YeRasul

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Yemen - Rasulid Dynasty ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1300-1350 CE ♥ "The later thirteenth and fourteenth centuries saw the zenith of Rasulid political power and cultural splendour."[1]

"after the death of Salah al-Din Ahmad in 827/1424, the Rasulid state began to show signs of disintegration, with indiscipline among the Rasulids' slave troops, a series of short-reigned rulers and internecine warfare among several pretenders."[2]

Al-Khazraji "dates the ruin of the Tihama to the year 1353, and ascribes it to the malevolence of a deputy governor at Fashal".[3]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1229-1453 CE ♥

"The circumstances of the transfer of authority in Yemen are mystifying unless seen in the context of events in the north. Upon Saladin's death in 1192, his brothers and sons warred among themselves for the throne and for undisputed possession of fragments of the empire he had erected in Syria, Iraq, and Egypt. ... Such was the situation in 1215 when, in Yemen, Tughtakin's second son, al-Nasir Ayyub, died of poison administered by the Kurdish commander of the Mamelukes. The late king's mother sent for a distant relative, a great-grandson of Saladin's brother Shahanshah Nur al-Din, to assume rule. Al-Kamil, however, had aspirations for his own branch of the clan, and fitted out his adolescent son al-Mas'ud Yusuf with a strong force. With the advice and help of the Rasul brothers, Mas'ud succeeded in capturing his rival and sent him in chains to Egypt. Mas'ud appointed the Rasulid Nur al-Dun 'Umar his atabeg, an office which covered command of the troops as well as counsel to the young prince. Friendship between the two grew close during the fourteen years of Mas'ud's reign in Yemen. Al-Kamil succeeded to the Ayyubid throne upon al-Adil's death in 1218, and some years later summoned Mas'ud to govern Syria on his behalf. Mas'ud's departure was marked by a thorough looting of Yemen [by Mas'ud], and by the contingent transfer of power to his atabeg."[4]

Ends when the Rasulid amir of Aden surrenders to the Tahirids and the last Rasulid Sultan, Salah al-Din b. Ismail III, fled to Mecca.[5]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥


♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ nominal; none ♥

The Rasulids "began to rule independently in Tihama and the southern highlands, acknowledging the Ayyubids and the 'Abbasid caliphs as their overlords".[6]


Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ EgAyyub ♥ Sultanate of Egypt i.e. Ayyubid Dynasty.
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥ "Obliging historians and genealogists concocted for the Rasulids a descent from the royal house of the pre-Islamic Ghassanids and, ultimately, from Qahtan, progenitor of the South Arabs. But it is more probable that they came from the Menjik clan of the Oghuz Turks, who had participated in the Turkish invasions of the Middle East under the Saljuqs, and that the original Rasul had been employed as an envoy [ras l] by the 'Abbasid caliphs."[7]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ YeTahir ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Zabid ♥ Zabid was the winter capital.[8]


Language ♠ Language ♣ Arabic ♥

General Description

The Yemeni Coastal Plain or Plateau refers to the north-western region of modern Yemen, lying between the Red Sea and the Yemeni Mountains. During the thirteenth to fifteenth centuries CE, the region—along with the eastern portion of southern Arabia—was ruled by the Rasūlid Dynasty. Prior to this date, Yemen had formed part of the Ayyūbid Sultanate, centered in Egypt. When the last Ayyūbid ruler of Yemen, al-Mas‘ūd Yūsuf, was summoned to govern Syria in the early thirteenth century, de facto control passed to his trusted second-in-command, the Rasūlid Nūr al-Dīn ‘Umar.[9] The Rasūlids, a Sunnī Muslim dynasty, presided over a prosperous and largely stable period in Yemeni history, developing a centralized bureaucracy, patronizing scholarly and religious institutions, and controlling important ports of trade.[10][11]

No population estimates for the entire polity could be found in the sources consulted, but Aden, the capital, likely had a population of c. 50,000 under the Rasūlids.[12]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

Ruled over "the greater proportion of Yemeni territory for well over two centuries."[13]

"the Rasulids managed to keep the Sultanate in a direct line for eight generations, although in their second century their territories started to shrink."[14]

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 50,000 ♥ Inhabitants. Aden.

"During their rule Aden probably had a population of 50,000, and several European visitors marvelled at its wealth and beauty."[15]

In 1391 CE there were 230 colleges and mosques for instruction in "traditional Islamic learning" in Zabid, the winter capital.[16]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

1. Capital - Zabid

2. Large town - e.g. Aden
3. Town
4. Small town / Tribal capital
"retreated to al-Mukhairif, the tribal capital, where the governor presently pursued him with a military force".[17]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

1. Sultan

Sultans.[18] "Ayyubid traditions remained strong in the new state, seen for example in their royal titulature."[19] The first Rasulid Sultan, Nur al-Din, "proclaimed himself sultan of Yemen with the title al-Mansur."[20]

[21]

_Central government_

2. Council of Notables
"Reflecting the orthodox Muslim respect for the community consensus, the proclamation was issued by the council of notables of the realm, not as the sovereign's personal act. The Rasulids sought at least the appearance of public support for major decisions. The opinion of high state officials, it is recorded, was unanimous as to the accession of al-Ashraf II upon his father's death."[22]
2. Wezir
Top administrative official? "al-Ashraf I ordered his minister" who is referred to as a "wezir".[23]
3.
"an official in his chancery".[24]
The Rasulids had a "public administration" with a "body of functionaries" that attempted to extract "as much revenue as practicable from their domain."[25]
3.
4. Tax collector
5. Deputy tax collector
"Al-Ashraf II abolished an oppressive tax on cotton introduced by a deputy tax collector in the days of the sultan's predecessor."[26]

_Provincial line_

2. Chief Judge
Provinces had a chief judge who could get into disputes with the provincial governor.[27]
2. Amir
Ruler of region (or city?). e.g. Amir of Aden[28] and "governor of Sanaa".[29]
Deputy governor worked under a provincial governor.[30]
3. Deputy governor
Al-Khazraji "dates the ruin of the Tihama to the year 1353, and ascribes it to the malevolence of a deputy governor at Fashal".[31]
3. Town official
"and furthermore wrote to officials in the chief towns".[32]
4. Customs inspector
Customs inspectors e.g. at Aden.[33]


Difference between Rasulids and Zaidi Imamate: "the Zaidi imam al-Hadi's officials were simple, and derived solely from the Koran and hadith; under the imam's close guidance, a fairly rudimentary knowledge sufficed for their interpretation and application. Rasulid officials had a much more complex tax system to administer. While the core of the rules had roots in the shari'a, many other regulations were introduced for the sake of uniformity and increasing revenue."[34]

Upper and Lower Yemen: "For two centuries the two regions coexisted in a state of mutual hostility, under sharply contrasting styles of leadership."[35]

[36]

♠ Religious levels ♣ [3-4] ♥ levels.

The first Rasulid Sultan, Nur al-Din, caused "prayers to be said in his name in the mosques" although he sought and gained "formal authentication of his rule from the Abbasid caliph."[37]

1. Abbasid Caliph

2. Rasulid Sultan
3. Imam
4. ?


♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

The sultan's army could be commanded by a eunuch.[38]

In the mid-13th CE the Mamluks "now numbered about a thousand".[39]

"Perhaps because they were only in the country for such a relatively short time, all the efforts of the Ayyubids appear to have been directed at a thorough military conquest of Tihamah and southern Yemen. Local states ... were swept aside by the conqerors from Egypt with their superior numbers of men and horse and with their good discipline and military organization. It was their successors, the Rasulids (628-858/1230-1454), who could reap the benefits of these military successes and it was they who were able to build up a government administration of unequalled brilliance."[40]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥ The sultan's army could be commanded by a eunuch.[41]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Rasulids had slave troops.[42] "Slaves only in a limited sense, the soldiers had to be paid to fight."[43]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ The Rasulids had a "public administration" with a "body of functionaries" that "had many of the attributes of a bureaucracy: the requirement of specialized training; a complex code of regulations; the opportunity for social mobility; and a well-developed sense of prerogative."[44]

"Prosperity depends upon orderly, centralized administration, and by providing such a service, the Rasulids, in their best days, fostered among the people some notion of the role of their political system in the satisfaction of their needs."[45]

"Within the bureaucracy, mobility was lateral as well. As indicated by the content of the biographical dictionaries pertaining to the period and the obituaries interspersed in the chronicles, a judge or administrator might serve in up to a half-dozen posts throughout Lower Yemen during his career."[46]

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ present ♥

Ayyubid period: "In the generation after Saladin, the Mamelukes had become household armies of individual Ayyubid princes, each contingent on maintaining a separate identity through endogamous marriage, with advancement in rank determined by proved merit."[47]

"Such endowments normally provided for the subsistence and education of a specified number of orphans or other poor children. This implies that education and employment in public service provided an avenue to upward mobility for the less privileged strata of Yemeni society."[48]

"Within the bureaucracy, mobility was lateral as well. As indicated by the content of the biographical dictionaries pertaining to the period and the obituaries interspersed in the chronicles, a judge or administrator might serve in up to a half-dozen posts throughout Lower Yemen during his career."[49]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ Mints: The first Rasulid Sultan, Nur al-Din, "asserted his independence by striking coins in his own name".[50]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥

Terms of tenant-landholder agreements were "a matter of legislation."[51]

The Rasulid state "developed minutely detailed regulations for customs administration."[52]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ "Within the bureaucracy, mobility was lateral as well. As indicated by the content of the biographical dictionaries pertaining to the period and the obituaries interspersed in the chronicles, a judge or administrator might serve in up to a half-dozen posts throughout Lower Yemen during his career."[53]

Provinces had a chief judge who could get into disputes with the provincial governor.[54]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ Education was "prerequisite to service in the civil administration as well as in the court system."[55]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ "Muslim dynasties followed each other including the Rasulids ... when Yemen excelled in the arts and sciences. However, millennia of deforestation and irrigation of crops had subjected the fertile lands to erosion and salinization."[56] "Agriculture flourished: special officials supervised irrigation and one of the princes even wrote a scientific treatise on the culture of cereals."[57]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous periods.
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ "In 806/1403 for instance, the Ma'azibah had in fact caused such anarchy in the Tihamah and made the roads so unsafe for travellers and traders that the effects were even felt on the Indian Ocean trade at Aden."[58]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ There was a Rasulid bridge at Damt.[59]
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ During the Ayyubid period Mamluk governor Tughtakin improved port facilities at Aden: "Seventy or eighty ships called annually at the port of his time, and annual revenue averaging 600,000 dinars was delivered to the treasury in a fortress in Ta'izz. The figure compares favourably with the 500,000 which Queen Arwa at first received from Aden."[60] In comparison the Egyptian port of Damietta in 1254 CE brought in 30,000 dinars.[61]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Biographical dictionaries.[62]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Islamic calendar.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Koran.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ The Zaidi Imam al-Mansur 'Abdullah (d.1217) was "a doughty warrior and compulsive author of countless pious tomes."[63]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ The Rasulid state "developed minutely detailed regulations for customs administration."[64]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Chronicles and obituary writing.[65]
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Agriculture flourished: special officials supervised irrigation and one of the princes even wrote a scientific treatise on the culture of cereals."[66]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ The sultans were "munificent patrons of Arabic literature, with not a few of the sultans themselves proficient authors."[67]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥ Aden was an exceptionally busy international port where all sorts of exchanges likely took place.
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ Aden was an exceptionally busy international port where all sorts of exchanges likely took place.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ Aden was an exceptionally busy international port where all sorts of exchanges likely took place.
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred present ♥ The first Rasulid Sultan, Nur al-Din, "asserted his independence by striking coins in his own name".[68]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ An embassy from Yemen to China is recorded from this period.[69]
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Thomas Cressy; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ ♥
♠ Iron ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[70] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Steel ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[71] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[72] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[73] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[74] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[75] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE: Mangonels.[76]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ "A major development came around 1230 when knowledge of saltpetre reached the Middle East from Central Asia. A primitive form of gunpowder was soon in use, combining ten parts saltpetre, two of charcoal and one and a half of sulphur. ... Whether or not this primitive gunpowder was used as early as 1300 to propel a projectile, or (more probably) to spray a form of grapeshot from a fixed position, remains a hotly debated question."[77] In 1517 AD ‘firearms were seen for the first time in the Yemen, and they undoubtedly contributed greatly to the defeat of the Tahirids.’ [78]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ "In 844/1440, 40 Ma'azibah were clubbed to death by the sultan's forces. Later in the year the sultan sent a new governor to al-Mahjam who was murdered. This, says the author of the Ghayah. marked the end of Rasulid control over Tihamah."[79]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[80] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[81] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[82] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[83] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[84] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[85] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Camels ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[86] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Shields. Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[87] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Shields. Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[88] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[89] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Steel helmets. Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[90] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Illustration of Ayyubid cavalryman shows mail limb protection.[91] Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[92] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ Ayyubid infantry with "mail hauberks of various sizes."[93] Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[94] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The Ayyubids had "fully armoured" cavalry.[95] Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[96] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The Ayyubids had "fully armoured" cavalry.[97] Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[98] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ Moat around Jerusalem some time after 1187 CE. Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate[99] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ "the Rasulids managed to keep the Sultanate in a direct line for eight generations, although in their second century their territories started to shrink."[100]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [101]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [102]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[103]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[104]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[105]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [106] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [107]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [108]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [109] [110] [111]

References

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