UsIroqP

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Kalin Bullman ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Proto-Iroquois Confederacy ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1300-1565 CE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥

Language

♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

Provide a descriptive paragraph detailing the key features of the polity, which will help understanding the codes below.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Kalin Bullman ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 73,218 ♥ in squared kilometers. km2. Bruce William Wright states that the Iroquois League held a territory of around 28, 270 miles squared.[1] Calculated into kilometers squared.

♠ Polity Population ♣ [40,000-50,000] ♥ people. "The total population of all tribes in Ontario is estimated to have been 60,000 and that in New York 40,000 - 50,000."[2]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [1000-1400] ♥ people. In certain areas, when villages coalesced due to warfare or other reasons, villages could reach a population of over 1,000. Some villages are believed to have grown to up to 1400 individuals, such as at the Lawson site in southwestern Ontario.[3][4]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 2 ♥ levels. At the first level were semisedentary villages that the Iroquois lived in year round, but moved to new village sites every 10 to 25 years. The second level consisted of 1 to 4 villages that were part of tribal clusters, which could include chiefs in certain areas.[5]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ absent ♥ Sources speak only of longhouses inside the palisaded villages of the Iroquois, and mention that most buildings were used for living in shared families or for farming. Most settlements were nothing more than "villages consisting of clusters of longhouses surrounded by palisades."[6]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥

♠ Judges ♣ ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ There were the presence of shared storage rooms in the ends of longhouses, in a society in which "resources were controlled by clans according to egalitarian principles," which were often linked by trade routes that chiefs controlled.[7][8]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥
♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Script ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥

Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Kalin Bullman ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥ Ornaments were usually made from bones and shells, and stonework was present in this period. Weapons were made of stone, wood, and bone. Not till after contact with Europeans and trade with them did Iroquois begin to use metals heavily in their weapons and ornaments.[9][10][11][12]
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ Ornaments were usually made from bones and shells, and stonework was present in this period. Weapons were made of stone, wood, and bone. Not till after contact with Europeans and trade with them did Iroquois begin to use metals heavily in their weapons and ornaments.[13][14][15][16]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Ornaments were usually made from bones and shells, and stonework was present in this period. Weapons were made of stone, wood, and bone. Not till after contact with Europeans and trade with them did Iroquois begin to use metals heavily in their weapons and ornaments.[17][18][19][20]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Ornaments were usually made from bones and shells, and stonework was present in this period. Weapons were made of stone, wood, and bone. Not till after contact with Europeans and trade with them did Iroquois begin to use metals heavily in their weapons and ornaments.[21][22][23][24]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ Used throwing spears as a weapon of war.[25]
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ Many sources mention thrown and ranged projectile weapons, but no mention of the atlatl.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred absent ♥ Many sources mention thrown and ranged projectile weapons, but no mention of slings.
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Bows and arrows became quite uniform for the Iroquois as early as 600 CE. Bows used were not composite bows, as they were often made from one piece of wood, and were often as long as the size of the individual carrying them.[26][27]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ Bows and arrows became quite uniform for the Iroquois as early as 600 CE. Bows used were not composite bows, as they were often made from one piece of wood, and were often as long as the size of the individual carrying them.[28][29]
♠ Crossbow ♣ ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ There were war clubs used by the Iroquois, often made of wood or bone with "bone or stone inserted at the head."[30]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ The Iroquois used stone axes, until later in the 17th century when their war axes were made of European metals. Their axes were also used for woodworking, butchering, and hide scraping.[31]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ The Iroquois used stone knives, and there are many knife marks found on human remains.[32]
♠ Swords ♣ absent ♥ There had been much research done on Iroquois warfare, and there is no mention of swords used.
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Spears were used by the Iroquois in close combat, and spear points have been found lodged in many human bones from this period.[33]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred absent ♥ Spears were used by the Iroquois in close combat, and spear points have been found lodged in many human bones from this period.[34] Sources do not mention polearms.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ Not native to Americas.
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Introduced to Americas by Europeans.
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not native to Americas.
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not native to Americas.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ ♥
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ The Iroquois carried shields made of wood, bark, or leather.[35][36]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Though not common, some Iroquois wore helmets made of animal hide or wood.[37]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ When the Iroquois went to war the "chiefs wore large plumes and warriors wore slat armor and carried leather or bark shields." The slat armor was usually made from wood.[38][39]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ The Iroquois often used arm and thigh armor, made from wood, cords, or deerskin. This is considered unique in this region.[40]
♠ Chainmail ♣ ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ By this period villages were often located on defensible hilltops, away from major routes, and were fortified "either by ravines or by artificial earthworks and multiple palisades," and even watchtowers. Also, "the placement of houses within a palisade may also have been motivated by defensive considerations" and to create defensible corridors.[41][42]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ By this period villages were often located on defensible hilltops, away from major routes, and were fortified "either by ravines or by artificial earthworks and multiple palisades," and even watchtowers. Also, "the placement of houses within a palisade may also have been motivated by defensive considerations" and to create defensible corridors.[43][44]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ By this period villages were often located on defensible hilltops, away from major routes, and were fortified "either by ravines or by artificial earthworks and multiple palisades," and even watchtowers. Also, "the placement of houses within a palisade may also have been motivated by defensive considerations" and to create defensible corridors.[45][46]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred absent ♥ By this period villages were often located on defensible hilltops, away from major routes, and were fortified "either by ravines or by artificial earthworks and multiple palisades," and even watchtowers. Also, "the placement of houses within a palisade may also have been motivated by defensive considerations" and to create defensible corridors.[47][48]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred absent ♥ By this period villages were often located on defensible hilltops, away from major routes, and were fortified "either by ravines or by artificial earthworks and multiple palisades," and even watchtowers. Also, "the placement of houses within a palisade may also have been motivated by defensive considerations" and to create defensible corridors.[49][50]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ By this period villages were often located on defensible hilltops, away from major routes, and were fortified "either by ravines or by artificial earthworks and multiple palisades," and even watchtowers. Also, "the placement of houses within a palisade may also have been motivated by defensive considerations" and to create defensible corridors.[51][52]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ By this period villages were often located on defensible hilltops, away from major routes, and were fortified "either by ravines or by artificial earthworks and multiple palisades," and even watchtowers. Also, "the placement of houses within a palisade may also have been motivated by defensive considerations" and to create defensible corridors.[53][54]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ By this period villages were often located on defensible hilltops, away from major routes, and were fortified "either by ravines or by artificial earthworks and multiple palisades," and included man made ditches and usually one to two gates. There were also"watch towers, reached by ladder, served as an outlook above the palisade wall."[55][56]
♠ Long walls ♣ inferred absent ♥ By this period villages were often located on defensible hilltops, away from major routes, and were fortified "either by ravines or by artificial earthworks and multiple palisades," and even watchtowers. Also, "the placement of houses within a palisade may also have been motivated by defensive considerations" and to create defensible corridors.[57][58]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ ♥

References

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