UzChagt

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron; Edward Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Chagatai Khaganate ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Chaghatay ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1263-1487 CE ♥

Genghis Khan divided territories of the Mongol conquests into four ulus in 1227 CE.[1]


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ nominal ♥ "At the time of Temur's rise to power, politics in the Ulus Chaghatay was controlled by the tribes who made it up. With the decline of central leadership, control over the territory and wealth of the Ulus had fallen to them. They provided most of the military manpower of the Ulus, either from their own tribesmen or from the armies of the regions under their control. No one therefore could either become or remain leader of the Ulus wihout the backing of the tribal leaders. Tribal chiefs naturally were not eager to strengthen the position of a central leader; they were intolerant of claims to sovereignty over them,and if a leader displeased them, they were quick to switch their loyalties to a rival candidate. Under these circumstances, central leadership was often contested, sometimes even after a leader had been acclaimed by the tribes of the Ulus." [2]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Mongolian Empire ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Timurid Empire ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Islam ♥ The Chagatai khans who ruled from Bukhara "converted to Islam and adopted a Muslim lifestyle, characterized by a more settled existence. In contrast, the eastern khanate, known as Mughulistan ... maintained ancient nomadic traditions."[3]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 11,000,000 ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Bukhara ♥ Chagatai khans ruled from Bukhara.[4]


♠ Language ♣ Middle Mongolian ♥

General Description

"Under Kebeg's successor Tarmashirin Khan (1326-1334) the khan's more conservative and nomadic followers rebelled against his policy of assimilation with the settled population, and deposed the khan. In the disturbances which followed Tarmashirin's downfall the Chaghadayid khanate split into two parts; the western section, Transoxiana, became known as the Ulus Chaghatay, and the eastern section as Moghulistan.5" [5]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron; Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 3,500,000: 1300 CE ♥ in squared kilometers

1310 CE: 3,500,000; 1320 CE: 2,500,000; 1350 CE: 3,500,000; 1370 CE: 2,500,000; 1390 CE: 0

[6] In the mid-thirteenth century CE: "The Chaghadayid khanate originated as the territory of Chinggis Khan's second son, Chaghadai, whose lands centered on the Issyk Kul and the Ili river, and included the Muslim territory of Central Asia." [7] After Tarmashirin Khan's downfall in 1334 CE: "Although the eastern part of the Chaghadayid Khanate was now lost, the Ulus Chaghatay contained large new territories south of the Oxus: northeastern Khorasan and the regions of Qunduz, Baghlān, Kabul and Qandahar. Most of this area was the region of the Qara'unas, a large body of Turco-Mongolian troops (probably three tümens), which had originated as the garrison troops of Qunduz and Baghlān." [8]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [1,500,000-2,500,000]: 1300 CE ♥ People.

McEvedy and Jones estimated 3 million for Russian Turkestan 1300 CE.[9] Chagatai Khanate included what likely was the most populous region (Zavastan basin) of this area? at this time (after the Mongol genocides).

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

1. Metropolitan centre

2. Town
3. Village

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels.

1. Kaghan

2. Governors for the settled regions.
3. Princes - rulers of provincial districts. Representatives of Mongol power.
"The Chaghatay ulus was a decentralized state, with governors appointed by the Kaghan (for the settled regions, until 1289) and rulers of provincial districts, i.e. princes assisted by special officials, the darughachi or tammachi, the representatives of Mongol power." [10]
4. darugachi or tammachi
5. assistants for darugachi?
4. Head of mint inferred
5. Mint worker inferred


Split into Eastern and Western Khanate in mid-14th Century[11]

"The Chagatai khans ruled from the eastern side of the Khanate, an area that had gained the nickname Mughulistan, 'Land of the Mongols'; they had never been able to wield very much power in the western reaches of the kingdom, Transoxania (the lands just east of the Oxus river). There, amirs (local Mongol chiefs) wielded the real power.[12]

"The administrative reform divided the country around Bukhara and Samarkand into tümens, and in Ferghana and East Turkistan into orchins (literally ‘near’, ‘around’, ‘surrounding’), i.e. a region located around the capital. " [13]

"The Chaghatay ulus was a decentralized state, with governors appointed by the Kaghan (for the settled regions, until 1289) and rulers of provincial districts, i.e. princes assisted by special officials, the darughachi or tammachi, the representatives of Mongol power." [14]

"At the time of Temür's rise to power, politics in the Ulus Chaghatay was controlled by the tribes who made it up. With the decline of central leadership, control over the territory and wealth of the Ulus had fallen to them. They provided most of the military manpower of the Ulus, either from their own tribesmen or from the armies of the regions under their control. No one therefore could either become or remain leader of the Ulus wihout the backing of the tribal leaders. Tribal chiefs naturally were not eager to strengthen the position of a central leader; they were intolerant of claims to sovereignty over them,and if a leader displeased them, they were quick to switch their loyalties to a rival candidate. Under these circumstances, central leadership was often contested, sometimes even after a leader had been acclaimed by the tribes of the Ulus." [15]

"The early Chaghadayid khans and their followers lived out in the steppe, but in the early fourteenth century the Chaghadayid Khan Kebeg (1318-1326) took up his residence in Transoxiana and began to take a more direct interest in the settled population. Kebeg undertook a number of reforms and is credited with organizing Transoxiana into tümens, regions supporting ten-thousand soldiers, of which seven were in the Samarqand region and nine in Ferghana.3" [16]


♠ Religious levels ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels.

Many religions.

♠ Military levels ♣ [4-6]: 1300 CE ♥ levels. typically decimal system used.

1. Khan

2. General of 10,000 soldiers
3. (General of 1,000 soldiers?)
4. 100
5. 10
6. Individual soldier

"In accordance with Mongol tradition, Kebek Khan divided Transoxania into military-administrative districts, or tümens (in Per- sian orthography, tu ̄ma ̄n), that is, ‘10,000’ (the original meaning being a group of 10,000 fighting men or a territory providing that number of warriors). The holdings of many local landowners became tümens, and the landowners themselves hereditary governors." [17]

"Along with this land Chaghadai was given a portion of the army,including four regiments of a thousand, each led by an important tribal commander.2"[18]

"The early Chaghadayid khans and their followers lived out in the steppe, but in the early fourteenth century the Chaghadayid Khan Kebeg (1318-1326) took up his residence in Transoxiana and began to take a more direct interest in the settled population. Kebeg undertook a number of reforms and is credited with organizing Transoxiana into tümens, regions supporting ten-thousand soldiers, of which seven were in the Samarqand region and nine in Ferghana.3" [19]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥ As with Mongols.

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥ As with Mongols.

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ Full-time specialists. Coexistence of various religions including Islam, Catholicism, Buddhism and shamanism. The presence of Catholic missionaries is attested [20] and several Khans followed Islam. Hence the presence of full-time religious specialists can be inferred.

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥ darughachi were specialist administrators.

"The Chaghatay ulus was a decentralized state, with governors appointed by the Kaghan (for the settled regions, until 1289) and rulers of provincial districts, i.e. princes assisted by special officials, the darughachi or tammachi, the representatives of Mongol power." [21]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ Mints.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ absent ♥ Chagatai khans observed the yasaq [22]. Hence the same applies as in the Mongol Empire: Morgan argues that the evidence does not support that claim that the Mongols had a written legal code - Chingiz Khan's 'Great Yasa'. He argues instead that they had "a body of unwritten Mongol customary law" and that Chingis' maxims or utterances were recorded and used in customary law. [23] There is also disagreement about how Mongol customary law and Shari'ia law may have co-existed in Muslim territories. Successful coexistence seems to depend on the particular Khan.[24]

♠ Judges ♣ {absent; present} ♥ "There is also disagreement about how Mongol customary law and Shari'ia law may have co-existed in Muslim territories. Successful coexistence seems to depend on the particular Khan."[25]

♠ Courts ♣ {absent; present} ♥ "There is also disagreement about how Mongol customary law and Shari'ia law may have co-existed in Muslim territories. Successful coexistence seems to depend on the particular Khan."[26]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ much damage to irrigation systems in Mongol conquest but not entirely destroyed.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Mongolian Empire.
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Mongolian Empire.
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Present in Mongolian Empire, unknown in this region
♠ Ports ♣ inferred absent ♥ Present in Mongolian Empire, this region landlocked.

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Rich literary corpus.
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ inferred present ♥ Chinggis Khan had a Mongolian script “adapted from the Uighur variety of Turkish” [27]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ "Ulughbeg, a grandson of Timur, briefly ruled Central Asia and was an educator and astronomer. His tables of the movements of stars were long unsurpassed for accuracy".[28]
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥ Islamic calendar.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Qu'ran.
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred present ♥ "Bahaudin al-Din Naqshband Bukhari (1318-1389 CE): "Founder of a major Sufi order who helped bring about a reunion between Sufism, traditionalist Islam, and the state." [29]
♠ Practical literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ History ♣ present ♥ "Rashidu’d Din’s History, of the World, produced at Tabriz between 1306 and 1312." [30]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Ali Qushji (1402-1474 CE): "Son of Ulughbeg’s falconer and later a renowned astronomer, founder of Ottoman astronomy, and author of a ringing defense of astronomy’s autonomy from philosophy."[31]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Ali Qushji (1402-1474 CE): "Son of Ulughbeg’s falconer and later a renowned astronomer, founder of Ottoman astronomy, and author of a ringing defense of astronomy’s autonomy from philosophy."[32] "Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274 CE). "Polymath native of Tus in Khurasan and founder of the Maragha observatory under the Mongols. He challenged Aristotle’s notion that all motion is either linear or circular."[33]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Rumi (c.1207-1273 CE): "Common name of the hugely popular poet Jalaluddin (Jalal al-Din) Muhammad Balkhi, from Balkh, Afghanistan."[34]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ e.g. tribute may have been paid in kind.
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ "Kebek Khan (who succeeded his brother and ruled from 1318 to 1326) holds a special place in the history of the Chaghatay ulus. For example, his name is linked to the currency and administrative reforms which played an important role in the development of feudal statehood in Central Asia. [...] As for the monetary reforms, the systems of Il Khanid Iran and the Golden Horde were utilized as models. The weight of 1 kebek dinar was 2 mithqa ̄ls and 1 kebek dirham was equal to 1/3 of a mitbqa ̄l. The administrative and currency reforms of Kebek Khan were only superficial, however, and internal problems remained. The new monetary unit became known as kebek, a term that survives in the Russian word kopek." [35]
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ The yam horse relay communication system.[36]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ The yam horse relay communication system.[37]
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Iron plate armour.[38]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Steel bosses on shields.[39]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Illustrations of Persian miniature art of Mongol warriors show bows.[40]
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Presence of round conical helmet[41] suggests use of war clubs/maces in warfare.
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "Among the steppe riders a dagger was typically carried in all periods, and a number of dagger designs are encountered in the archaeological and artistic record." [42]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Illustrations of Persian miniature art of Mongol warriors show swords.[43]
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ "Donkeys were among the key pack animals used to carry silk from the Pacific Ocean to the Mediterranean" [44]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Illustrations of Persian miniature art of Mongol warriors show them on horses.[45]
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ "The bark of white poplar ... was highly prized as a covering for shields."[46] "The Tatar foot-soldier carried a bow, an axe, a dagger, a sabre and a small round shield, wooden with an iron rim"[47]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Illustration in Rashidu'd Din's "History of the World": "helmets are rounded, with a central ornamental spike, and frequently have a turned-up peak or reinforce over the brow. Nape guards are of mail, leather or fabric, as are probably the deep collars of the lamellar coats."[48] "In 1393 we hear of Persian soldiers dressed in mail (zirih baktah), with helmets and cuirasses of velvet-covered iron plates - a form of brigandine is suggested - and their horses protected by a kind of cuirass made of quilted silk."[49]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ "Many of the early Persian miniatures, particularly those under Mongol influence of the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, seldom illustrate shields. When they do the shields would seem to be of stout hide - small, circular, and convex, with applied metal bosses. By the late fourteenth century many more shields are represented and often clearly depict concentric rings of cane woven with silk thread into a light but firm convex defence, usually fitted with a central steel boss. Several colours of silk thread were used and remarkable geometric patterns produced. They were lined with fabric and had a leather cushion behind the central boss, over which was braced a plaited leather grip, the ends of which were secured to four iron rings riveted through to four ornamental washers."[50]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Illustration in Rashidu'd Din's "History of the World": "helmets are rounded, with a central ornamental spike, and frequently have a turned-up peak or reinforce over the brow. Nape guards are of mail, leather or fabric, as are probably the deep collars of the lamellar coats."[51] "A helmet of rounded conical form, formerly in the collection of Count Krasinski of Poland, dating from the late thirteenth or early fourteenth centuries, retained many features in common with that on the Tāq-i-Bōstān relief. ... This form of helmet is distinctly Persian in origin." [52]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ "metal disc worn on the breast and sometimes the back of warriors"[53]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ "In the late-fourteenth- and early-fifteenth-century miniatures, plate armour for the limbs makes its reappearance in the form of tubular vambraces, consisting of two hinged plates tapered towards the wrist, the lower one extended into a point to protect the elbow."[54] "The legs - always vulnerable parts of a horseman’s anatomy - were protected with separate knee-plates of ‘pot-lid’ form, set in mail or mounted upon fabric which extended up the thigh (rānāpanō). Usually, boots were worn below these; but sometimes a tubular greave of two plates opening upon hinges encased the shins and calves. These are clearly represented in a miniature painted at Shiraz, c.1433—4, in the Bodleian Library, Oxford."[55]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Lamellar coats "remained popular in Persia, particularly in the north and east, for a very long time, while the alternative - mail - still persisted, it would seem, in central and southern areas."[56] "In 1393 we hear of Persian soldiers dressed in mail (zirih baktah)".[57]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ Used on horses. Up to late fifteenth century "scale horse armour which had changed little from those found at Dura Europos."[58] "The miniatures of the Timurids and Safavids show us a fully developed system of bardings completely armouring the horse and made up of many specialized pieces of scale armor."[59]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ "One of the earliest illustrated Persian manuscripts to survive dates from the early fourteenth century. This is Rashidu’d Din’s History, of the World, produced at Tabriz between 1306 and 1312. The warriors wear long coats of lamellar armour barred in alternating colours, every other row bearing scroll patterns which could well be a convention to represent rows of lacquered hide lamellae with engraved ornament."[60] "Early-fourteenth-century miniatures depict warriors generally wearing lamellar armour, with aventails of mail attached to their simple helmets of low, rounded, conical form."[61] "Lamellar armour continued to be represented in miniatures into the second half of the fifteenth century, and this is well shown in a manuscript in the F. Cleveland Morgan collection at Montreal (Fig. 19E)."[62]
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ "In 1393 we hear of Persian soldiers dressed in mail (zirih baktah), with helmets and cuirasses of velvet-covered iron plates - a form of brigandine is suggested".[63] "In the late-fourteenth- and early-fifteenth-century miniatures, plate armour for the limbs makes its reappearance in the form of tubular vambraces, consisting of two hinged plates tapered towards the wrist, the lower one extended into a point to protect the elbow."[64]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "When Chagatai inherited Ganghis Khan's land and established the Chagatai Khanate, ranging from the area north of the Tian Shan Mountains to Samarkand, Almaliq was made the capital city."[65]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ Qarshi, built by Kebek, was about 40 hectares in area "bounded by a strong wall, 4.5 m thick, surrounded by a deep defensive ditch, 8-10 m wide and 3.5-4 m deep, and had four gates. The original layout of the city (before Timurid additions) included one central fortress/palace surrounded by an open spaced designed for the erection of tents. This layout is typical of Mongolian and south Siberian cities from the Xiongnu period onwards."[66] 4.5 meter thick wall, in the region of Central Asia where walls (e.g. Samarkand) were usually built out of earth rather than stone.
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ Qarshi, built by Kebek, was about 40 hectares in area "bounded by a strong wall, 4.5 m thick, surrounded by a deep defensive ditch, 8-10 m wide and 3.5-4 m deep, and had four gates. The original layout of the city (before Timurid additions) included one central fortress/palace surrounded by an open spaced designed for the erection of tents. This layout is typical of Mongolian and south Siberian cities from the Xiongnu period onwards."[67]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Dynastic rule.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [68] [69] [70]

References

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  2. (Forbes Manz 1983, 79-80)
  3. (Khan 2003, 32) Khan, A. 2003. A Historical Atlas of Uzbekistan. The Rosen Publishing Group.
  4. (Khan 2003, 32) Khan, A. 2003. A Historical Atlas of Uzbekistan. The Rosen Publishing Group.
  5. (Forbes Manz 1983, 82)
  6. (Chase-Dunn spreadsheet)
  7. (Forbes Manz 1983, 81)
  8. (Forbes Manz 1983: 82)
  9. (McEvedy and Jones 1978) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd.
  10. (Akhmedov and Sinor 1998, 269)
  11. (Khan 2003, 32) Khan, A. 2003. A Historical Atlas of Uzbekistan. The Rosen Publishing Group.
  12. (Wise Bauer 2013, 557) Wise Bauer, S. 2013. The History of the Renaissance World: From the Rediscovery of Aristotle to the Conquest of Constantinople. W. W. Norton & Company.
  13. (Akhmedov and Sinor 1998, 269)
  14. (Akhmedov and Sinor 1998, 269)
  15. (Forbes Manz 1983, 79)
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  18. (Forbes Manz 1983, 81)
  19. (Forbes Manz 1983, 81)
  20. (Grousset 1970, 341)
  21. (Akhmedov and Sinor 1998, 269)
  22. (Grousset 1970, 341)
  23. David Morgan, The Mongols (Oxford: Blackwell, 2nd ed. 2007), pp.85-87
  24. 1. Beatrice Forbes Manz, ‘The Rule of the Infidels: The Mongols and the Islamic World’, in David O. Morgan and Anthony Reid (eds), The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 3. The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 161.
  25. 1. Beatrice Forbes Manz, ‘The Rule of the Infidels: The Mongols and the Islamic World’, in David O. Morgan and Anthony Reid (eds), The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 3. The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 161.
  26. 1. Beatrice Forbes Manz, ‘The Rule of the Infidels: The Mongols and the Islamic World’, in David O. Morgan and Anthony Reid (eds), The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 3. The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 161.
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  34. (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia's Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.
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  42. (Karasulas 2004, 28)
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