USMisEW

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Kalin Bullman ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Cahokia - Early Woodland ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ American Bottom; Early Woodland; Carr Creek; Florence; Columbia ♥ Carr Creek, Florence and Columbia are the successive traditions of the Early Woodland period between 600-150 BCE. [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 150 CE ♥

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 600-150 BCE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ none ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Cahokia - Prairie Lake ♥ Prairie Lake 1100-600 BCE. [2]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Cahokia - Middle Woodland ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Early Woodland ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥


♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

2000 BCE
Period of population growth begins [3]

1 CE

c1 CE "large quantities of native cultigens began to be incorporated into midcontinental diets. [4]
100 CE
Maize appears in the archaeological record [5]
Atlatl is the contemporary weapon [6]
"periodic rituals at ceremonial mound centers" [7]
"groups ensured access to needed resources through maintenance of alliance-exchange relationships" [8]
200 CE
300 CE
Early arrowheads appear. "Beginning A.D. 300-400, the bow replaced the atlatl in most regions" [9]
In the Mississippian region (Midwest and Upland South) the transition from atlatl to bow was "relatively rapid because dart points disappear from the archaeological record" [10]
Introduction of the bow in the Mississippi region decreased social complexity because it caused the collapse of the Hopewell system, the abandonment of mound centers and alliance-exchange relationships [11]
Bow enabled a new bow and native crops subsistence strategy which lead to a movement to and the effective exploitation of previously marginal lands and "household autonomy" [12]
There followed an economic intensification and population growth which eventually "packed the landscape with settlements." [13]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers.


♠ Polity Population ♣ suspected unknown ♥ People.


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [30-50] ♥ Inhabitants. Rough estimate. Population of the American Bottom was negligible before Sponemann-Collinsville-Loyd phase.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Before the nucleated villages of the Late Woodland Patrick phase

"From the Late Woodland Patrick phase through Emergent Mississippian times, communities in the floodplain and immediately adjacent uplands tended to consist of groups of structures. Most people lived in these nucleated villages, each of which was occupied by at least a few tens of people, and sometimes several times that number. Only a small proportion of the valley's inhabitants lived in houses that were widely separated from one another." [14]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

1. Elder

kin group leaders [15]. High status burials known after 300 BCE[16] would perhaps suggest some leadership, possibly kin group leaders.


♠ Religious levels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ levels.


♠ Military levels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ absent ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ absent ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ absent ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ absent ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ absent ♥

♠ Judges ♣ absent ♥

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ absent ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ absent ♥
♠ markets ♣ absent ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ absent ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ absent ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ absent ♥ There were no bridges in prehistoric North America.
♠ Canals ♣ absent ♥
♠ Ports ♣ absent ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ From earliest times people of American bottom were visiting a number of sources. This is not mentioned in current literature. Two examples: Wyandot, in the Ohio river valley and Mill Creek just south of the American bottom.

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ There is no written record for Cahokia.[17]
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥
♠ History ♣ absent ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Exchange-system economy. [18]
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ absent ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Enrico Cioni; Kalin Bullman ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ The atlatl was the main weapon of this region before the introduction of the bow c300-400 CE. [19][20]
♠ Atlatl ♣ present ♥ The atlatl was the main weapon of this region before the introduction of the bow c300-400 CE. [21][22] However, the fact that there is very little skeletal evidence for warfare for this period[23] suggests that the atlatl was mostly used for hunting animals.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred absent ♥ The atlatl was the main weapon of this region before the introduction of the bow c300-400 CE. [24][25]
♠ Self bow ♣ absent ♥ Introduced in the Mississippian region 300-400 CE. However, first evidence of use of arrow points for intergroup violence is from 600 CE. [26] atlatl primary weapon. no bow and arrow.[27]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ atlatl primary weapon. no bow and arrow.[28]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred absent ♥ The atlatl was the main weapon of this region before the introduction of the bow c300-400 CE. [29][30]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred absent ♥ The atlatl was the main weapon of this region before the introduction of the bow c300-400 CE. [31][32]
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred absent ♥ The atlatl was the main weapon of this region before the introduction of the bow c300-400 CE. [33][34]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred absent ♥ The atlatl was the main weapon of this region before the introduction of the bow c300-400 CE. [35][36]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred absent ♥ The atlatl was the main weapon of this region before the introduction of the bow c300-400 CE. [37][38]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred absent ♥ The atlatl was the main weapon of this region before the introduction of the bow c300-400 CE. [39][40]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[41]
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[42] Of course, wooden objects would not survive in the archaeological record.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[43] Of course, such objects would not survive in the archaeological record.
♠ Shields ♣ absent ♥
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ absent ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[44]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ absent ♥ Settlements primarily located for access to water and arable land. [45]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[46]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[47]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[48]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[49]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[50]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[51]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following. "About two millennia ago, during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned several hundred years, intergroup conflict ending in violence was largely absent from eastern North America. Compared to both earlier Archaic hunter-gatherers and later village agriculturalists, few Middle Woodland skeletons have projectile points lodged in bones, distinctive stone-axe injuries, or signs of mutilation such as decapitation and scalping. [...] The scarcity of such injuries is not a result of inadequate sampling, since there are large and well-preserved skeletal collections dating to this period, especially from the Midwest. A rather sudden adoption of food-procurement practices that shifted the balance between resources and consumers to a time of relative plenty presumably played a big part in establishing conditions conducive to openness among otherwise separate groups."[52]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ absent ♥ Chiefs perhaps appeared after 700-800 CE[53] so they are unlikely to be present at this time. As such there was no real "executive" to constrain or government to do it.
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ absent ♥ Chiefs perhaps appeared after 700-800 CE.[54] High status burials known after 300 BCE[55] would perhaps suggest some leadership, possibly kin group leaders in this period. As such there was no real "executive" to constrain.
♠ Impeachment ♣ absent ♥ Chiefs perhaps appeared after 700-800 CE.[56] High status burials known after 300 BCE[57] would perhaps suggest some leadership, possibly kin group leaders in this period. As such there was no real "executive" to impeach.

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ [absent; present] ♥ High status burials known after 300 BCE[58] would perhaps suggest some leadership, possibly kin group leaders at this time. But this is a long way from there being a proper elite class.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Edward Turner, Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred absent ♥ Chiefs not attested before 700-800 CE[59] so no proper "rulers" existed. High status burials known after 300 BCE[60] would perhaps suggest some leadership in this period, possibly kin group leaders, but they unlikely boasted of an explicit relationship with gods. However, in the Woodland period after 600 BCE there was "increased emphasis on building mounds, mostly conical in form, primarily for mortuary purposes."[61]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ inferred absent ♥ Chiefs not attested before 700-800 CE[62] so no proper "rulers" existed. High status burials known after 300 BCE[63] would perhaps suggest some leadership in this period, possibly kin group leaders, but they unlikely boasted of an explicit relationship with gods. However, in the Woodland period after 600 BCE there was "increased emphasis on building mounds, mostly conical in form, primarily for mortuary purposes."[64]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ inferred present ♥ Chiefs not attested before 700-800 CE[65] so no proper "rulers" existed and so the society must have been relatively egalitarian. High status burials known after 300 BCE[66] would perhaps suggest some leadership in this period, possibly kin group leaders, but it is unlikely that they were part of a stratified society. In the Woodland period after 600 BCE there was "increased emphasis on building mounds, mostly conical in form, primarily for mortuary purposes."[67] However, this mound-building might suggest a very rudimentary ideological reinforcement of inequality rather than equality.

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ inferred present ♥ Chiefs not attested before 700-800 CE[68] so no proper "rulers" existed and so the society must have been relatively egalitarian. High status burials known after 300 BCE[69] would perhaps suggest some leadership in this period, possibly kin group leaders, but it is unlikely that they were part of a stratified society. To the extent that "ideological thought" can be said to have existed the concepts of ruler and an elite may not have been part of it at this early time.
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred present ♥ Chiefs not attested before 700-800 CE[70] so no proper "rulers" existed and so the society must have been relatively egalitarian. High status burials known after 300 BCE[71] would perhaps suggest some leadership in this period, possibly kin group leaders, but it is unlikely that they were part of a stratified society. To the extent that "ideological thought" can be said to have existed the concepts of ruler and an elite may not have been part of it at this early time.

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [72] [73] [74]

References

  1. (Iseminger, W R. 2010. Cahokia Mounds: America's First City. The History Press. Charleston. p.21)
  2. (Iseminger, W R. 2010. Cahokia Mounds: America's First City. The History Press. Charleston. p.21)
  3. (Milner, Chaplin and Zavodny 2013)
  4. (Milner, Chaplin and Zavodny 2013)
  5. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  6. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  7. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  8. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  9. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  10. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  11. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  12. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  13. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
  14. (Milner 2006, 98)
  15. (Iseminger 2014, 26)
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  17. (Peregrine 2014, 32)
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  19. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
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  21. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
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  25. (Iseminger 2010, 24) Iseminger, W R. 2010. Cahokia Mounds: America's First City. The History Press. Charleston.
  26. (Blitz and Port 2013, 89-95)
  27. (Iseminger 2010, 24) Iseminger, W R. 2010. Cahokia Mounds: America's First City. The History Press. Charleston.
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  29. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
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  31. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
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  33. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
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  35. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
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  37. (Blitz and Porth 2013, 89-95)
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  42. (Milner, Chaplin and Zavodny 2013, 96-97) Milner, George, George Chaplin, and Emily Zavodny. 2013. “Conflict and Societal Change in Late Prehistoric Eastern North America.” Evolutionary Anthropology 22: 96-102. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/PAF8KM8K/itemKey/QR77EGA6
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  45. (Peregrine 2014, personal communication)
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  47. (Milner, Chaplin and Zavodny 2013, 96-97) Milner, George, George Chaplin, and Emily Zavodny. 2013. “Conflict and Societal Change in Late Prehistoric Eastern North America.” Evolutionary Anthropology 22: 96-102. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/PAF8KM8K/itemKey/QR77EGA6
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  50. (Milner, Chaplin and Zavodny 2013, 96-97) Milner, George, George Chaplin, and Emily Zavodny. 2013. “Conflict and Societal Change in Late Prehistoric Eastern North America.” Evolutionary Anthropology 22: 96-102. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/PAF8KM8K/itemKey/QR77EGA6
  51. (Milner, Chaplin and Zavodny 2013, 96-97) Milner, George, George Chaplin, and Emily Zavodny. 2013. “Conflict and Societal Change in Late Prehistoric Eastern North America.” Evolutionary Anthropology 22: 96-102. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/PAF8KM8K/itemKey/QR77EGA6
  52. (Milner, Chaplin and Zavodny 2013, 96-97) Milner, George, George Chaplin, and Emily Zavodny. 2013. “Conflict and Societal Change in Late Prehistoric Eastern North America.” Evolutionary Anthropology 22: 96-102. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/PAF8KM8K/itemKey/QR77EGA6
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