UzTimur

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Timurid Empire ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Timurid Dynasty ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1449 CE ♥ Death of Ulughbeg.


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1370-1526 CE ♥

"Timur was officially installed as ruler at Balkh in 1370."[1]

Uzbek nomads eventually conquered the feuding provinces within the Chagatai khanate/Timurid Empire.[2]

"1501-2 marked a political watershed ... In that year, Muhammad Shaybani Khan (1500-10), the founder of the new dynasty of the Shaybanids, definitively conquered Samarkand. Northern Tukharistan, however, still belonged to the Timurids..." [3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ nominal allegiance; unitary state; confederated state ♥

Did not take the title of "Khan" because he was not in the family of Genghis Khan: "he maintained the charade that he was a governor under the Chagatai khan, when in reality he was the supreme power."[4]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Chagatai Khaganate ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Shaybanid Kingdom ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Turko-Islamic ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 8,500,000 ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Samarkand; Herat ♥ Samarkand was Timur's capital.[5] Shah Rukh (r.1404-1447 CE) moved the capital to Herat.[6]

♠ Language ♣ Chagatai Turkish; Persian ♥ "Chagatai Turkish evolved as the language of the court and literature."[7] "Persian was the language of the bureaucratic administration and chancery correspondence"[8] The military administration, however, was "staffed by Turkic secretaries".[9]

General Description

The Timurid Emirate was a polity begun by Timur who was initially an amir within the Chagatai Khanate.[10] After taking power at Balkh in 1370 Timur maintained a nominal allegiance to the Chagatai khan while effectively ruling as an independent state.[11]

Timur's brutal conquests over Persia and the sub-continent created a large empire covering about 5,500,000 square kilometers with a population of perhaps 49 million in 1400 CE. [12] In his desire to create a great empire, during his conquests Timur "rounded up craftspeople in all fields and sent them off to his capital at Samarkand. ... He assembled the most highly skilled manpower from many countries and traditions, an astonishingly rich assemblage of masters in virtually every field of the arts and crafts."[13]

Timurid government was a complex Persian-model professional bureaucracy which functionally distinguished between civilian and military branches of government.[14] The ruler was assisted by a vizier[15] who often stayed in his post after the previous Timurid amir had died.[16] The non-sedentary origin and culture of the rulers might be reflected in the departments of the Timurid diwan which were "concerned primarily with financial and bureaucratic matters, including chancery correspondence."[17]

In the regions "Timur was notably lax at establishing effective and loyal governments ... conquered lands had their own governing bodies ... he was content to leave them be."[18] However, (presumably closer to the center of the polity in Central Asia) there was governor or mayor called darugha[19] who owed his authority directly to the Timurid amir.[20] Timur's descendants divided some of the Timurid territories into provinces, including Samarkand and Bukhara.[21]

Uzbek nomads eventually conquered the feuding provinces of the Timurid Empire.[22]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 5,500,000: 1400 CE ♥ in squared kilometers

Estimated using Google area calculator and a map.[23]


♠ Polity Population ♣ 49,000,000: 1400 CE ♥ People.

1400 CE[24]

Iraq: 1.0m
Iran: 3.5m
Caucasia: 1.0m
Russian Turkestan: 3.4m
North Pakistan and Delhi region of India (Upper Indus and Upper Ganges): 40.0m. Estimate reasoning: 94.0m for whole of the Indian Subcontinent. If 60% population of India c500 BCE was in the Ganges Basin (67% under the Guptas) and "The next fifteen hundred years consolidated without significantly altering this pattern"[25] then about 56.0m should be within the Ganges Basin. Timur held only about 50% of the Ganges Basin so for this territory we could estimate 28.0m. Of the 38.0 remaining for the rest of the sub-continent it is likely the Indus Basin contains the majority. If 60% of remaining is in the Indus Basin then we could say 23.0m for the whole Indus Basin. Timur held the north of the Indus Basin so for this territory we could estimate 12.0m.


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 150,000 ♥ Inhabitants.

Samarkand 1400 CE: 150,000 according to Clavijo.[26]

Apogee of Herat was in the twelfth century: "al Qazwini wrote ... there were twelve thousand shops in the markets, six thousand hot baths and 659 colledges. The population was 444,000."[27] In the 1330s CE Ibn Battutah reported Herat was "the largest inhabited city in Khorasan".[28]

Tabriz, rich trade city, c1400 CE: "The city walls measured twenty-five thousand paces (compared with nine thousand in Herat and ten thousand in Samarkand), encompassing a vast population in the region of 1.25 million, based on the two hundred thousand households recorded by Clavijo." However, these figures are considered an exaggeration. Marco Polo described a cosmopolitan city which contained Armenians, Nestorians, Jacobites, Georgians and Persians. According to Rashid ad-Din it was a city of high culture with "philosophers, astronomers, scholars, historians - of all religions, of all sects". Other peoples included Indians, Kashmiris, Chinese, Uighurs, Arabs, Franks, Turks and Tibetans. [29]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 6 ♥ levels.

1. Capital (Samarkand)

2. Large city (wealthy trade centre)
3. Lesser city
4. Town
5. Village
6. Hamlet

Spanish ambassador Clavijo spoke of villages and hamlets.[30]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 6 ♥ levels.


1. Amir/Emperor/Sultan

Timur "ruled in the name of the Chagatai Khanate" as an amir.[31]
Did not take the title of "Khan" because he was not in the family of Genghis Khan: "he maintained the charade that he was a governor under the Chagatai khan, when in reality he was the supreme power."[32]
2. Ichki (or muqarrab)
In the royal household this official "did not have defined duties but who was in constant attendance on the ruler and served him in an advisory capacity."[33]

_Central government_

Timurid government functionally distinguished between civilian and military branches of government.[34]

2. Vizier.[35]
"Often inheriting their positions or having served in the administrations of previous rulers, the Persian secretaries (navisandagan-i Tajik) who staffed it and who held the title of vazir, exhibited remarkable professional continuity."[36]
3. Diwan-i a'la[37]
"The requirements of ruling over a sedentary population in the agrarian oases of Central Asia and Iran, however, necessitated the adoption of the traditional Perso-Islamic administrative system of the diwan, which was concerned primarily with financial and bureaucratic matters, including chancery correspondence."[38]
4. Scribe in Department inferred
5.
6. Imperial doorkeepers armed with maces.[39]


_Regional government_

2. Governor or mayor called darugha.[40]
"The authority of the darughas and the diwans, the princes and amirs, all dependent directly on the emperor."[41]
Timur's descendants divided the territories into provinces, which included Samarkand and Bukhara.[42]
"Timur was notably lax at establishing effective and loyal governments in the conquered lands. ... conquered lands had their own governing bodies, and ... he was content to leave them be."[43]
"appanage system [created] a new class of rich and autonomous grandees who were largely beyond the control of the central government."[44]
3. Head of provincial diwans
"the personnel of city councils might become part of Timurid provincial diwans"[45]
4.
4. personnel of city councils? - where do they go?


♠ Religious levels ♣ [1-3] ♥ levels.

Timur "Although he came from a conventional Sunni tradition, his Sufi credentials were bolstered through his patronage of the Naqshbandi order, centred in Bukhara, and his cultivation of the Sufi shaykhs of Mawarannahr and Khorasan, who enjoyed a prominent position in his court" [46]

However, "Temur could just as easily pose as protector of the Shi'a tradition.[47]

"The five daily prayers were a regular feature of life at Temur's court. Wherever he campaigned, with him went the imams and the royal mosque, a sumptuously appointed pavilion made of the finest silk."[48]


♠ Military levels ♣ [6-7] ♥ levels.

1. Sultan

2. Diwan-i tovachi
"dealt with military affairs and was controlled by the Barlas tribe"[49]
2. Tarkhan
"The most senior officers were granted the ultimate title of tarkhan, a position harking back to the days of Genghis Khan. This conferred on them a number of important privileges, among which the most valuable was the permanent exemption from taxes. Unlike any other soldier in Temur's armies, the tarkhan was entitled to keep everything he plundered. Everyone else had to make over a share of the spoils to the emperor. The Tarkhan was also immune from criminal prosecution. Only after he had committed the same crime nine times was he answerable to justice. Perhaps the ultimate prize was his access to Temur at all times."[50]
2. Amir of a tuman
Tuman was 10,000 men.[51]
3. Binbashi of a binlik
1000 troops.[52]
4. Yuzbashi of a yuzlik
Ten onliks in a yuzlik.[53]
5. Onbashi of an onlik
"The smallest unit of men was ten soldiers, an onlik, led by an onbashi."[54]
6. Individual soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Professional soldiers.[55]

However: "Timur’s bureaucrats therefore resorted to the old trick of handing out vast tracts of land to relatives and favorites on the sole condition that the recipients make regular payments to the treasury."[56]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Professional soldiers.[57]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ "The office of s.adr seems to have originated with the Kartid dynasty, and involved supervision of ranks and offices within the religious classes; officially at least, Timurid s.adrs oversaw salaries, appointments, and ranks of all religious offices..."[58]


Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Bureaucrats. [59]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥ Under Timur: "Wherever possible, the highest offices were awarded to his sons and grandsons, princes of the royal family."[60]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Mints.[61]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ "those designated tarkhan, who enjoyed judicial and tax immunity"[62]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ yarghu court of investigation.[63]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There were ulama religious scholars[64] but these do not count as specialist lawyers. Were there any law specialists whose only job was the paperwork or processing of law cases?

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ "Abu Said (1424-1469) proved serious and competent, winning popular support by attending to the restoration of irrigation and agriculture."[65] Spanish ambassador Clavijo observed irrigation water channels outside Kesh.[66]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred present ♥ Very well established in previous eras. Some may have survived the Mongol conquests and the knowledge to maintain them may have survived.
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Navai built caravansereis.[67] General reference for Seljuk? - Safavid? time period: "The bāzār was usually, though not always, divided into a number of sūqs (markets) in which different crafts and occupations had separate quarters. At night, after members of the crafts and shopkeepers had shut their premises and retired to their homes, the gates of the bāzārs were locked and barred."[68] Grand Bazaar of Isfahan first built in the Seljuk period.

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Tabriz had paved streets.[69]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Ulugh Beg built a bridge across the Oxus.[70]
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥ Canal at Fathabad.[71] Was this an irrigation canal?
♠ Ports ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Examples in Kinds of Written Documents.
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ "Chagatai Turkish evolved as the language of the court and literature."[72]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ e.g. astronomical: Ulughbeg's "compendium of data, called the Zij or collection of astronomical tables, was clearly a collaborative work involving especially Kashi. In nearly three hundred pages of charts and quantitative data, it fixed with precise figures the locations of 992 stars. The star catalog included in the Zij was more comprehensive than any previous catalog, and far more precise."[73]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Islamic calendar.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Koran.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Nuradin Jami (1414-1492 CE): "Leader of the Naqshbandiyya Sufi order in Timurid Herat, poet, and author of complex mystical allegories".[74] "Bahaudin al-Din Naqshband Bukhari (1318-1389 CE): "Founder of a major Sufi order who helped bring about a reunion between Sufism, traditionalist Islam, and the state." [75]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ In the 11th century and after "the genre of writing treatises on statecraft in Persian develops, such treatises usually containing advice on the organizing of armies and on the art of war."[76] On government, e.g. Counsels for Shahrukh by Al-Qayini "a prominent Hanafite jurist, traditionalist, and preacher in Timurid Herat."[77]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ History encouraged by Ulugh Beg.[78] Rawdat al-Safa by Mirkhwand.[79]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from presence of great thinkers such as scientists and historians.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Mathematics and astronomy encouraged by Ulugh Beg.[80] Treatises on medicine.[81]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Kamoliddin Bihzad (1450-1537 CE): "Herat-based Timurid artist who was supported by the official and poet Navai."[82] Nizam al-Din Alisher Harawi (1441-1501 CE) or Navai: "poet who singlehandedly elevated his native Turkic language, Chaghatay, to the same high level as Persian."[83] Nuradin Jami (1414-1492 CE): "Leader of the Naqshbandiyya Sufi order in Timurid Herat, poet, and author of complex mystical allegories".[84] Ulugh Beg wrote poetry.[85]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ found no mention yet of single currency system. as trade center would have had many foreign visitors who would have bought and used coinage if there were no single currency system.
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Few gold, mostly silver (tanka), copper (dangi) in Transoxania.[86] "The unit of account throughout the Timurid period was the dinar kebeki (kebeki dinar) ... The physical coin, the tanka, was valued against the kebeki dinar." [87]
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No data. The preceding Ilkhanate Mongols issued paper currency similar to the Chinese model of that era.

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ Envoys and couriers.[88]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ "Timur, like the Mongols, used a system of posting stations known as yams. Up to two hundred horses were kept at each regularly staged post and stable, the costs met by the local population."[89]
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Such was the importance accorded government business that if any envoy riding a tiring mount came upon other riders with fresher horses, these were required on pain of death to dismount and hand over their animals to the messenger and his entourage."[90]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ 'The mass spread of iron in Central Asia is an event of the 6th-4th centuries BC. Hence it is reasonable to begin the Iron Age in Central Asia only from the second quarter of the 1st millennium BC'. [91]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ 'The mass spread of iron in Central Asia is an event of the 6th-4th centuries BC. Hence it is reasonable to begin the Iron Age in Central Asia only from the second quarter of the 1st millennium BC'. [92]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Iron plate armour.[93]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Steel bosses on shields.[94]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ Javelin survived "largely as a hunting weapon." [95] Composite bow was the ranged weapon of choice.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Weapon of the Americas, extremely unlikely to be in use here
♠ Slings ♣ absent ♥ obsolete by this time
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ likely obsolete, due to the use of composite bows
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Tatar composite bow "fired a heavier arrow with a shorter range."[96] "each man carrying a bow with thirty arrows in his quiver."[97]
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred present ♥ "interesting possibility of crossbows being used in defence of fortified positions at this time." [98]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ Siege engines deployed at Urganch (1379 CE).[99]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ Siege engines deployed at Urganch (1379 CE).[100]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ too early for this polity
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ too early for this polity

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ "There was a comprehensive range of secondary weapons, including maces and varieties of swords, knives and shields."[101]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ "The Tatar foot-soldier carried a bow, an axe, a dagger, a sabre and a small round shield, wooden with an iron rim"[102]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "The Tatar foot-soldier carried a bow, an axe, a dagger, a sabre and a small round shield, wooden with an iron rim"[103]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "The Tatar foot-soldier carried a bow, an axe, a dagger, a sabre and a small round shield, wooden with an iron rim"[104]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Lances.[105]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ "Donkeys were among the key pack animals used to carry silk from the Pacific Ocean to the Mediterranean" [106]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Cavalry.[107]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ Used at Delhi - grasses tied to their backs were set alight to scare off the India war elephants.[108]
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ 1402 CE they had on the battlefield "war elephants seized after the sacking of Delhi in 1398."[109]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ "The bark of white poplar ... was highly prized as a covering for shields."[110] "The Tatar foot-soldier carried a bow, an axe, a dagger, a sabre and a small round shield, wooden with an iron rim"[111]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ "leather shield"[112] "In 1393 we hear of Persian soldiers dressed in mail (zirih baktah), with helmets and cuirasses of velvet-covered iron plates - a form of brigandine is suggested - and their horses protected by a kind of cuirass made of quilted silk."[113]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ "The Tatar foot-soldier carried a bow, an axe, a dagger, a sabre and a small round shield, wooden with an iron rim"[114] "Many of the early Persian miniatures, particularly those under Mongol influence of the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, seldom illustrate shields. When they do the shields would seem to be of stout hide - small, circular, and convex, with applied metal bosses. By the late fourteenth century many more shields are represented and often clearly depict concentric rings of cane woven with silk thread into a light but firm convex defence, usually fitted with a central steel boss. Several colours of silk thread were used and remarkable geometric patterns produced. They were lined with fabric and had a leather cushion behind the central boss, over which was braced a plaited leather grip, the ends of which were secured to four iron rings riveted through to four ornamental washers."[115]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Metal helmets.[116] The Tatar foot-soldier "sported a tall hat made of fur, felt or sheepskin."[117] "The richer soldiers had helmets, single-edged sabres and coats of mail for themselves and their horses."[118] Illustration in Rashidu'd Din's "History of the World": "helmets are rounded, with a central ornamental spike, and frequently have a turned-up peak or reinforce over the brow. Nape guards are of mail, leather or fabric, as are probably the deep collars of the lamellar coats."[119] "A helmet of rounded conical form, formerly in the collection of Count Krasinski of Poland, dating from the late thirteenth or early fourteenth centuries, retained many features in common with that on the Tāq-i-Bōstān relief. ... This form of helmet is distinctly Persian in origin." [120]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ "metal disc worn on the breast and sometimes the back of warriors"[121]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ "In the late-fourteenth- and early-fifteenth-century miniatures, plate armour for the limbs makes its reappearance in the form of tubular vambraces, consisting of two hinged plates tapered towards the wrist, the lower one extended into a point to protect the elbow."[122] "The legs - always vulnerable parts of a horseman’s anatomy - were protected with separate knee-plates of ‘pot-lid’ form, set in mail or mounted upon fabric which extended up the thigh (rānāpanō). Usually, boots were worn below these; but sometimes a tubular greave of two plates opening upon hinges encased the shins and calves. These are clearly represented in a miniature painted at Shiraz, c.1433—4, in the Bodleian Library, Oxford."[123] Shoulder armour.[124]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ "The richer soldiers had helmets, single-edged sabres and coats of mail for themselves and their horses."[125] Lamellar coats "remained popular in Persia, particularly in the north and east, for a very long time, while the alternative - mail - still persisted, it would seem, in central and southern areas."[126] "In 1393 we hear of Persian soldiers dressed in mail (zirih baktah)".[127]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ Used on horses. Up to late fifteenth century "scale horse armour which had changed little from those found at Dura Europos."[128] "The miniatures of the Timurids and Safavids show us a fully developed system of bardings completely armouring the horse and made up of many specialized pieces of scale armor."[129]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ "One of the earliest illustrated Persian manuscripts to survive dates from the early fourteenth century. This is Rashidu’d Din’s History, of the World, produced at Tabriz between 1306 and 1312. The warriors wear long coats of lamellar armour barred in alternating colours, every other row bearing scroll patterns which could well be a convention to represent rows of lacquered hide lamellae with engraved ornament."[130] "Early-fourteenth-century miniatures depict warriors generally wearing lamellar armour, with aventails of mail attached to their simple helmets of low, rounded, conical form."[131] "Lamellar armour continued to be represented in miniatures into the second half of the fifteenth century, and this is well shown in a manuscript in the F. Cleveland Morgan collection at Montreal (Fig. 19E)."[132] Cuirasses.[133]
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ "In 1393 we hear of Persian soldiers dressed in mail (zirih baktah), with helmets and cuirasses of velvet-covered iron plates - a form of brigandine is suggested".[134] "In the late-fourteenth- and early-fifteenth-century miniatures, plate armour for the limbs makes its reappearance in the form of tubular vambraces, consisting of two hinged plates tapered towards the wrist, the lower one extended into a point to protect the elbow."[135]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ river boats likely to have been used
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred absent ♥ No naval warfare.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥ No naval warfare.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ defensive walls around cities are mentioned below, but not explicitly stating whether natural geographic considerations came into the designing of city defenses
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Samarkand: "massive earthen ramparts with a circumference of five miles, surrounded by a deep ditch, that Temur had reconstructed after the devestation wrought by Genghis."[136] Qarshi, built by Kebek, was about 40 hectares in area "bounded by a strong wall, 4.5 m thick, surrounded by a deep defensive ditch, 8-10 m wide and 3.5-4 m deep, and had four gates. The original layout of the city (before Timurid additions) included one central fortress/palace surrounded by an open spaced designed for the erection of tents. This layout is typical of Mongolian and south Siberian cities from the Xiongnu period onwards."[137] Inferred present. 4.5 meter thick wall, in the region of Central Asia where walls (e.g. Samarkand) were usually built out of earth rather than stone.
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ Qarshi, built by Kebek of the Chagatai Khaganate, was "bounded by a strong wall, 4.5 m thick, surrounded by a deep defensive ditch, 8-10 m wide and 3.5-4 m deep, and had four gates. The original layout of the city (before Timurid additions) included one central fortress/palace surrounded by an open spaced designed for the erection of tents."[138] Trenches dug on the battlefield to combat war elephants at Delhi 1398 CE.[139]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ Moats were present at cities besieged by Timur e.g. Sivas.[140]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Timur built fortified walls around Samarkand.[141] There were walls around the cities. Probably largely made up of baked brick but some or some parts may have been of stone.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Had camps. Troops were required to bring tents on campaigns.[142]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred present ♥ Citadels.
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ too early for this polity


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Timur was succeeded by his grandson.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ "In both the Islamic and the Turco-Mongolian traditions, the ability to achieve and exercise power could be taken as a sign of grace, since God gave rule to those he had chosen for it. This formulation opens the door to a personal relation of the ruler with the supernatural. While the rulers of the Islamic world enjoyed no direct powers like the healing touch of European kings, some connection to the sacred was clearly important. Particularly after the end of the caliphate, which had provided a genealogical link with the Prophet, claims of divine favor were often part of dynastic myths. The importance of prophetic dreams for royal legitimation has been frequently discussed. On the Mongol side, access to the spirit world was part of the personal charisma of the supreme ruler." [143]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [144]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[145]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[146]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[147]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [148] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [149]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [150]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [151] [152] [153]

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