UzSamnd

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Samanid Empire ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Saminid Dynasty ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 942 CE ♥ "power declined sharply" between 944-977 CE.[1] "after the reign of Nasr II (913-942), the Samani power was weakened."[2]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 819-999 CE ♥

"The Samanid brothers, while initially subject to the Tahirids, were largely autonomous rulers in their own territories, minted bronze coins in their own names, and mustered militias and mounted campaigns against surrounding provinces."[3]

Ismail Ibn Ahmad Samani (849-907 CE) "Founder of the Samanid state." [4] -- referring to institutions of central government.[5]

"The Samanids had been a local ruling family since Sasanian times, but in the wake of the incorporation of Transoxania into the Islamic empire, they converted to Islam. During the caliphate of al-Ma'mun (813-33), the ruling members of the family were named hereditary governors of Samarqand, Farghana, and Herat - without further supervision."[6]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

"Compared to the Tahirids, the Samanids were a very centralized dynasty, and the growth of the bureaucracy paralleled a growth of cities."[7]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance; nominal ♥

Nominal

"The Samanid brothers, while initially subject to the Tahirids, were largely autonomous

rulers in their own territories, minted bronze coins in their own names, and mustered mili- tias and mounted campaigns against surrounding provinces."[8]

Nominal

"As was almost universal in the Islamic world at this time, society was hierarchical, with the caliph-imams being, in theory at least, the delegators of all authority, so that the Samanid amirs were their lieutenants. In practice, the amirs enjoyed virtual independence, but were careful to pay lip-service to the caliphal ideal."[9]

Alliance

Allied with Ziyarids of Tabaristan. [10]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Abbasid Caliphate I ♥ Settlements of the estate of Saman "in the provinces of Balkh, Samarkand and Tirmidh (Termez)." [11]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Kara-Khanids ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Perso-Islamic ♥ "Indeed, in many ways the Samanids were compared with the Sasanids. The union of diverse elements in Transoxiana by the Samanids into one state seemed to many almost miraculous, as though the unity of Iran and its culture had been accomplished in Central Asia and not in Iran. Furthermore, this unity was based upon Islam, and the Samanids had shown how ancient Iranian culture could be compatible with Islam. This was the great contribution of the Samanids to the world of Islam, and of course, to Iran."[12] Samanids made ancient Iranian culture compatible with Islam: this sounds like the "Perso-Islamic tradition" referred to by Peacock of the later Buyids and Seljuks, which had begun under the Abbasids: "the synthesis that had been developed since the early Abbasid period, bringing ancient Iranian, pre-Islamic ideas of kingship into an Islamic context. The tenth century had witnessed the heyday of this synthesis, as under ethnically Iranian dynasties like the Buyids ancient titles like shahanshah (king of kings) were revived."[13]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 2,750,000 ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Bukhara ♥ Bukhara.[14]


♠ Language ♣ Arabic; Persian ♥ After the Arab conquest of Central Asia in the eighth century Arabic became the "new language for official communication and intellectual interchange".[15] However, the local groups - Sogdians, Khwarazmians, Khurasanis, Pamiris, Baktrians, or Tokharians - spoke Iranian languages.[16] "I suggest that much of the bureaucracy of the court of Bukhara was conducted in written Persian, while Persian was the "official" spoken language and Arabic was also used for more formal, for religious and for caliphal matters. In effect the Samanid bureaucracy was bilingual."[17] "By the tenth century, the majority of the various Iranian peoples of Khurasan, Transoxania and Khwarazm - Persians, Bactrians, Sogdians, Khwarazmians and others - were using the New Persian (Farsi-Dari) language as their spoken and written form of communication, although such Middle Iranian languages as Khwarazmian and Sogdian were still in use in certain regions - in the case of the former, for some four centuries subsequently."[18] "Ahmad b. Ismail (907-14), portrayed in the sources as a devout Muslim. He reinstated Arabic as the language of administration in place of Persian and favoured officials who knew Arabic" [19]

General Description

The Samanids were a Persian-Sassanid family who had converted to Islam after the Umayyad conquests. During the caliphate of the Abbasid ruler al-Ma'mun (813-833 CE) they were perceived to be loyal enough to be named hereditary governors of Samarqand, Farghana, and Herat[20] where they were able to mint bronze coins in their own names, raise armies and campaign against neighbouring powers.[21]

The structure of the Samanid state "was in reality a conglomeration of great urban complexes, each with its own local dynasty, traditional elite, and economic and cultural particularities"[22] but this should not disguise the importance of the strong central government institutions which grew in step with the increasing urbanization of the region.[23] The Population of the largest cities, such as Nishapur, at this time may have exceeded 100,000 people.

The Samanid system of government was modelled on the caliph's court in Baghdad with central and provincial divisions.[24] The head of state, Amir, was assisted by a vizier and many heads of departments who included a vazir (Prime Minister, not to be confused with the vizier), treasurer, chiefs of police and justice, postmaster, among others.[25] The "central bureaucracy was matched by a similar organization in the provincial capitals, but on a smaller scale" which reported to the central authorities.[26] The Samanid Amir appointed local governors or maintained relations with local hereditary rulers.[27]


Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 600,000: 900 CE; 2,500,000: 930 CE ♥ in squared kilometers.

900 CE: 600,000.

Greatest extent c930 CE: 2,500,000.

♠ Polity Population ♣ 6,000,000: 900 CE ♥ People.

900 CE in McEvedy and Jones (1978) [28]

Afghanistan 2.30m
Russian Turkestan 2.25m
Khoresan part of Iran. Iran total: 4.25m. Khoresan region perhaps a third? 1.4m


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 130,000: 900 CE ♥ Inhabitants.

Nishapur 130,000: 900 CE (Modelski) [29]


"Bukhara, Samarqand, but especially Nishapur, and other cities of Khurasan increased greatly in size and complexity. For example, the oasis of Bukhara ... under the later Samanids became a metropolis - Bukhara, with villages which were almost suburbs, rather than a succession of towns. The wall was neglected, as was agriculture in general, as the sands encroached on the settled areas. Archaeology confirms the sources which indicate that the dihqans and peasants flocked to the cities in the second half of the 4th/10th century."[30]

"Central Asian cities were densely populated - one expert estimates that 230-270 persons per acre was typical - and the footprint of four-fifths of the houses was as small as 380 square feet, even though they typically housed up to six people on two or three floors."[31] Expert cited: K. M. Baybakov (1986). Also recommends "O. G. Bolshakov’s estimates of population densities in Merv, Bukhara, Termez, etc." [32] [33]

Balkh: urban walls enclosed 1000 acres.[34] (Undated reference for Central Asia in Middle Ages)

Afrasiab: "Afrasiab, the predecessor to Samarkand ... covered over five hundred densely built acres."[35] (Undated reference for Central Asia in Middle Ages)

Termez: "the river port of Tirmidh (Termez), which covered a thousand acres on the Uzbek side of the Amu Darya".[36] (Undated reference for Central Asia in Middle Ages)

Merv: "an enormous urban complex."[37] (Undated reference for Central Asia in Middle Ages)

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels.

1. Capital

2 Metropolitan centre
3. Town
4. Village

"Satellite towns and villages like those that surrounded Merv were to be found at all the other metropolitan centers."[38]

5. Hamlets?
Were rural caravanserei settled by caravanseri workers?


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [6-7] ♥ levels.

"Samanid state organization provided a model for the Saljuqs and later states."[39] Book of Government by Nizam al-Mulk is therefore an essential source for this code and the codes for the Kara-Khanids and the Seljuks.

1. Amir

Head of state was the amir.[40]
2. hajib of the dargah (royal court)
"division of political functions between the court (dargah) and the chancery (divan) mirrored similar conditions at Baghdad."[41]
"Theoretically the vizier was the head of the divan, the bureaucracy, and thus was the counterpart in the bureaucratic institution of the head of the court, the chamberlain (hajib)."[42]
3. Officer in Turkish palace guard
hajib had authority over the Turkish palace guard[43]


_Central government_


2. Vizier (head of divan).
"The Samanid rulers followed the ancient Persian custom, recently copied by the Abbasids in Baghdad, of entrusting the management of official life to competent and loyal chief ministers or viziers."[44]
Reporting to the viziers were some ten agencies that functioned like ministries, each with central offices situated around a single square in Bukhara, and each with local representatives in every province. Together these offices managed all aspects of civic life except religion."[45]
3. Prime Minister (vazir) (-- not the same as vizier)[46]
3. The treasurer (mustaufi)[47]
3. Correspondence (amid al-mulk)[48]
3. Captain of the guard (sahib shurat)[49]
3. Postmaster (sahib barid)[50]
4. Postal station head inferred
5. Courier inferred
3. Inspector, fiscal as well as general (mushrif)[51]
3. Private domains of the ruler[52]
3. Chief of Police (muhtasib)[53]
3. Religious endowments (auqaf)[54]
3. Justice (qada)[55]

Centralized control over "the distribution of landed estates ... and the revenues of crown estates."[56]

_Provincial government_

"The Samanid state, like all its predecessors in Central Asia, was in reality a conglomeration of great urban complexes, each with its own local dynasty, traditional elite, and economic and cultural particularities."[57] "the ruler appointed local governors, or loca ldynasts functioned as governors although they were actually vassals of the Samanid amir."[58]

2. Vassal princes e.g. Khwarazmian dynasty[59], Khurasan and Tukharistan.[60]
"It is not known when the various parts of Transoxiana submitted to the Samanids, but some of them remained under the control of their local rulers, for example in Khwarazm where the country became a part of the Samanid state after Isma'il's defeat of 'Amr b. Laith, but the local Khwarazmian dynasty continued to flourish until 385/995 in the south of the country, while a governor of the Samanids ruled in the north with his capital at Gurganj."[61]
2. Governor of provinces e.g. at Gurganj[62]
"The primary duty of both governors and local potentates was to collect taxes and provide troops if needed."[63]
3. Vizier equivalent in the provinces
The "central bureaucracy was matched by a similar organization in the provincial capitals, but on a smaller scale"[64]
Representative of the central government (Ten Agencies) in the provinces --- assumed to be different from Governor
4. Head of section under vizier equivalent in the provinces[65]
"The local organs of all the diwans, apart from the postal administration, were responsible both to the central authority and to the local provincial rulers." [66]
5. Staff of section e.g. scribe
6. Staff of section e.g. doorkeeper, lesser scribe.


♠ Religious levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

3 was the code for Abbasid Caliphate. Samanids were loyal to the Caliph.[67]


1. Caliph as head of the Sunni Muslim umma.

2. Imams, successors of the prophet and leaders of the muslim world.
3. The Umma, i.e all Muslims.


♠ Military levels ♣ 6 ♥ levels.

"Turkish slave soldiers were the most important body of troops in the Samanid army".[68]
"The organization of the Samanid state was modelled after the caliph's court in Baghdad with its central and provincial divisions."[69]
Abbasid forces had slave soldiers


1. Amir

2. sipah-salar
The governor of Khurasan province "was usually the sipah-salar (Arabic: sahib al-juyush) or commander of the principal army."[70]

[the following infer continuity with Abbasid hierarchy)

3. Qa-id (military officer)
4. Arif (leader of a militay unit of ten to fifteen soldiers)
5. Muquatila(Muslim soldiers paid a salary); Malwa(rank and file Turkish soldier)
6. Arrarun (irregular volunteers) [71]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ "Over the years, Turkic junior officers who had proven themselves at the platoon and squadron levels rose in the ranks, until by the time of Nasr II they dominated the officer corps." [72]

Iqtas

"Bukhara was held by the latter as an iqta ... as a conditional reward for services rendered in the capacity of governor with the right to levy for his own benefit a part of the income of Bukhara and, later, the entire income from the town. It is also clear from the legends on Samanid coins that Bukhara, Akhsikath, Kuba, Nasrabad and other towns and regions were held as iqtas for various periods of time by members of the dynasty and by senior military and civilian officials as rewards for their services. These grants were neither lifelong nor hereditary, although attempts were made to move in that direction and were resisted by the central government." [73]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ " Middle-and lower-ranking members of the military and official class and simple soldiers received fixed payments in cash from the treasury."[74]

"Available information indicates that the over-all budget of the Samanid state amounted to some 45 million dirhams, of which about 20 million dirhams were spent on maintaining the army and state officials."[75]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ "The Samanid rulers followed the ancient Persian custom, recently copied by the Abbasids in Baghdad, of entrusting the management of official life to competent and loyal chief ministers or viziers."[76]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The most effective of these were talented local men who rose through the ranks." [77] Not present for the Abbsaids on which the bureaucratic system was based.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ present: 819-942 CE; absent: 943-999 CE ♥ "The most effective of these were talented local men who rose through the ranks." [78] "Slaves, just as in Baghdad, could rise to high positions of authority, and the palace school for court slaves is described in detail by Nizam al-Mulk in his Siydsat-ndma."[79] However, later on the government was a Turkish military ruling class.[80]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Mints in Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand, and Balkh.[81]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ Samanid state had a department of justice.[82]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Samanid state had a department of justice.[83]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ Samanid state had a department of justice.[84]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred present ♥ Samanid state had a department of justice.[85]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Present in Central Asia from about 800 BCE - 1200 CE: "the major Central Asian hydraulic systems appear to have been maintained with few serious interruptions for over two millenniums, extending down to the Mongol invasion in the thirteenth century."[86]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ Residents of Central Asian cities "including slaves, had good access to running water"[87] "Within the cities the maze of underground pipes of baked clay that served public baths and private homes became yet more complex, for they included valves, catch basins, and access points for cleaning, as well as exceedingly complex changes of gradients. ... intricate underground pipe systems that provided urban dwellings with potable water."[88]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Bazaars were the local markets.[89] "Markets, weights and measures and trade generally, and, later, public morals, were controlled by the diwan of the muhtasib."[90]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Caravansereis had storerooms.[91]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ "Even though there were a few broad, paved streets, Bukhara, in the tenth century as today, was a warren of winding lanes and alley." [92]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Samanid bridge over the Shahrud.[93]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ Bukhara had canals.[94] "New canals were ... dug from the Hari Rud and Helmand rivers."[95]
♠ Ports ♣ inferred present ♥ Caspia Sea port?

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ " In Badakhshan, Darvaz, Rushan and Shughnan, rubies, lapis lazuli and silver were mined; in Tukharistan, lead, sulphur and other metals and minerals; in the upper Zarafshan valley, iron, gold, silver and vitriol; in Usrushana, large quantities of iron; and in Asbara (Isfara), coal was reportedly to be found. Many minerals were mined in Ferghana: iron, tin, silver, mercury, copper, lead, tar, asbestos, turquoise, sal ammoniac and, apparently, petroleum oil. Ilaq (the Ahangaran valley) was known as a major centre for the processing of silver and lead ore. In Ilaq, and in the Kashka Darya basin, salt was mined. Minerals were processed in Khurasan: turquoise (in the district of Rivand, near Nishapur), marble (in the district of Bayhaq), fine stone for craft working (in the Tus region), gold and iron (in Gharchistan), iron (in the Nishapur district), copper (in the Merv district), vitriol, sulphur, lead, arsenic (in the Balkh district), jet, clay for pottery, and so on. The mountains of Jurjan produced gold, silver, iron, copper and various kinds of vitriol; silver came from Parwan and Panjshir, and marble from Bayhaq."[96]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ "Highly literate and given to careful record-keeping"[97]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Arabic.
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Encyclopedias. Registers. Glossaries of terms.[98]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ "what do the highly sophisticated calendar systems that were in use in Khwarazm, Bactria, Parthia, Tokharistan, and Sogdiana tell us about the state of Central Asian science in the pre-Islamic centuries? It is surely worth noting that Biruni’s research on calendar systems, which he undertook in the early years of the eleventh century, took as its point of departure the Khwarazian calendar." [99]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Koran.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Muhammad Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (853-944 CE): "influential defender of literalist and traditionalist Islam from Samarkand, author of many combative “Refutations” of rationalism and other errors."[100] Abu Hasan Ahmad Ibn al-Rawandi (820-911 CE): "Prolific thinker from Afghanistan who abandoned Judaism and Islam to become a thorough-going atheist and champion of unfettered reason."[101] Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (865-925 CE): "From Rayy near modern Tehran, but educated in Merv by Central Asian teachers ... was a thoroughgoing skeptic in religion."[102]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ "One of these proud professionals even wrote a treatise on management, in which he included details of the various registers in which state salaries and financial transactions should be recorded and a glossary of the most frequently used technical terms in the fields of public administration and finance."[103]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ E.g. in encyclopedias.[104]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Farabi (870-950 CE). "A native of Otrar in modern Kazakhstan ... revered in the East as “The Second Teacher,” after Aristotle. A great expounder of logic, Farabi set out the foundations of every sphere of knowledge."[105] -- move, based in Baghdad
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Abul-Wafa Buzjani (940-998 CE): "Afghan-born pioneering researcher at Baghdad and Gurganj. His method of developing sine and tangent tables produced results accurate to the eighth decimal point. By applying sine theorems to spherical triangles, Buzjani opened the way to new methods of navigating on open water." [106] Abu Ali al-Husayn Ibn Sina (980-1037 CE): "Philosopher, theologian, polymath, and author of the Canon of Medicine, which remained for half a millennium the classic medical text throughout the Muslim world and Europe."[107] Abu Mahmud Khujandi (945-1000 CE): " A native of Khujand, Tajikistan, and designer of astronomical instruments"[108] Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (865-925 CE): "From Rayy near modern Tehran, but educated in Merv by Central Asian teachers ... the first true experimentalist in medicine and the most learned medical practitioner before Ibn Sina."[109]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Abolqasem Ferdowsi (c.934-1020 CE): "Author from Tus in Khurasan (now Iran) who toiled for thirty years - happily under the patronage of the Samanids of Bukhara and unhappily under the patronage of Mahmud of Ghazni - to produce the Persian epic Shahnameh."[110] Rabia Balkhi: "A tenth-century poetess and friend of Rudaki from Balkh".[111]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ Great trading location.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ Central Asia was "the major center of banking and finance for trade between China, India, and the Middle East."[112] coded present for the Abbasid Caliphate.
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ "Samanid culture rested on solid monetary policy, as reflected in its gold dinars ... and silver dirhams, which served as a reserve currency from India to Scandinavia" and "... at the bazaar level, either a more debased coin of the same size or small coins of bronze."[113]
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥ Had paper. need to check whether paper formed the basis of any financial instruments within the banking system that could be called money.

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ "with the reign of Nasr II (r.914-43) the administrative bureaus of the Samanid state reached a level of complexity that could support an independent Barid system." [114]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ "with the reign of Nasr II (r.914-43) the administrative bureaus of the Samanid state reached a level of complexity that could support an independent Barid system." [115]
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥ need to check whether postal station network was used only by government officials

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ 'The mass spread of iron in Central Asia is an event of the 6th-4th centuries BC. Hence it is reasonable to begin the Iron Age in Central Asia only from the second quarter of the 1st millennium BC'. [116]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ 'The mass spread of iron in Central Asia is an event of the 6th-4th centuries BC. Hence it is reasonable to begin the Iron Age in Central Asia only from the second quarter of the 1st millennium BC'. [117]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ 'The mass spread of iron in Central Asia is an event of the 6th-4th centuries BC. Hence it is reasonable to begin the Iron Age in Central Asia only from the second quarter of the 1st millennium BC'. [118]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Reference for high quality of the steel (no beginning date provided): “In the context of this work, it is important to note that crucible steel of fine quality was made at Herat, in Bukhara and in northern India.”[119] Reference for high quality of the steel (this one dates from 900 CE): "Further east from Merv along the Silk Road is a region praised for its iron and steel production by Greek, Islamic, and Chinese writers. The Sogdian state of Ustrushana, a mountainous region east of Samarkand, and the Ferghana basin ... material related to the medieval iron and steel industry has been uncovered here. Most relevant ... is a workshop excavated at a city-site of the +9th-13th centuries in Feghana, at Eski Achsy, Uzbekistan. ..” Crucible fragments ”The excavators consider that the process used here was direct production of steel from ore, just as He Tangkun argues for the Luoyang crucibles. It is quite possible, however, that they were (also) used in co-fusion steel production as suggested by the Merv excavators."[120] Fine steel swords may have been produced at an earlier time than 900 CE with the technology coming from northern India or from this region via Persia: In Tibet c700 CE "steel swords were certainly available through trade with Sogdia and Fergana ... and many steel blades are known from Central Asia from the late first millennium until the arrival of Genghis Khan in the early thirteenth century."[121] "The Sogdian cities of Samarqand and Bukhara probably also manufactured iron and steel weapons that were exported to Tibet. We know that by the early eighth century, the Sogdians, having probably borrowed the technology from the Sasanians, were manufacturing mail armor and offered suits of the material as gifts to the Tang court in 718. ... The Sasasnians may themselves have developed knowledge of steelmaking from contacts with northern India."[122] "The principal centres for the manufacture of steel weapons in Central Asia were Khwarazm, Ferghana and northern India.”[123] Steel swords produced by Iranians from Indian wootz ingots.[124]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Under the Seljuks, later period, ghulams or mamluks had javelins. [125]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Weapon of the Americas, extremely unlikely to be used here
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred absent due to use of the more powerful composite bow.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [126] In the Sassanid period a cavalryman used the reflex bow.[127]
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [128]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ "A fragment of a wall painting depicting the use of a traction trebuchet at the siege of Penjikent (700-725) in modern Tajikistan. This unique painting is contemporary with Tang China, displaying how the traction trebuchet was used along the Silk Road."[129]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[130]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ absent before the gunpowder era
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ absent before the gunpowder era

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [131] "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[132] The Sassanids had war clubs[133] including a "mace" (clibanarius).[134]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [135] "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[136] The Sassanids had battleaxe.[137]
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [138] "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[139]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [140] "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[141] Samanid period bowl shows mounted warrior wielding straight sword.[142]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [143] "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[144] Lances were used by Sassanian cavalrymen.[145]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [146] "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[147] Not mentioned in the sources so far consulted.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ "Donkeys were among the key pack animals used to carry silk from the Pacific Ocean to the Mediterranean" [148]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Cavalry. "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [149] Mounted warriors.[150]
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[151] "... a fragment of a leather-covered circular wooden shield has survived, bearing a painting of a mounted warrior. This was found in the ruins of the castle of Mug, east of Samarkand, and with it were many documents dating the destruction of the place to the eighth century - when the Persian prince who held it rebelled against the local Arab ruler." [152]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[153] "... a fragment of a leather-covered circular wooden shield has survived, bearing a painting of a mounted warrior. This was found in the ruins of the castle of Mug, east of Samarkand, and with it were many documents dating the destruction of the place to the eighth century - when the Persian prince who held it rebelled against the local Arab ruler." [154] "Many of the early Persian miniatures, particularly those under Mongol influence of the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, seldom illustrate shields. When they do the shields would seem to be of stout hide—small, circular, and convex, with applied metal bosses."[155]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[156] "... a fragment of a leather-covered circular wooden shield has survived, bearing a painting of a mounted warrior. This was found in the ruins of the castle of Mug, east of Samarkand, and with it were many documents dating the destruction of the place to the eighth century - when the Persian prince who held it rebelled against the local Arab ruler." [157] "Many of the early Persian miniatures, particularly those under Mongol influence of the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, seldom illustrate shields. When they do the shields would seem to be of stout hide—small, circular, and convex, with applied metal bosses."[158]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[159] The Sassanids wore helmets.[160]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[161] The Sassanid cavarlyman a wore breastplate.[162]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[163] The Sassanids had limb protection.[164] Samanid period bowls show mounted warriors wearing lamellar armor - do they also show leg protection?[165]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[166] The Sassanid Persians had mail armour. [167]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[168] The Sassanid Persians had scale armour. [169]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[170] Samanid period bowls show mounted warriors wearing lamellar armor.[171]
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[172]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ "Central Asia’s traders ... moved their goods by large, solidly built boats on the region’s three main rivers."[173]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Central Asia’s traders ... moved their goods by large, solidly built boats on the region’s three main rivers."[174]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Samanids did not have a lengthy period when they had a coastline so unlikely to have developed a naval tradition.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Earthern ramparts around Samarkand.[175]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ "The geographers of the 10th century describe Fulanj as a town half the size of Herat, with a citadel protected by a ditch and rampart, and as having three gates, leading to Nisapur, Qohestan, and Herat".[176]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ "This five-walled and triple-moated kilometer-square city is, in fact, correctly named Shahr-i-Gholghola, and is located in the sand sea of several hundred square kilometers properly bearing the name Sar-o-Tar."[177] Located in the Samanid region of control. I don't know when the city was established/gained its moat. It was destroyed in the Mongol conquest.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Walls of Central Asian cities generally constructed with "sun-dried bricks faced with fired bricks".[178] [179]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ "Unlike Chinese cities, Central Asian cities had several rings of walls, the outermost to keep out invading nomads and the encroaching sand. At the Merv oasis the outermost rampart ran for more than 155 miles, three times the length of Hadrian’s Wall separating England from Scotland."[180] "Qala’i-i Kahkakha itself was a small citadel attached to the curtain wall of the fortified Central Asian city of Bunjikath. Its lower part was made of large stone blocks forming a sloping plinth or talus, while the stone wall above was integral with the circuit-wall of the town. The upper part of the citadel was constructed of brick covered with stucco plaster and topped by a row of crenellations." [181]
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ "The Samanids had been a local ruling family since Sasanian times, but in the wake of the incorporation of Transoxania into the Islamic empire, they converted to Islam. During the caliphate of al-Ma'mun (813-33), the ruling members of the family were named hereditary governors of Samarqand, Farghana, and Herat - without further supervision."[182]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [183]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [184]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[185]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[186]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[187]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [188] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [189]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [190]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [191] [192] [193]

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