YeLBA**

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Yemen - Late Bronze Age ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1200-801 BCE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ YeNeol* ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ YeSabaC ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥


Language

♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The Yemeni Coastal Plain or Plateau is the northwestern region of modern Yemen that lies between the Red Sea and the Yemeni Mountains. Here, we are interested in the phase of its prehistory known as the Late Bronze Age (c. 1200-801 BCE). Yemeni Bronze Age communities relied on farming and animal husbandry, though bronze itsems, shells, semi-precious stones, and obsidian all suggest that trade networks were well established at this time.[1]

No serious works on the estimates for the area and population in the Neolithic and Bronze Age Yemen.[2] Similarly, no speculation could be found in the literature regarding possible forms of political organisation prevalent at the time; from an archaeological perspective. However, it is worth noting that some sites were larger than others, and that the larger sites differed from smaller ones in their layout as well as their size,[3] suggesting perhaps a hierarchical relationship between the two types. Moreover, some sites included buildings that were significantly larger than others, and that stood apart from the other buildings as well; though their precise function remains difficult to ascertain, certain features, such as benches along the walls, suggest public use.[4]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ unknown ♥ in squared kilometers. "There are no serious works on the estimates for the area and population in the Neolithic and Bronze Age Yemen".[5]

♠ Polity Population ♣ unknown ♥ People. "There are no serious works on the estimates for the area and population in the Neolithic and Bronze Age Yemen".[6]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ unknown ♥ Inhabitants. "There are no serious works on the estimates for the area and population in the Neolithic and Bronze Age Yemen".[7]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 2 ♥ levels. "The sites can be divided into two categories not only by their size, but also their layout."[8]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ unknown ♥ "Often, one house appears to be more important than the others, displaying specific and distinctive attributes (dominant position, more rooms, grander entrance, etc.). This suggests that there was a system of hierarchy within the community."[9] Alexander Sedov confirmed that it is not known whether there were any specialised administrative buildings in Yemen between the fourth and first millennia BCE.[10]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥

♠ Judges ♣ ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ ♥
♠ Script ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ "No archaeological evidence when metallurgy was first practiced in Yemen, but first bronze items appeared in the 3rd-2nd mill graves. Probably bronze (raw material, not items) was imported from Omani mountains."[11]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ "No archaeological evidence when metallurgy was first practiced in Yemen, but first bronze items appeared in the 3rd-2nd mill graves. Probably bronze (raw material, not items) was imported from Omani mountains."[12]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ These do not appear to be included in depictions of "warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, as reproduced in Jung (1991).[13] However, Jung himself does not state these were not in use, nor does he remark on their absence in said depictions.
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ These do not appear to be included in depictions of "warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, as reproduced in Jung (1991).[14] However, Jung himself does not state these were not in use, nor does he remark on their absence in said depictions.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred absent ♥ These do not appear to be included in depictions of "warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, as reproduced in Jung (1991).[15] However, Jung himself does not state these were not in use, nor does he remark on their absence in said depictions.
♠ Self bow ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Some expert disagreement on whether an object commonly held by "warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age should be interpreted as a shield or a bow.[16]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned by sources.
♠ Crossbow ♣ ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred absent ♥ These do not appear to be included in depictions of "warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, as reproduced in Jung (1991).[17] However, Jung himself does not state these were not in use, nor does he remark on their absence in said depictions.
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred absent ♥ These do not appear to be included in depictions of "warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, as reproduced in Jung (1991).[18] However, Jung himself does not state these were not in use, nor does he remark on their absence in said depictions.
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "The types of daggers and swords that appear in rock pictures of Gabal Maihar (no. 1), the site north of Wsdi Qu'ayf (no. 2), Sa'ib Suhaybar (no. 3), Gabal Ligasir (no. 4) and Gabal Haid (no. 5) are important for dating this group of Yemeni rock-art to the Bronze Age."[19] NB Jung's chronology differs from the one used here, so that "his" Bronze Age actually overlaps to a significant extent with "our" Neolithic.
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "The types of daggers and swords that appear in rock pictures of Gabal Maihar (no. 1), the site north of Wsdi Qu'ayf (no. 2), Sa'ib Suhaybar (no. 3), Gabal Ligasir (no. 4) and Gabal Haid (no. 5) are important for dating this group of Yemeni rock-art to the Bronze Age."[20] NB Jung's chronology differs from the one used here, so that "his" Bronze Age actually overlaps to a significant extent with "our" Neolithic.
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Spears are widely documented in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age.[21]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred absent ♥ These do not appear to be included in depictions of "warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, as reproduced in Jung (1991).[22] However, Jung himself does not state these were not in use, nor does he remark on their absence in said depictions.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Horses not local, their remains not mentioned in descriptions of relevant archaeological contexts.
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ It is unclear whether camel remains found at relevant sites prior to the first millennium BCE come from domesticated or wild animals.[23]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Elephant not local, their remains not mentioned in descriptions of relevant archaeological contexts.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ ♥
♠ Shields ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Some expert disagreement on whether an object commonly held by "warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age should be interpreted as a shield or a bow.[24]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred absent ♥ In North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, figures interpreted as "warriors" appear to mostly wear"feathered head-dresses".[25] However, Jung himself does not state these were not in use, nor does he remark on their absence in said depictions.
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred absent ♥ These do not appear to be included in depictions of"warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, as reproduced in Jung (1991).[26] However, Jung himself does not state these were not in use, nor does he remark on their absence in said depictions.
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred absent ♥ These do not appear to be included in depictions of"warriors" in North Yemeni rock-art from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, as reproduced in Jung (1991).[27] However, Jung himself does not state these were not in use, nor does he remark on their absence in said depictions.
♠ Chainmail ♣ ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ Sabaens fortified Sana'a and Marib to protect two trade routes.[28]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Sabaens fortified Sana'a and Marib to protect two trade routes.[29] The cities of Marib and Sirwah "were probably walled right from the beginning of their history"[30] which probably began at the end of the second millennium BCE.[31] Mud and bricks are detectable in the earliest layers of the walls of Marib with limestone in some later layers.[32] "It seems that these massive walls were constructed up to a width of 14 meters."[33]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moat ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ unknown ♥ km. "No information".[34]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

These codes refer to an explicit or defined right for some group to constrain the activity of the executive in some way, typically through a legal code, but other ways are imaginable (explain in paragraph if other mechanisms found). When coding ‘present’ for each of the below codes, provide explanation and give examples of the constraints being used, or note that the constraints were formalized but are no known instances of its use in practice.

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Governmental officials (i.e. judiciary/legislature) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Non-governmental organization (elite, social group, community organization, economic group, etc.) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph. Note: this does not include religious groups (Church leaders, Buddhist monks, etc.), since that is coded elsewhere)
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. There is a legal mechanism for removing and replacing the head of state

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Members of the ‘elite’ inherit their status and positions. If the ruler position is inherited most of the time, then these are sufficient grounds to code this variable as present

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [35] [36] [37]

References

  1. (De Maigret 2002: 152-153) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/X3MRZCH5.
  2. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: September 2019)
  3. (De Maigret 2002: 144) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/X3MRZCH5.
  4. (De Maigret 2002: 145) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/X3MRZCH5.
  5. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: September 2019)
  6. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: September 2019)
  7. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: September 2019)
  8. (De Maigret 2002: 144) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/X3MRZCH5.
  9. (De Maigret 2002: 153) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/X3MRZCH5.
  10. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: September 2019)
  11. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: October 2019)
  12. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: October 2019)
  13. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  14. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  15. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  16. (Jung 1991: 57) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  17. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  18. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  19. (Jung 1991: 68) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  20. (Jung 1991: 68) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  21. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  22. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  23. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: September 2019)
  24. (Jung 1991: 57) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  25. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  26. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  27. (Jung 1991) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JP9KX5BK.
  28. (McLaughlin 2008, 5) Daniel McLaughlin. 2008. Yemen. Bradt Travel Guides.
  29. (McLaughlin 2008, 5) Daniel McLaughlin. 2008. Yemen. Bradt Travel Guides.
  30. (Schnelle 2008, 109) Mike Schnelle. Origins of Sabaen Fortifications of the Early 1st Millennium BC - Some Suggestions to the Examples of the Cities Marib and Sirwah (Yemen). Rune Frederiksen. Mike Schnelle. Silke Muth. Peter Schneider. eds. 2016. Focus on Fortifications: New Research on Fortifications in the Ancient Mediterranean and the Near East. Oxbow Books. Oxford.
  31. (Schnelle 2008, 110) Mike Schnelle. Origins of Sabaen Fortifications of the Early 1st Millennium BC - Some Suggestions to the Examples of the Cities Marib and Sirwah (Yemen). Rune Frederiksen. Mike Schnelle. Silke Muth. Peter Schneider. eds. 2016. Focus on Fortifications: New Research on Fortifications in the Ancient Mediterranean and the Near East. Oxbow Books. Oxford.
  32. (Schnelle 2008, 113) Mike Schnelle. Origins of Sabaen Fortifications of the Early 1st Millennium BC - Some Suggestions to the Examples of the Cities Marib and Sirwah (Yemen). Rune Frederiksen. Mike Schnelle. Silke Muth. Peter Schneider. eds. 2016. Focus on Fortifications: New Research on Fortifications in the Ancient Mediterranean and the Near East. Oxbow Books. Oxford.
  33. (Schnelle 2008, 113) Mike Schnelle. Origins of Sabaen Fortifications of the Early 1st Millennium BC - Some Suggestions to the Examples of the Cities Marib and Sirwah (Yemen). Rune Frederiksen. Mike Schnelle. Silke Muth. Peter Schneider. eds. 2016. Focus on Fortifications: New Research on Fortifications in the Ancient Mediterranean and the Near East. Oxbow Books. Oxford.
  34. (A. Sedov: pers. comm. to E. Cioni: October 2019)
  35. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  36. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  37. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html