YeTahir

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Thomas Cressy; Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Yemen - Tahirid Dynasty ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1454-1517 CE ♥

Rasulid Yemen ends when the Rasulid amir of Aden surrenders to the Tahirids and the last Rasulid Sultan, Salah al-Din b. Ismail III, fled to Mecca.[1]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ YeRasul ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ TrOttm3 ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Zabid ♥ "After 1454, the Yemen was under the rule of a new dynasty, the Tahirids, who, like their Rasulid predecessors, had their winter capital in Zabid, close by the Red Sea coast."[2]


Language

♠ Language ♣ Arabic ♥

General Description

The Tahirid dynasty occupied and ruled modern-day Yemen between 1454 and 1517 CE, establishing a capital in al-Miqrãnah and maintaining the winter capital in Zabid as had the previous Rasulid sultans who were overthrown by the Tahirids.[3] Prominent builders, the Tahirids created schools, mosques, massive irrigation systems, roads, and bridges.[4] The polity was characterized by several battles, skirmishes, and seizures between the Zaydis and Tahirids, beginning in 1460 in Radm. Tensions culminated in 1501 when Tahirid sultan Amir commenced his four-year-long campaign to conquer the northern territories held by the Zaydi dynasty.[5]

No population estimates were found in the consulted literature; however, the water supply in al-Miqrãnah could support 100,000 people, though it is unclear how many people lived there or in the polity.[6]

Political organization was comprised of a 4-tiered settlement hierarchy, with the capital in Zabid followed by towns of various sizes.[7] The polity was led by a sultan, who headed a central government which was then followed by a provincial line.[8]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Thomas Cressy; Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Polity Population ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Inhabitants. The capital was al-Miqrãnah and it is said the water supply could support 100,000 people, but it is unclear how many people lived there in reality [9]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels. This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as 'Sultan 'Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier'[10]

1. Capital - Zabid

2. Large town - e.g. Aden
3. Town
4. Small town / Tribal capital
"retreated to al-Mukhairif, the tribal capital, where the governor presently pursued him with a military force".[11]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels. This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as 'Sultan 'Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier'[12]

1. Sultan

Sultans.[13] "Ayyubid traditions remained strong in the new state, seen for example in their royal titulature."[14] The first Rasulid Sultan, Nur al-Din, "proclaimed himself sultan of Yemen with the title al-Mansur."[15]

[16]

_Central government_

2. Council of Notables
"Reflecting the orthodox Muslim respect for the community consensus, the proclamation was issued by the council of notables of the realm, not as the sovereign's personal act. The Rasulids sought at least the appearance of public support for major decisions. The opinion of high state officials, it is recorded, was unanimous as to the accession of al-Ashraf II upon his father's death."[17]
2. Wezir
Top administrative official? "al-Ashraf I ordered his minister" who is referred to as a "wezir".[18]
3.
"an official in his chancery".[19]
The Rasulids had a "public administration" with a "body of functionaries" that attempted to extract "as much revenue as practicable from their domain."[20]
3.
4. Tax collector
5. Deputy tax collector
"Al-Ashraf II abolished an oppressive tax on cotton introduced by a deputy tax collector in the days of the sultan's predecessor."[21]

_Provincial line_

2. Chief Judge
Provinces had a chief judge who could get into disputes with the provincial governor.[22]
2. Amir
Ruler of region (or city?). e.g. Amir of Aden[23] and "governor of Sanaa".[24]
Deputy governor worked under a provincial governor.[25]
3. Deputy governor
Al-Khazraji "dates the ruin of the Tihama to the year 1353, and ascribes it to the malevolence of a deputy governor at Fashal".[26]
3. Town official
"and furthermore wrote to officials in the chief towns".[27]
4. Customs inspector
Customs inspectors e.g. at Aden.[28]


Difference between Rasulids and Zaidi Imamate: "the Zaidi imam al-Hadi's officials were simple, and derived solely from the Koran and hadith; under the imam's close guidance, a fairly rudimentary knowledge sufficed for their interpretation and application. Rasulid officials had a much more complex tax system to administer. While the core of the rules had roots in the shari'a, many other regulations were introduced for the sake of uniformity and increasing revenue."[29]

Upper and Lower Yemen: "For two centuries the two regions coexisted in a state of mutual hostility, under sharply contrasting styles of leadership."[30]

[31]

♠ Religious levels ♣ [3-4] ♥ levels. This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as 'Sultan 'Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier'[32]

The first Rasulid Sultan, Nur al-Din, caused "prayers to be said in his name in the mosques" although he sought and gained "formal authentication of his rule from the Abbasid caliph."[33]

1. Abbasid Caliph

2. Rasulid Sultan
3. Imam
4. ?


♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Even at the height of their power, the Tahirids' hold over Lower Yemen appears to have been a tenuous one. With the decline in their fortunes, the degree to which the Tahirid sultan was at the mercy of the tribes and other disaffected elements became abimdantly clear [34]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Sultan’s army at the attack on San’a "The sultan took to the field and marched to the said city of San' a with his army, in which there were three thousand horsemen, sons of Christians, as black as Moors [ie Ethiopians]. They were those of Prester John, whom they purchased at the age of eight or nine years, and had them trained to arms. These constituted his own guard, because they were worth more than the rest"[35]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥ This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as 'Sultan 'Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier'[36]

The Rasulids had a "public administration" with a "body of functionaries" that "had many of the attributes of a bureaucracy: the requirement of specialized training; a complex code of regulations; the opportunity for social mobility; and a well-developed sense of prerogative."[37]

"Prosperity depends upon orderly, centralized administration, and by providing such a service, the Rasulids, in their best days, fostered among the people some notion of the role of their political system in the satisfaction of their needs."[38]

"Within the bureaucracy, mobility was lateral as well. As indicated by the content of the biographical dictionaries pertaining to the period and the obituaries interspersed in the chronicles, a judge or administrator might serve in up to a half-dozen posts throughout Lower Yemen during his career."[39]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in sources.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred present ♥ This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as 'Sultan 'Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier'[40]

Ayyubid period: "In the generation after Saladin, the Mamelukes had become household armies of individual Ayyubid princes, each contingent on maintaining a separate identity through endogamous marriage, with advancement in rank determined by proved merit."[41]

"Such endowments normally provided for the subsistence and education of a specified number of orphans or other poor children. This implies that education and employment in public service provided an avenue to upward mobility for the less privileged strata of Yemeni society."[42]

"Within the bureaucracy, mobility was lateral as well. As indicated by the content of the biographical dictionaries pertaining to the period and the obituaries interspersed in the chronicles, a judge or administrator might serve in up to a half-dozen posts throughout Lower Yemen during his career."[43]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ Mint present for producing coins [44]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as 'Sultan 'Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier'[45]

Terms of tenant-landholder agreements were "a matter of legislation."[46]

The Rasulid state "developed minutely detailed regulations for customs administration."[47]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as 'Sultan 'Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier'[48]

"Within the bureaucracy, mobility was lateral as well. As indicated by the content of the biographical dictionaries pertaining to the period and the obituaries interspersed in the chronicles, a judge or administrator might serve in up to a half-dozen posts throughout Lower Yemen during his career."[49]

Provinces had a chief judge who could get into disputes with the provincial governor.[50]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as 'Sultan 'Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier'[51]

Education was "prerequisite to service in the civil administration as well as in the court system."[52]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as 'Sultan 'Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier'[53]. "Muslim dynasties followed each other including the Rasulids ... when Yemen excelled in the arts and sciences. However, millennia of deforestation and irrigation of crops had subjected the fertile lands to erosion and salinization."[54] "Agriculture flourished: special officials supervised irrigation and one of the princes even wrote a scientific treatise on the culture of cereals."[55]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ ‘The water is taken through pipes laid alongside the road and then through another pipe fixed in the side of the bridge. This has an outlet on the Aden side at about a league from the city, from where it is fetched by camel.’[56]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Pavillions, trading houses and fortifications are recorded in Aden.[57]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ 'In 905/1499 Ahmad al-Dhayh bought all the food which was in the royal storehouse (for grain)[58].

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as 'Sultan 'Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier'[59].
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥ This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as 'Sultan 'Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier'[60]. There was a Rasulid bridge at Damt.[61]
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Aden was the principal port [62]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥ This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as 'Sultan 'Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier'[63].

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Account from 1472 AD by a historian ‘Then after the Qur'an I studied the Quranic readings, individually and collectively, under my maternal uncle ... Then I studied Arabic under my maternal uncle and others. I studied also in particular under him arithmetic, algebra, anatomy, surveying, God's ordinances and fiqb with the result that I derived benefit from all these disciplines’ [64]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Account from 1472 AD by a historian‘Then after the Qur'an I studied the Quranic readings, individually and collectively, under my maternal uncle ... Then I studied Arabic under my maternal uncle and others. I studied also in particular under him arithmetic, algebra, anatomy, surveying, God's ordinances and fiqb with the result that I derived benefit from all these disciplines’ [65]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Arabic.

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Anatomy studied, so must have needed these. Account from 1472 AD ‘Then after the Qur'an I studied the Quranic readings, individually and collectively, under my maternal uncle ... Then I studied Arabic under my maternal uncle and others. I studied also in particular under him arithmetic, algebra, anatomy, surveying, God's ordinances and fiqb with the result that I derived benefit from all these disciplines’ [66]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as 'Sultan 'Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier'[67]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Quran studied. Account from 1472 AD ‘Then after the Qur'an I studied the Quranic readings, individually and collectively, under my maternal uncle ... Then I studied Arabic under my maternal uncle and others. I studied also in particular under him arithmetic, algebra, anatomy, surveying, God's ordinances and fiqb with the result that I derived benefit from all these disciplines’ [68]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ 'Quranic Readings' studied. Account from 1472 AD ‘Then after the Qur'an I studied the Quranic readings, individually and collectively, under my maternal uncle ... Then I studied Arabic under my maternal uncle and others. I studied also in particular under him arithmetic, algebra, anatomy, surveying, God's ordinances and fiqb with the result that I derived benefit from all these disciplines’ [69]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Surveying, anatomy etc. Account from 1472 AD ‘Then after the Qur'an I studied the Quranic readings, individually and collectively, under my maternal uncle ... Then I studied Arabic under my maternal uncle and others. I studied also in particular under him arithmetic, algebra, anatomy, surveying, God's ordinances and fiqb with the result that I derived benefit from all these disciplines’ [70]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ IBN Al-Dayba was writing a history under the Tahirids [71]
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Mathematics and anatomy etc. Account from 1472 AD ‘Then after the Qur'an I studied the Quranic readings, individually and collectively, under my maternal uncle ... Then I studied Arabic under my maternal uncle and others. I studied also in particular under him arithmetic, algebra, anatomy, surveying, God's ordinances and fiqb with the result that I derived benefit from all these disciplines’ [72]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as 'Sultan 'Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier'[73]. The sultans were "munificent patrons of Arabic literature, with not a few of the sultans themselves proficient authors."[74]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥ This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as 'Sultan 'Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier'[75]. Aden was an exceptionally busy international port where all sorts of exchanges likely too place.
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as 'Sultan 'Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier'[76]. Aden was an exceptionally busy international port where all sorts of exchanges likely too place.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ The gold coins were foreign ‘That foreign coins are being referred to is clear, but whether they were Venetian ducats which had been in circulation in trade until the Mamluk coinage reform of 830/1425, ^ or coins from the pre-Islamic era cannot be known.’[77]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ ‘The currency system of the Yemen during the Tahirid period was silver based as it had been under the Rasulids.’ [78] mint present for producing coins [79]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as 'Sultan 'Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier'[80]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ An embassy from Yemen to China is recorded from this period.[81]
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Thomas Cressy; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ ♥
♠ Iron ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[82] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Steel ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[83] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Ayyubid Sultanate[84] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE used them.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ The others (these are presumably the Tihamah tribesmen)... They all also generally carry a sling for the purpose of throwing stones wound around their heads, and under this sling they carry a piece of wood, a span in length which is called mesuech [Ar.miswajc] with which they clean their teeth and generally from forty or fifty downwards they wear two horns made of their own hair, so that they look like young kids.^[85]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[86] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[87] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE: Mangonels.[88]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ Mangonel used to destroy city walls [89] Changed to inferred on basis it is unknown if this is a true sling siege engine - but we believe it most likely is. Depending on the design it also might also qualify as a tension siege engine.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ present ♥ The vast Tahirid army (whether 170,000 or 80,000) made its way to San'a and laid siege to it for 6 months. Sultan'Amir started his siege of Sari a on 29 Rabi"n, poimding the city with mangonels and canon (manianiqat gharadat and madafi'. [90]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ In 1517 AD ‘firearms were seen for the first time in the Yemen, and they undoubtedly contributed greatly to the defeat of the Tahirids.’ [91]


Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ "In 844/1440, 40 Ma'azibah were clubbed to death by the sultan's forces. Later in the year the sultan sent a new governor to al-Mahjam who was murdered. This, says the author of the Ghayah. marked the end of Rasulid control over Tihamah."[92]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[93] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[94] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "The others (these are presumably the Tihamah tribesmen) ... They also carry in their hand a dart and a short broad sword and wear a cloth vest of red or some other colour stuffed with cotton which protects them from the cold and also from their enemies. They make use of this when they go out to fight." [95]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[96] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[97] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Al-Mujahid and his cavalry attacked those Ma'azibah opposite them and put them to flight. The sultan's forces killed 12 of them; one of the sultan's troups, Muhammad b, Hazim who was a brave man, but who had given bad advice, was captured and put to death by the relatives of the dead Ma'azibah. Then al-Mujahid raided the Ma^zibah as far as Mahjariyyah, a village in Wadi Rima', and defeated them. He killed one of their cavalrymen Mufrih b, Junaydah,^ The Bughvah gives slightly varying detail; 200 instead of 100 horses; al-Mujahid cut off the heads of 7 of the Ma'azibah and he does not include the reference to Muhammad b, Hazim giving bad advice,^' [98] Sultan’s army at the attack on San’a "The sultan took to the field and marched to the said city of San' a with his army, in which there were three thousand horsemen, sons of Christians, as black as Moors [ie Ethiopians]. They were those of Prester John, whom they purchased at the age of eight or nine years, and had them trained to arms. These constituted his own guard, because they were worth more than the rest"[99]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ Camels used for carrying military supplies [100] "The said sultan also takes with his army five thousand camels laden with tents, all of cotton and also ropes of cotton ".^[101]
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Shields. Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[102] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Shaykh Abd al-Malik stated after fighting with the Mamluks " I fought on the day of al-Mazhaf wearing a coat of mail, underneath which was an oil cloth. The bullets and arrows hit me, they pierced the coat of mail and when they attained the oil cloth they were smothered because of the wax. When the fighting was over I put off the coat of mail, I took out the oil cloth and shook it and then bullets and arrows, eighteen all told tumbled out of it"! [103] "The others (these are presumably the Tihamah tribesmen) ... They also carry in their hand a dart and a short broad sword and wear a cloth vest of red or some other colour stuffed with cotton which protects them from the cold and also from their enemies. They make use of this when they go out to fight." [104]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ "the others(these are presumably the Tihamah tribesmen) were all naked with the exception of a piece of linen worn like a mantle. When they enter into battle they tise a kind of round shield, made up of two pieces of cow hide or ox fastened together. In the centre of the said round shields there are four rods, which keep them straight These shields are painted, so that they appear to those who see them to be the handsomest and best that could be made. They are about as large as the bottom of a tub, and the handle consists of a piece of wood of a size that can be grasped by the hand, fastened by two nails.[105]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Steel helmets? Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[106] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Illustration of Ayyubid cavalryman shows mail limb protection.[107] Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[108] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE. ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Shaykh Abd al-Malik stated after fighting with the Mamluks Shaykh Abd al-Malik " I fought on the day of al-Mazhaf wearing a coat of mail, underneath which was an oil cloth. The bullets and arrows hit me, they pierced the coat of mail and when they attained the oil cloth they were smothered because of the wax. When the fighting was over I put off the coat of mail, I took out the oil cloth and shook it and then bullets and arrows, eighteen all told tumbled out of it"! [109]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The Ayyubids had "fully armoured" cavalry.[110] Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[111] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The Ayyubids had "fully armoured" cavalry.[112] Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[113] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ Naval battle recorded [114]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Naval battle recorded but the pressing of merchant ships into service is not mentioned
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred present ♥ Naval battle recorded, with ships being boarded by soldiers and supplies, although it is not mentioned if the sips were specialized for war [115]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Varthema saw the Tãhirid capital al-Miqrãnah, fifteen years before it was plundered by the Egyptian army in 923/ 1517 and this is how he described it:1 It is situated on the top of a mountain, the ascent to which is seven miles and to which only two persons can go abreast on account of the narrowness of the path. [116] ‘Aden was heavily fortified. There was a string of fortresses along the top of the mountain ^ ... He also mentions that there were two towers on Huqqat bay equiped with artillery and a catapult.^'[117]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Fort walls are often mentioned, but only sources from the Portuguese give clues about their construction, stating in general: 'Turning now to the physical appearance of Aden, Albuquerque notes that the houses, which were tall and built of stone and mortar, were the most beautiful he had seen in the east.' so it is clear mortared stone walls were in use. [118]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Based on this description it seems these were not complex fortifications ‘Aden was heavily fortified. There was a string of fortresses along the top of the mountain ^ ... He also mentions that there were two towers on Huqqat bay equiped with artillery and a catapult.^'[119]
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km. Long walls are clearly depicted in sketches on the attack on Aden, but the length is not clear. In modern Aden, if the two mountains depicted remain unchanged, it would be possible to measure the length of the wall as it appears to have been built in a line between both mountains. [120]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Although cannons were present, it does not appear to be a star fort, which is too late for this period anyhow ‘Aden was heavily fortified. There was a string of fortresses along the top of the mountain ^ ... He also mentions that there were two towers on Huqqat bay equiped with artillery and a catapult.^'[121]


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Ṭāhirid dynasty [122]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [123]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [124]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[125]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[126]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[127]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [128] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [129]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [130]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [131] [132] [133]

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