YeNeoL*

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Neolithic Yemen ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 3500-1201 BCE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥

Language

♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The Yemeni Coastal Plain or Plateau is the northwestern region of modern Yemen that lies between the Red Sea and the Yemeni Mountains. Here, we are interested in the phase of its prehistory known as the Neolithic (c. 3500-1201 BCE). Settlements at this time were small clusters of oval huts, with stone tools and stone manufacture debris but no pottery remains.[1]

No speculation could be found in the literature regarding possible forms of political organisation prevalent at the time; from an archaeological perspective, not enough is known about the few buildings that have been excavated to interpret them as having been used for administrative purposes, and the earliest known state-managed food storage structures in the region date to the third century BCE. Similarly, there are no serious works on the estimates for the area and population in the Neolithic and Bronze Age Yemen.[2]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ unknown ♥ in squared kilometers. "There are no serious works on the estimates for the area and population in the Neolithic and Bronze Age Yemen".[3]

♠ Polity Population ♣ unknown ♥ in squared kilometers. "There are no serious works on the estimates for the area and population in the Neolithic and Bronze Age Yemen".[4]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ unknown ♥ in squared kilometers. "There are no serious works on the estimates for the area and population in the Neolithic and Bronze Age Yemen".[5]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels. Inferred given complexity level.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ unknown ♥ Not enough is known about the few buildings that have been excavated to interpret them them as having been used for administrative purposes.[6]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥

♠ Judges ♣ ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

'Polity-owned' includes owned by the community, or the state

♠ irrigation systems ♣ unknown ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥
♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Script ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥

Note for the next Codebook version: we will separate "Fiction" into two separate codes: "Poetry" and "Fictional Prose Narrative"

Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ unknown: 3500-3001 BCE; inferred present: 3000-1201 BCE ♥ "No archaeological evidence when metallurgy was first practiced in Yemen, but first bronze items appeared in the 3rd-2nd mill graves. Probably bronze (raw material, not items) was imported from Omani mountains."[7]
♠ Bronze ♣ unknown: 3500-3001 BCE; inferred present: 3000-1201 BCE ♥ "No archaeological evidence when metallurgy was first practiced in Yemen, but first bronze items appeared in the 3rd-2nd mill graves. Probably bronze (raw material, not items) was imported from Omani mountains."[8]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ "No archaeological evidence when metallurgy was first practiced in Yemen, but first bronze items appeared in the 3rd-2nd mill graves. Probably bronze (raw material, not items) was imported from Omani mountains."[9]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ "No archaeological evidence when metallurgy was first practiced in Yemen, but first bronze items appeared in the 3rd-2nd mill graves. Probably bronze (raw material, not items) was imported from Omani mountains."[10]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ These do not appear to be included in depictions of "warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, as reproduced in Jung (1991).[11] However, Jung himself does not state these were not in use, nor does he remark on their absence in said depictions.
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ These do not appear to be included in depictions of "warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, as reproduced in Jung (1991).[12] However, Jung himself does not state these were not in use, nor does he remark on their absence in said depictions.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred absent ♥ These do not appear to be included in depictions of "warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, as reproduced in Jung (1991).[13] However, Jung himself does not state these were not in use, nor does he remark on their absence in said depictions.
♠ Self bow ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Some expert disagreement on whether an object commonly held by "warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age should be interpreted as a shield or a bow.[14]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Crossbow ♣ ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred absent ♥ These do not appear to be included in depictions of "warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, as reproduced in Jung (1991).[15] However, Jung himself does not state these were not in use, nor does he remark on their absence in said depictions.
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred absent ♥ These do not appear to be included in depictions of "warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, as reproduced in Jung (1991).[16] However, Jung himself does not state these were not in use, nor does he remark on their absence in said depictions.
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "The types of daggers and swords that appear in rock pictures of Gabal Maihar (no. 1), the site north of Wsdi Qu'ayf (no. 2), Sa'ib Suhaybar (no. 3), Gabal Ligasir (no. 4) and Gabal Haid (no. 5) are important for dating this group of Yemeni rock-art to the Bronze Age."[17] NB Jung's chronology differs from the one used here, so that "his" Bronze Age actually overlaps to a significant extent with "our" Neolithic.
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "The types of daggers and swords that appear in rock pictures of Gabal Maihar (no. 1), the site north of Wsdi Qu'ayf (no. 2), Sa'ib Suhaybar (no. 3), Gabal Ligasir (no. 4) and Gabal Haid (no. 5) are important for dating this group of Yemeni rock-art to the Bronze Age."[18] NB Jung's chronology differs from the one used here, so that "his" Bronze Age actually overlaps to a significant extent with "our" Neolithic.
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Spears are widely documented in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age.[19]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred absent ♥ These do not appear to be included in depictions of "warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, as reproduced in Jung (1991).[20] However, Jung himself does not state these were not in use, nor does he remark on their absence in said depictions.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Horses not local, their remains not mentioned in descriptions of relevant archaeological contexts.
♠ Camels ♣ unknown ♥ It is unclear whether camel remains found at relevant sites prior to the first millennium BCE come from domesticated or wild animals.[21]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Elephant not local, their remains not mentioned in descriptions of relevant archaeological contexts.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ ♥
♠ Shields ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Some expert disagreement on whether an object commonly held by "warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age should be interpreted as a shield or a bow.[22]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred absent ♥ These do not appear to be included in depictions of"warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, as reproduced in Jung (1991).[23] However, Jung himself does not state these were not in use, nor does he remark on their absence in said depictions.
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred absent ♥ These do not appear to be included in depictions of"warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, as reproduced in Jung (1991).[24] However, Jung himself does not state these were not in use, nor does he remark on their absence in said depictions.
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred absent ♥ These do not appear to be included in depictions of"warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, as reproduced in Jung (1991).[25] However, Jung himself does not state these were not in use, nor does he remark on their absence in said depictions.
♠ Chainmail ♣ ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km. "No information".[26]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

These codes refer to an explicit or defined right for some group to constrain the activity of the executive in some way, typically through a legal code, but other ways are imaginable (explain in paragraph if other mechanisms found). When coding ‘present’ for each of the below codes, provide explanation and give examples of the constraints being used, or note that the constraints were formalized but are no known instances of its use in practice.

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Governmental officials (i.e. judiciary/legislature) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Non-governmental organization (elite, social group, community organization, economic group, etc.) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph. Note: this does not include religious groups (Church leaders, Buddhist monks, etc.), since that is coded elsewhere)
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. There is a legal mechanism for removing and replacing the head of state

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Members of the ‘elite’ inherit their status and positions. If the ruler position is inherited most of the time, then these are sufficient grounds to code this variable as present

Religion and Normative Ideology

Deification of Rulers

(‘gods’ is a shorthand for ‘supernatural agents’)

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. For example, rulers are blessed by gods; the institution of kingship is ordained by heaven

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown.

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

These codes refer to acts undertaken without direct compulsion from or out of adherence to a religious system (religious aspects of prosociality are coded below)

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Religious doctrine, philosophical statements, or practice makes claims about equality. For instance, explicit statements by religious groups or influential philosophers that all humans are equal

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Religious doctrine, philosophical statements, or practice makes claims about engaging in activity for the benefit of a wider community, for instance Christian traditions of alms-giving or Islamic sadaqah

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Public Goods refer to anything that incurs cost to an individual or group of individuals, but that can be used or enjoyed by others who did not incur any of the cost, namely the public at large. They are non-excludable and non-rivalrous goods. Examples are roads, public drinking fountains, public parks or theatres, temples open to the public, etc.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [27] [28] [29]

References

  1. (De Maigret 2002: 120-124) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/X3MRZCH5.
  2. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: September 2019)
  3. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: September 2019)
  4. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: September 2019)
  5. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: September 2019)
  6. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: September 2019)
  7. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: September 2019)
  8. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: September 2019)
  9. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: September 2019)
  10. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: September 2019)
  11. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  12. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  13. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  14. (Jung 1991: 57) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  15. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  16. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  17. (Jung 1991: 68) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  18. (Jung 1991: 68) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  19. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  20. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  21. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: September 2019)
  22. (Jung 1991: 57) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  23. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  24. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  25. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  26. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: October 2019)
  27. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  28. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  29. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html