USMisMW

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Cahokia - Middle Woodland ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ American Bottom; Middle Woodland; Cement Hollow; Holding; Hill Lake ♥ Cement Hollow, Holding and Hill Lake are the successive traditions of the Middle Woodland period between 150 BCE - 300 BCE.[1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 300 CE ♥

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 150 BCE - 300 CE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ none ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

"groups ensured access to needed resources through maintenance of alliance-exchange relationships" [2]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Cahokia - Early Woodland ♥ Carr Creek-Florence-Columbia Carr Creek, Florence and Columbia are the successive traditions of the Early Woodland period between 600-150 BCE. [3]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Cahokia - Late Woodland I ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Middle Woodland ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥


♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

2000 BCE
Period of population growth begins [4]

1 CE

c1 CE "large quantities of native cultigens began to be incorporated into midcontinental diets. [5]
100 CE
Maize appears in the archaeological record [6]
Atlatl is the contemporary weapon [7]
"periodic rituals at ceremonial mound centers" [8]
"groups ensured access to needed resources through maintenance of alliance-exchange relationships" [9]
200 CE
300 CE
Early arrowheads appear. "Beginning A.D. 300-400, the bow replaced the atlatl in most regions" [10]
In the Mississippian region (Midwest and Upland South) the transition from atlatl to bow was "relatively rapid because dart points disappear from the archaeological record" [11]
Introduction of the bow in the Mississippi region decreased social complexity because it caused the collapse of the Hopewell system, the abandonment of mound centers and alliance-exchange relationships [12]
Bow enabled a new bow and native crops subsistence strategy which lead to a movement to and the effective exploitation of previously marginal lands and "household autonomy" [13]
There followed an economic intensification and population growth which eventually "packed the landscape with settlements." [14]


Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Kalin Bullman ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers.


♠ Polity Population ♣ suspected unknown ♥ People.


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [30-50] ♥ Inhabitants. Estimate. Population of the American Bottom was negligible before Sponemann-Collinsville-Loyd phase.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Before the nucleated villages of the Late Woodland Patrick phase

"From the Late Woodland Patrick phase through Emergent Mississippian times, communities in the floodplain and immediately adjacent uplands tended to consist of groups of structures. Most people lived in these nucleated villages, each of which was occupied by at least a few tens of people, and sometimes several times that number. Only a small proportion of the valley's inhabitants lived in houses that were widely separated from one another." [15]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels.

After about 300 CE there was a "trend toward household autonomy" as the collapse of the Hopewell system lead to the abandonment of mound centers and alliance-exchange relationships. [16]

By inference, the level of hierarchy and complexity should be coded higher before 300 CE than for the period that directly follows.


1. Chief

However, chiefs are thought to have appeared after 700-800 CE.[17]
2. Elder
kin group leaders [18]


♠ Religious levels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ levels.

Shaman-like religious leaders.


♠ Military levels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ absent ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ absent ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ absent ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ absent ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ absent ♥

♠ Judges ♣ absent ♥

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ absent ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ absent ♥
♠ markets ♣ absent ♥ In the Hopewell period "groups ensured access to needed resources through maintenance of alliance-exchange relationships"[19] but this does not necessarily require a place designated as a market.
♠ food storage sites ♣ absent ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ absent ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ absent ♥ There were no bridges in prehistoric North America.
♠ Canals ♣ absent ♥
♠ Ports ♣ absent ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ From earliest times people of American bottom were visiting a number of sources. This is not mentioned in current literature. Two examples: Wyandot, in the Ohio river valley and Mill Creek just south of the American bottom.

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ There is no written record for Cahokia.[20]
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥
♠ History ♣ absent ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Exchange-system economy. [21] In the Middle Woodland period "fancy objects were widely exchanged." [22]
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ absent ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Enrico Cioni; Kalin Bullman ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ The atlatl was the main weapon of this region before the introduction of the bow c300-400 CE. [23][24]
♠ Atlatl ♣ present ♥ The atlatl was the main weapon of this region before the introduction of the bow c300-400 CE. [25][26] However, the fact that there is very little skeletal evidence for warfare for this period[27] suggests that the atlatl was mostly used for hunting animals.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred absent ♥ The atlatl was the main weapon of this region before the introduction of the bow c300-400 CE. [28][29]
♠ Self bow ♣ absent ♥ Introduced in the Mississippian region 300-400 CE. However, first evidence of use of arrow points for intergroup violence is from 600 CE. [30] atlatl primary weapon. no bow and arrow.[31]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ Checked by Peter Peregrine.
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred absent ♥ The atlatl was the main weapon of this region before the introduction of the bow c300-400 CE. [32][33]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred absent ♥ The atlatl was the main weapon of this region before the introduction of the bow c300-400 CE. [34][35]
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred absent ♥ The atlatl was the main weapon of this region before the introduction of the bow c300-400 CE. [36][37]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred absent ♥ The atlatl was the main weapon of this region before the introduction of the bow c300-400 CE. [38][39]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred absent ♥ The atlatl was the main weapon of this region before the introduction of the bow c300-400 CE. [40][41]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred absent ♥ The atlatl was the main weapon of this region before the introduction of the bow c300-400 CE. [42][43]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[44]
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[45] Of course, wooden objects would not survive in the archaeological record.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[46] Of course, such objects would not survive in the archaeological record.
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Checked by Peter Peregrine.
♠ Helmets ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Checked by Peter Peregrine.
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Checked by Peter Peregrine.
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Checked by Peter Peregrine.
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[47]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ absent ♥ Settlements primarily located for access to water and arable land. [48]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[49]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[50]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[51]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[52]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[53]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[54]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[55]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Checked by Peter Peregrine.
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ absent ♥ 300 BCE - 150 CE Hopewell mounds had a "central log-lined tomb for high-status burials, which were usually accompanied by a wide range of exotic and prestige goods, as well as tools and weapons."[56] This would perhaps suggest some leadership, possibly beyond kin group leaders. However, chiefs are thought to have appeared after 700-800 CE.[57] As such there was probably no real "executive" even though the presence of mound building and high-status burials show organization and increased social stratification. As such there was no real "executive" to sanction or government to do it.
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ absent ♥ 300 BCE - 150 CE Hopewell mounds had a "central log-lined tomb for high-status burials, which were usually accompanied by a wide range of exotic and prestige goods, as well as tools and weapons."[58] This would perhaps suggest some leadership, possibly beyond kin group leaders. However, chiefs are thought to have appeared after 700-800 CE.[59] As such there was probably no real "executive" even though the presence of mound building and high-status burials show organization and increased social stratification. As such there was no real "executive" to sanction or government to do it.
♠ Impeachment ♣ absent ♥ 300 BCE - 150 CE Hopewell mounds had a "central log-lined tomb for high-status burials, which were usually accompanied by a wide range of exotic and prestige goods, as well as tools and weapons."[60] This would perhaps suggest some leadership, possibly beyond kin group leaders. However, chiefs are thought to have appeared after 700-800 CE.[61] As such there was probably no real "executive" even though the presence of mound building and high-status burials show organization and increased social stratification. As such there was no real "executive" to sanction or government to do it.

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ [absent; present] ♥ After about 300 CE there was a "trend toward household autonomy" as the collapse of the Hopewell system lead to the abandonment of mound centers and alliance-exchange relationships. [62] By inference, the level of hierarchy and complexity should be coded higher before 300 CE (this period) than for the period that directly follows. Chiefs perhaps appeared after 700-800 CE.[63] 300 BCE - 150 CE Hopewell mounds had a "central log-lined tomb for high-status burials, which were usually accompanied by a wide range of exotic and prestige goods, as well as tools and weapons."[64] This might suggest some level of organization and social stratification but how elite status was acquired is unknown.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Edward Turner, Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred absent ♥ Chiefs perhaps appeared after 700-800 CE.[65] 300 BCE - 150 CE Hopewell mounds had a "central log-lined tomb for high-status burials, which were usually accompanied by a wide range of exotic and prestige goods, as well as tools and weapons."[66] This might suggest some level of organization and social stratification. But in this period social stratification is still relatively low and there are no mentions of cultic objects in burials to suggest a religion. We might assume it unlikely that leaders of this age boasted of an explicit relationship with gods.

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ inferred absent ♥ Chiefs perhaps appeared after 700-800 CE.[67] 300 BCE - 150 CE Hopewell mounds had a "central log-lined tomb for high-status burials, which were usually accompanied by a wide range of exotic and prestige goods, as well as tools and weapons."[68] This might suggest some level of organization and social stratification. But in this period social stratification is still relatively low and there are no mentions of cultic objects in burials to suggest a religion. We might assume it unlikely that leaders of this age boasted of an explicit relationship with gods.

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ inferred present ♥ Chiefs perhaps appeared after 700-800 CE.[69] 300 BCE - 150 CE Hopewell mounds had a "central log-lined tomb for high-status burials, which were usually accompanied by a wide range of exotic and prestige goods, as well as tools and weapons."[70] This might suggest some level of organization and social stratification. But in this period social stratification is still relatively low. However, this mound-building might suggest a very rudimentary ideological reinforcement of inequality rather than equality.

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ inferred present ♥ Chiefs not attested before 700-800 CE[71] so no proper "rulers" existed and so the society must have been relatively egalitarian. 300 BCE - 150 CE Hopewell mounds had a "central log-lined tomb for high-status burials, which were usually accompanied by a wide range of exotic and prestige goods, as well as tools and weapons."[72] This might suggest some level of organization and social stratification. But in this period social stratification is still relatively low.
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred present ♥ Chiefs not attested before 700-800 CE[73] so no proper "rulers" existed and so the society must have been relatively egalitarian. 300 BCE - 150 CE Hopewell mounds had a "central log-lined tomb for high-status burials, which were usually accompanied by a wide range of exotic and prestige goods, as well as tools and weapons."[74] This might suggest some level of organization and social stratification. But in this period social stratification is still relatively low. To the extent that "ideological thought" can be said to have existed the concepts of ruler and an elite may not have been part of it at this early time.

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [75] [76] [77]

References

  1. (Iseminger, W R. 2010. Cahokia Mounds: America's First City. The History Press. Charleston. p.21)
  2. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  3. (Iseminger, W R. 2010. Cahokia Mounds: America's First City. The History Press. Charleston. p.21)
  4. (Milner, Chaplin and Zavodny 2013)
  5. (Milner, Chaplin and Zavodny 2013)
  6. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  7. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  8. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  9. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  10. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  11. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  12. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  13. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  14. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  15. (Milner 2006, 98)
  16. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  17. (Iseminger 2010, 26) Iseminger, W R. 2010. Cahokia Mounds: America's First City. The History Press. Charleston.
  18. (Iseminger 2014, 26)
  19. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  20. (Peregrine 2014, 32)
  21. (Milner 2006, 138)
  22. (Milner, Chaplin and Zavodny 2013, 100)
  23. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  24. (Iseminger 2010, 24) Iseminger, W R. 2010. Cahokia Mounds: America's First City. The History Press. Charleston.
  25. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  26. (Iseminger 2010, 24) Iseminger, W R. 2010. Cahokia Mounds: America's First City. The History Press. Charleston.
  27. (Milner, Chaplin and Zavodny 2013, 96-97) Milner, George, George Chaplin, and Emily Zavodny. 2013. “Conflict and Societal Change in Late Prehistoric Eastern North America.” Evolutionary Anthropology 22: 96-102. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/PAF8KM8K/itemKey/QR77EGA6
  28. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  29. (Iseminger 2010, 24) Iseminger, W R. 2010. Cahokia Mounds: America's First City. The History Press. Charleston.
  30. (Blitz and Port 2013, 89-95)
  31. (Iseminger 2010, 24) Iseminger, W R. 2010. Cahokia Mounds: America's First City. The History Press. Charleston.
  32. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
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  34. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  35. (Iseminger 2010, 24) Iseminger, W R. 2010. Cahokia Mounds: America's First City. The History Press. Charleston.
  36. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  37. (Iseminger 2010, 24) Iseminger, W R. 2010. Cahokia Mounds: America's First City. The History Press. Charleston.
  38. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
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  40. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  41. (Iseminger 2010, 24) Iseminger, W R. 2010. Cahokia Mounds: America's First City. The History Press. Charleston.
  42. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  43. (Iseminger 2010, 24) Iseminger, W R. 2010. Cahokia Mounds: America's First City. The History Press. Charleston.
  44. (Milner, Chaplin and Zavodny 2013, 96-97) Milner, George, George Chaplin, and Emily Zavodny. 2013. “Conflict and Societal Change in Late Prehistoric Eastern North America.” Evolutionary Anthropology 22: 96-102. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/PAF8KM8K/itemKey/QR77EGA6
  45. (Milner, Chaplin and Zavodny 2013, 96-97) Milner, George, George Chaplin, and Emily Zavodny. 2013. “Conflict and Societal Change in Late Prehistoric Eastern North America.” Evolutionary Anthropology 22: 96-102. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/PAF8KM8K/itemKey/QR77EGA6
  46. (Milner, Chaplin and Zavodny 2013, 96-97) Milner, George, George Chaplin, and Emily Zavodny. 2013. “Conflict and Societal Change in Late Prehistoric Eastern North America.” Evolutionary Anthropology 22: 96-102. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/PAF8KM8K/itemKey/QR77EGA6
  47. (Milner, Chaplin and Zavodny 2013, 96-97) Milner, George, George Chaplin, and Emily Zavodny. 2013. “Conflict and Societal Change in Late Prehistoric Eastern North America.” Evolutionary Anthropology 22: 96-102. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/PAF8KM8K/itemKey/QR77EGA6
  48. (Peregrine 2014, personal communication)
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