ‘’Understanding Islam’’ p. 44. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  138. Kahf, Monzer. "Waqf." In The [Oxford] Encyclopedia of Islam and Law.Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://ezproxy-prd.bodleian.ox.ac.uk:5323/article/opr/t236/e0844?_hi=21&_pos=3 (accessed 11-Aug-2016).
  139. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  140. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  141. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html