USIllin

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Jenny Reddish ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Early Illinois Confederation ♥ Inoca.[1]

♠ Alternative names ♣ Early Illinois, Illiniwek, Illini, Liniouek, Aliniouek, Iliniouek ♥ [2]

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1640-1717 CE ♥ 1640 does not correspond with the actual "beginning" of this quasi-polity, but, rather, with the earliest written records describing the Illinois Confederacy.[3] Small numbers of French explorers, missionaries, and traders were present from the 1670s onwards,[4] but it was not until 1717 (the beginning of Walthall and Emerson's 'colonization period') that the Illinois Country was incorporated into the French colony of Louisiane, and there was a 'florescence of French activity in the Mississippi Valley'.[5]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥ "Though they are often described as a confederacy [...] and sometimes assembled into very large settlements that incorporated several tribes, there is no evidence of any overall intertribal organization or political institutions like those found among the Creeks or the League of the Iroquois" [6].

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ nominal allegiance: 1673-1717 CE ♥ In 1663, 'New France is declared a royal colony. Eight years later [i.e. 1671], France claims title to the unexplored Illinois Country',[7] although they did not enter it until 1673.[8] The complex French relationship to Indian societies in the American mid-continent has been discussed by Gilles Havard, who characterizes it as one of 'unequal alliance' or 'protection' of the Indians by the French crown, in which Indian sovereignty was generally retained.[9]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Oneota ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ population migration ♥ Hall refers to 'new knowledge of the archaeological identity of the Illinois that suggests that the Illinois had a much shallower history of occupation in Illinois than previously believed and were more likely indigenous to a location in or near the Lake Erie basin than that of Lake Michigan'.[10] Emerson and Brown write: 'What is clear ... is that the historic groups encountered by the French in Illinois were themselves newcomers, with little connection to the prehistoric inhabitants'.[11] The Huber Oneota phase is 'now believed to have died out by the 1630s'.[12]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Late Illinois Confederation ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ none ♥ Quasi-polity: "The Illinois or Illiniwek Nation consisted of several independent American Indian tribes that spoke a common language, had similar ways of life, and shared a large territory in the central Mississippi River valley" [13].


♠ Language ♣ Miami Illinois ♥ [14]

General Description

Our early Illinois period refers to the span of time from 1640 CE, the approximate date of the first European written reports of the Illinois (also known as Inoca, Illiniwek, Illini) Indians,[15] to 1717, when the Illinois Country was incorporated into the French colony of Louisiane.[16] From the 1660s and 1670s onwards, France claimed title to the Illinois Country (Pays des Illinois) as part of its North American colonial possessions, but French presence in the region before 1717 was generally limited to small numbers of missionaries and traders.[17] In this early contact period, the Illinois were theoretically under the 'protection' of the French crown, but in practice maintained their autonomy.[18] The region referred to as the Illinois Country in both modern and older sources was located to the east of the Middle Mississippi river, bounded to the north by Lake Michigan, to the south by the Ohio river, and to the west by the Wabash.[19] However, it is likely that the Illinois-speaking groups encountered by Europeans in the 17th century had arrived in this area relatively recently, possibly migrating westwards from the Lake Erie basin.[20]

Population and political organization

Despite the use of the term 'Illinois Confederacy' to describe Illinois society, there is no indication in the written sources of intertribal political organizations such as those found among Iroquoian groups to the northeast in the same period.[21] Political leadership was provided by both peace chiefs - who played important diplomatic roles, such as conducting calumet (peace pipe) ceremonies for visitors, but had relatively little formal authority - and war chiefs, who organized raids on other settlements.[22][23]
In the post-contact period (specifically in the late 17th century), the Illinois formed large villages close to French forts and trading posts, most notably the Grand Village of the Kaskaskia.[24] It has traditionally been assumed that these large settlements, which included Illinois speakers from various subgroups as well as Chickasaws, Shawnees and others, functioned almost as refugee centres as the Illinois fled attacks from the Iroquois to the east and clustered together in the wake of disease and depopulation.[25][26] Historian Robert Morrissey has offered an alternative interpretation, arguing that the large Illinois villages represented an aggressive 'bid for power' based on bison hunting and slave raiding and strategically positioned between the woodlands to the east and the grasslands of the west.[27] Nevertheless, what is not in doubt is that the Illinois suffered drastic population losses in the post-contact period, falling from around 12,000 people in 1680 to just 1,900 by 1763.[28]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Agathe Dupeyron; Kalin Bullman ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [14,000-19,000] ♥ in squared kilometers. Map in Bauxar in B. Trigger, Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 15: Northeast (1978), pp. 596 197981.19 sq. km estimate calculated using Google Area Calculator.[175,000-225,000]: 1650-1700CE A group of 12 related villages or tribes = to be divided by 12? result would be 16,666 sq km per polity. New estimate: 14,000-19,000 to account for a 'typical' Illinois polity.

♠ Polity Population ♣ [8,000-12,000]: 1700 CE; [600-300]: 1800 CE ♥ People. AD: Estimates given at century marks. Real code is: 10,000: 1673 CE; 300: 1832 CE "In 1673, the Illinois were a large, powerful group of tribes that numbered more than 10,000 people and occupied a vast territory. However, in 1832, when they ceded the last of their Illinois lands to the United States, they had been reduced, in the State of Illinois, to a single village of fewer than 300 people" [29]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [2000-3000]: 1600CE ♥ Inhabitants. "In eastern North America, densities were higher on average, although individual settlements rarely exceeded 2,000 people. For instance, Jacques Cartier met 1,000 people at the large Iroquoian village of Hochelaga on the St. Lawrence River in 1535 (Pendergast 1998) and other Mohawk and Huron villages in the early 17th century averaged 600-1,700 people (Chilton, this volume; Muller 1997:table 5.6). Likewise, some 1,000 or more people lived at one of the largest Mississippian towns in Alabama (Steponaitis 1998), while an uncounted number of Plains villages, Illinois-valley towns, and St. Francis-type central Mississippian centers had populations of hundreds to perhaps 2,000 people each (e.g., Conrad 1991; Phillips et al. 1951)." [30] useful consideration of population densities to use in our estimates. AD

"Jacques Marquette's opportunity to visit the Illinois finally arose in 1673, when he accompanied Louis Jolliet, a young Canadian fur trader, on an expedition to explore the Mississippi River. [...] The explorers held council with the "great Captain" or chief of the Illinois, where they smoked the chief's calumet, exchanged gifts, made speeches, and feasted on servings of corn, fish, and bison. The chief's village consisted of 300 lodges and was called "pe8area" or "peouarea" (Peoria)." [31]

"When visited by Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette in 1673, three villages of Peoria and Tapouaro on the Iowa river had a total population of 8,000; and the village of the Kaskaskia on the Illinois River consisted of 74 lodges, representing about 1,200 persons [...]. René-Robert Cavelier de la Salle in 1680 found all or part of 11 Illinois tribes living at the 'Grand Kaskaskia Village', then grown to 460 lodges (Hennepin 1880: 153). There were also 200 families (about 3,000 individuals) of Tamaroa on the Mississippi (Margry 1876-1886, 1:506, 479)."[32]

Pimitéoui population in the 1690S: 3,500 individuals, 6 groups, 260-300 lodges. [33] Village left in 1700. Kaskaskia community of about 60 lodges in early 1700s. In 1714, epidemic reducing the population to one fourth. Tamaroas (part of the Illinois confederacy) in 1682 had 180+ lodges, in 1700 it had about 30 lodges. in 1700 the Cahokia moved close to the Tamaroas and the two villages were composed of some 90 lodges. [34]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [1-3] ♥ levels. [35]

1. Semipermanent summer villages

PT: levels 2 and 3 below should not be counted because they are impermanent hunting camps. Additionally, why should summer and winter camps count as _separate_ levels?

2. Summer hunting camps
3. Winter camps

The Illinois had about 60 villages in 1660CE. [36]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 2 ♥ levels.

1. Peace chief
"Political leadership was provided by peace chiefs, who were highly respected by tribal members and who were responsible for directing communal hunting expeditions and for interacting with the leaders or representatives of other ethnic groups. [...] Peace chiefs had relatively little power and authority; they presided over the tribe using persuasion rather than force" [37].
2. Village chief
Suggested by the following quote: "The role of [peace] chief was generally reserved for men, although women of influence sometimes became village chiefs" [38].

♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels. [39]

1. Shamans

♠ Military levels ♣ 2 ♥ levels.

1. War chief
"The Illinois also had war chiefs, men who planned and directed raids on other tribes. Any aspiring warrior could become a war chief, but only if he could convince his fellow warriors that his personal animal spirit (war manitou) would protect the war party and ensure victory. The authority of a war chief was strictly limited to the duration of his expedition, and he was allowed to lead new expeditions only if his previous raids were successful" [40].
2. Warriors

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥ War chiefs existed [41], but nothing suggests that they could be fairly equated to "professional military officers".

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists. probably unknown

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No known writing system.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥ probably unknown

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ [absent; present] ♥ "Some evidence suggests that each village included a very large lodge used for ritual and perhaps for a council house".[42]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ absent ♥ "The statute-book, the judiciary, and courts of law with their prisons and instruments of punishment, were unknown" [43].

♠ Judges ♣ absent ♥ "The statute-book, the judiciary, and courts of law with their prisons and instruments of punishment, were unknown" [44].

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥ "The statute-book, the judiciary, and courts of law with their prisons and instruments of punishment, were unknown" [45].

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Though contemporary sources do not mention the specific absence of lawyers, they say that "[t]he statute-book, the judiciary, and courts of law with their prisons and instruments of punishment, were unknown" [46].

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature, probably not necessary in this geographic region? Inference confirmed by Peter Peregrine.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Although there were important highways (often called "warpaths") across over- land areas in Historie times, water transportation appears to have been at least as important. Large canoes are documented in historical times, and archaeological finds elsewhere in the Southeast have shown that prehistoric Mississippian people made similar vessels." [47]

"The specifics regarding overland transportation before the early 1800s in Illinois are not well documented, however. Only recently have we have begun to recognize the importance of such trails in the formation of early American settlements, and in particular, the importance of a single trail that formed a link between the old French villages in the American Bottom and the fur trading communities at Peoria Lake. Before his death in 1907, Springfield historian Zimri Enos began writing an article about an “old Indian trail” that passed immediately east of Springfield (figure 3.6). He remembered faint trace of the trail from his childhood in the 1830s. Former Illinois governor and early pioneer John Reynolds had provided the best period description of the trail, when he wrote of its use in a campaign against the Kickapoo and Potawatomi during the War of 1812. It was from this campaign that the trail became known as Edwards’ Trace after Territorial Governor Ninian Edwards, who led the militia up the old road. In the late nineteenth century, Enos was able to plot its course from Edwardsville (on the northern edge of the American Bottom) to just north of Springfield. He knew, as Reynolds and others had remembered, that the trail ultimately found its way to Peoria. Finally, in 1986, historian John Mack Faragher reminded us of the importance of the road, along which the first settler of Sangamon County (Robert Pulliam) had built a cabin in 1817.12 In the late 1980s, I began to look at the land purchase and county court records of Sangamon County, and I found that the trail crossed through the heart of the earliest settlements associated with the San- gamo Country.13 The fledging county government also recognized that the road’s improvement was one of the first orders of business upon the creation of Sangamon County. Clearly, the old Indian trail not only predated American settlement of the region, but it actually helped shape that settlement." [48] "There were no formal “ports”, although rivers were major transportation routes. There was an extensive network of footpaths that crisscrossed Eastern North America as one of your quotes suggests. I wouldn’t really call them roads, though. Most of them paralleled rivers and were unimproved or informal—they simply represented the best route between locations and so were used over and over. They were not part of a formally planned transportation system." [49]

♠ Bridges ♣ inferred absent ♥ Bridge present in 1735 but probably built by the French settlers. "The 1735 map also illustrates a bridge over Riviere du Pont connecting with the road to Falling Springs, where the missionaries had built a water mill." [50]
♠ Canals ♣ absent ♥ not mentioned in the literature and not visible archaeologically. Inference approved by Peter Peregrine.
♠ Ports ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Most of the movement between the American Bottom and Peoria occurred on the water—up and down the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Canoes and bateaux of the seventeenth and eighteenth century were capable of transporting tons of cargo, and the lack of rapids and the slow currents of these rivers presented few problems for upstream travel. Further, throughout most of human history in North America, most people spent much of their time in the river valleys, where game, water, and rich soils were abundant." [51] "There were no formal “ports”, although rivers were major transportation routes. There was an extensive network of footpaths that crisscrossed Eastern North America as one of your quotes suggests. I wouldn’t really call them roads, though. Most of them paralleled rivers and were unimproved or informal—they simply represented the best route between locations and so were used over and over. They were not part of a formally planned transportation system." [52]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ "Not sure about Mill Creek but there were still quarries being used; indeed Blood Run has a lot of material from the Pipestone National Monument in Minnesota as I recall, so that was certainly a “mine” of sorts." [53]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ present ♥ The burial grounds "of distinguished war chiefs were marked by an upright tree trunk, painted to record their exploits. To this was tied a small log for each enemy killed by the person it commemorated" [54].
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ The burial grounds "of distinguished war chiefs were marked by an upright tree trunk, painted to record their exploits. To this was tied a small log for each enemy killed by the person it commemorated" [55].
♠ Written records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Script ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ History ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Money

♠ Articles ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Edward A L Turner; Kalin Bullman ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥ "The Illinois made tools and utensils out of many different materials obtained from nature, including wood, bone, antler, shell, and stone."[56]
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ "The Illinois made tools and utensils out of many different materials obtained from nature, including wood, bone, antler, shell, and stone."[57]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ "The Illinois made tools and utensils out of many different materials obtained from nature, including wood, bone, antler, shell, and stone."[58]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ "The Illinois made tools and utensils out of many different materials obtained from nature, including wood, bone, antler, shell, and stone."[59]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ Sources only mention bows and arrows, muskets, war-clubs, knives, and hatchets[60]. It should be noted that sources that specifically describe the way the Illinois Confederation waged war are relatively rare.
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ Sources only mention bows and arrows, muskets, war-clubs, knives, and hatchets[61]. It should be noted that sources that specifically describe the way the Illinois Confederation waged war are relatively rare.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred absent ♥ Sources only mention bows and arrows, muskets, war-clubs, knives, and hatchets[62]. It should be noted that sources that specifically describe the way the Illinois Confederation waged war are relatively rare.
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Bow type not specified [63].
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Sources only mention bows and arrows, muskets, war-clubs, knives, and hatchets[64]. It should be noted that sources that specifically describe the way the Illinois Confederation waged war are relatively rare.
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Sources only mention bows and arrows, muskets, war-clubs, knives, and hatchets[65]. It should be noted that sources that specifically describe the way the Illinois Confederation waged war are relatively rare.
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred absent ♥ Sources only mention bows and arrows, muskets, war-clubs, knives, and hatchets[66]. It should be noted that sources that specifically describe the way the Illinois Confederation waged war are relatively rare.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred absent ♥ Sources only mention bows and arrows, muskets, war-clubs, knives, and hatchets[67]. It should be noted that sources that specifically describe the way the Illinois Confederation waged war are relatively rare.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ inferred absent ♥ Sources only mention bows and arrows, muskets, war-clubs, knives, and hatchets[68]. It should be noted that sources that specifically describe the way the Illinois Confederation waged war are relatively rare.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ present ♥ Muskets acquired from Iroquois and Ottawa middlemen, who themselves had acquired the guns from French traders: it is worth noting that the Illinois "possessed an insufficient supply of ammunition and so had to rely mainly on bows and arrows and clubs for actual combat" [69].

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ "The Illinois war-club was made of wood or antler, and was shaped like a cutlass-type sword with a large ball at the striking end" [70].
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ "Warriors also carried knives, hatchets, and war-clubs."[71].
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "Warriors also carried knives, hatchets, and war-clubs."[72].
♠ Swords ♣ inferred absent ♥ Sources only mention bows and arrows, muskets, war-clubs, knives, and hatchets[73]. It should be noted that sources that specifically describe the way the Illinois Confederation waged war are relatively rare.
♠ Spears ♣ inferred absent ♥ Sources only mention bows and arrows, muskets, war-clubs, knives, and hatchets[74]. It should be noted that sources that specifically describe the way the Illinois Confederation waged war are relatively rare.
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred absent ♥ Sources only mention bows and arrows, muskets, war-clubs, knives, and hatchets[75]. It should be noted that sources that specifically describe the way the Illinois Confederation waged war are relatively rare.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned by sources.[76][77]
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥
♠ Horses ♣ ♥
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Sources only mention shields[78]. It should be noted that sources that specifically describe the way the Illinois Confederation waged war are relatively rare. Shields made using some wood? 1000-1650 CE period but may not apply in Cahokia region: "Braves of some of eastern North American Indian nations wore wooden armor that worked well enough against arrows ... This wooden armor was quickly abandoned, along with the bows and arrows, once firearms were widely adopted in the 17th century."[79]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred absent ♥ Sources only mention shields[80]. It should be noted that sources that specifically describe the way the Illinois Confederation waged war are relatively rare.
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ "To protect themselves in battle, warriors carried large, arrow-proof shields made of bison hide."[81].
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred absent ♥ Sources only mention shields[82]. It should be noted that sources that specifically describe the way the Illinois Confederation waged war are relatively rare.
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred absent ♥ Sources only mention shields[83]. It should be noted that sources that specifically describe the way the Illinois Confederation waged war are relatively rare.
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred absent ♥ Sources only mention shields[84]. It should be noted that sources that specifically describe the way the Illinois Confederation waged war are relatively rare.
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ "The Illinois made tools and utensils out of many different materials obtained from nature, including wood, bone, antler, shell, and stone."[85]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ "The Illinois made tools and utensils out of many different materials obtained from nature, including wood, bone, antler, shell, and stone."[86]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ "The Illinois made tools and utensils out of many different materials obtained from nature, including wood, bone, antler, shell, and stone."[87]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ "The Illinois made tools and utensils out of many different materials obtained from nature, including wood, bone, antler, shell, and stone."[88]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned by sources[89].
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned by sources[90].
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned by sources[91].

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred absent ♥ In terms of settlement organisation, the main defensive strategy seems to have been to construct larger villages[92].
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred absent ♥ In terms of settlement organisation, the main defensive strategy seems to have been to construct larger villages[93].
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred absent ♥ In terms of settlement organisation, the main defensive strategy seems to have been to construct larger villages[94].
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred absent ♥ In terms of settlement organisation, the main defensive strategy seems to have been to construct larger villages[95].
♠ Moat ♣ inferred absent ♥ In terms of settlement organisation, the main defensive strategy seems to have been to construct larger villages[96].
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ In terms of settlement organisation, the main defensive strategy seems to have been to construct larger villages[97].
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ In terms of settlement organisation, the main defensive strategy seems to have been to construct larger villages[98].
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred absent ♥ In terms of settlement organisation, the main defensive strategy seems to have been to construct larger villages[99].
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred absent ♥ In terms of settlement organisation, the main defensive strategy seems to have been to construct larger villages.[100].
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Jenny Reddish ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ inferred absent ♥ 'Government' in the Illinois case could possibly be interpreted as those who held council meetings to make collective decisions.[101] It seems unlikely that council members had a legally defined right to constrain the executive's actions, because the Illinois lacked formalized political institutions: 'there is no evidence of any overall intertribal organization or political institutions like those found among the Creeks or the League of the Iroquois'.[102] Commenting generally on contact-period North America, Nichols writes that '[m]ost Indian groups lacked the formal hierarchy Europeans took for granted. Civil chiefs, usually older men, made local decisions after often lengthy discussion brought consensus'.[103]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ inferred absent ♥ It seems unlikely that there were legally defined rights to constrain the executive, because the Illinois lacked formalized political institutions: 'there is no evidence of any overall intertribal organization or political institutions like those found among the Creeks or the League of the Iroquois'.[104] Commenting generally on contact-period North America, Nichols writes that '[m]ost Indian groups lacked the formal hierarchy Europeans took for granted. Civil chiefs, usually older men, made local decisions after often lengthy discussion brought consensus'.[105]
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥ It seems unlikely that there was a legally defined impeachment procedure, because the Illinois lacked formalized political institutions: 'there is no evidence of any overall intertribal organization or political institutions like those found among the Creeks or the League of the Iroquois'.[106] Commenting generally on contact-period North America, Nichols writes that '[m]ost Indian groups lacked the formal hierarchy Europeans took for granted. Civil chiefs, usually older men, made local decisions after often lengthy discussion brought consensus'.[107]

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ {absent; present} ♥ At the Zimmerman site, otherwise known as the 'Grand Village of the Illinois', 'brass coils, tubes, and glass beads are found' in children's burials.[108] Likewise, during their 1711-1722 occupation of the Starved Rock site, members of the Peoria tribe buried an infant with a necklace of ten brass Jesuit rings and 'several strings of glass beads'.[109] In other contexts (for instance 4th-millennium BCE Anatolia),[110] archaeologists have linked the presence of prestige goods in juvenile burials to hereditary inequality. On the other hand, the Illinois State Museum website states that 'Illinois society was traditionally egalitarian, which means that all individuals had more-or-less equal access to resources and political power'.[111]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Jenny Reddish; Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred absent ♥ 'Illinois society was traditionally egalitarian, which means that all individuals had more-or-less equal access to resources and political power. Political leaders (chiefs) were influential individuals chosen based on their ability to maintain social well-being.'[112] However: 'Any aspiring warrior could become a war chief, but only if he could convince his fellow warriors that his personal animal spirit (war manitou) would protect the war party and ensure victory'.[113]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ inferred absent ♥ 'Illinois society was traditionally egalitarian, which means that all individuals had more-or-less equal access to resources and political power. Political leaders (chiefs) were influential individuals chosen based on their ability to maintain social well-being.'[114]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ inferred present ♥ 'Illinois society was traditionally egalitarian, which means that all individuals had more-or-less equal access to resources and political power. Political leaders (chiefs) were influential individuals chosen based on their ability to maintain social well-being.'[115] 'Any aspiring warrior could become a war chief, but only if he could convince his fellow warriors that his personal animal spirit (war manitou) would protect the war party and ensure victory'.[116]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ inferred present ♥ 'Illinois society was traditionally egalitarian, which means that all individuals had more-or-less equal access to resources and political power. Political leaders (chiefs) were influential individuals chosen based on their ability to maintain social well-being.'[117] 'Any aspiring warrior could become a war chief, but only if he could convince his fellow warriors that his personal animal spirit (war manitou) would protect the war party and ensure victory'.[118]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred present ♥ 'Illinois society was traditionally egalitarian, which means that all individuals had more-or-less equal access to resources and political power. Political leaders (chiefs) were influential individuals chosen based on their ability to maintain social well-being.'[119] 'Any aspiring warrior could become a war chief, but only if he could convince his fellow warriors that his personal animal spirit (war manitou) would protect the war party and ensure victory'.[120]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to Winnebago oral traditions, when the Winnebago 'suffered a series of disasters about 1640, including the accidental drowning of a large war party, a deadly epidemic disease, and a relentless attack by the Fox (Mesquakie) tribe', an Illinois war party of 500 men took pity on them and 'carried a large supply of food to the Winnebago village but the Winnebago responded by killing all of their Illinois guests. The Illinois retaliated several years later, killing or capturing all but a few of the Winnebago.' This particular act of charity ended in violence, but it does show that the Illinois donated food on a large scale to their neighbours in need.[121]

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [122] [123] [124]

References

  1. Illinois State Museum, The Illinois, Identity (2000), http://www.museum.state.il.us/muslink/nat_amer/post/htmls/hi_decline.html
  2. Illinois State Museum, The Illinois, Identity (2000), http://www.museum.state.il.us/muslink/nat_amer/post/htmls/hi_decline.html
  3. Illinois State Museum, The Illinois, History (2000), http://www.museum.state.il.us/muslink/nat_amer/post/htmls/il_hi.html
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