TrPhryg

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Jedrzej Hordecki; Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Phrygian Kingdom ♥ Phrygian is a Greek name and name of kingdom Muški appeared in Assyrian texts[1]. Original name is unknown because there is no Phrygian sources telling about it.

♠ Alternative names ♣ Phrygie; Frygia; Phrygien; Muski ♥ ... this is not machine readable.

♠ Peak Date ♣ 738-696 BCE ♥ The period when the king of Phrygia was Midas. It is the period when Assyrian sources tell about this kingdom, and Phrygia won the war against Assyria[2]. "Like the kingdom over which it ruled, Gordium reached the peak of its development during Midas's reign." [3]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 900-695 BCE ♥

"The New Chronology of Iron Age Gordion argues that the history and archaeology of the site of Gordion, in central Turkey, have been misunderstood since the beginning of its excavation in the 1950s. The first excavation director, Rodney Young, found evidence for substantial destruction during the first decade of fieldwork; this was interpreted as proof that Gordion had been destroyed ca. 700 B.C. by the Kimmerians, a group of invaders from the Caucusus/Black Sea region, as attested in several ancient literary sources. During the last decade, however, renewed research on the archaeological evidence, within, above, and below the destruction level indicated that the catastrophe that destroyed much of Gordion occurred 100 years earlier, in 800 B.C., and was the result of a fire that quickly got out of control rather than a foreign invasion."[4]

"According to Greek tradition, the earliest Phrygians were immigrants from Macedon and Thrace. ... In all probability, the references to the Phrygians in the Iliad are anachronistic. The arrival of this people in Anatolia almost certainly dates to the early Iron Age, to the decade immediately following the Hittite kingdom's collapse early in the 12th century. ... Probably by the end of the millennium, a Phrygian state had begun to evolve." [5]

From the beginning of Early Phrygian period, according to Gordion stratigraphy [6], to the conquest by Lydian Kingdom[7].

Conquest by Lydia after Gordion sacked by Cimmerians 695 BCE.

695 BCE: sacked by Cimmerians. Then subject to Lydia. Not a Neo-Hittite state.

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose ♥ Cities had autonomy, however they stayed in Phrygian Kingdom[8].

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

Alliance

"union between the Phrygians and an eastern Anatolian people called the Mushki. ... a fierce, aggressive, tribal people..." Not all scholars agree there was a union "But the balance of scholarly opinion favours the assumption of a united Mushki-Phrygian kingdom, formed some time in the 8th century." [9]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Tabal Kingdoms ♥ "According to Greek tradition, the earliest Phrygians were immigrants from Macedon and Thrace. ... In all probability, the references to the Phrygians in the Iliad are anachronistic. The arrival of this people in Anatolia almost certainly dates to the early Iron Age, to the decade immediately following the Hittite kingdom's collapse early in the 12th century. ... Probably by the end of the millennium, a Phrygian state had begun to evolve." [10]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ "According to Greek tradition, the earliest Phrygians were immigrants from Macedon and Thrace. ... In all probability, the references to the Phrygians in the Iliad are anachronistic. The arrival of this people in Anatolia almost certainly dates to the early Iron Age, to the decade immediately following the Hittite kingdom's collapse early in the 12th century. ... Probably by the end of the millennium, a Phrygian state had begun to evolve." [11]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Konya Plain - Cimmerian Period ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Gordion ♥ Capital of Midas's kingdom (Mushki-Phrygian union) at Gordium, assumed to have been named after Midas's father. Earlier names are unknown. [12]

♠ Language ♣ Phrygian ♥ Indo-European language family, uses Greek alphabetic script[13]. Phrygian language. Indo-European. [14]

General Description

The Phrygian Kingdom (c900-695 BCE) came into existence after the migration of a people to Anatolia in the early Iron Age, after the fall of the Hittite Empire.[15] The name the people called themselves is unknown because there are no Phrygian sources telling us about it. 'Phrygian' is a Greek name while Assyrian texts refer to a Muški kingdom[16] "a fierce, aggressive, tribal people" who could be a separate people or a people who formed a union with the Phrygians in the 8th century.[17] The kingdom's most developed phase occurred under king Midas who ruled from the city of Gordium in the late 8th century.[18]

We cannot say much about the organization of Phrygia at its peak development except that it was a monarchy that ruled from Gordium, a town of perhaps 20,000 inhabitants. The capital of Midas's hypothesized Mushki-Phrygian union is assumed to have been named after Midas's father. Earlier names in the dynasty are unknown.[19] Archaeologist know of three political documents but have not been able to decipher them. The Phrygian language is not known, and its similarity to Greek languages has only allowed for fragments of texts to be understood.

While we nothing about a central (palace based?) administration that may have been present archaeologists believe that other cities in Phrygia had their own governments[20] and a great deal of autonomy.[21] The biggest cities had governors.[22]

The beginning date for the Phrygian period is somewhat arbitrary, based on archaeological records. The end of the Phrygian period, however, is clearly marked by a conquest - it is the year when the Phrygian Kingdom was conquered by the Lydian Kingdom, which de facto put an end to the existence of the Phrygian period.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Jedrzej Hordecki ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 100,000 ♥ squared kilometers. It is a hypothetical number calculated from the map of Phrygia.

♠ Polity Population ♣ [1,000,000-1,500,000] ♥

By 500 BC, Turkey contained 3 million Phyrgians and Neo-Hittites (Lydians, Carians).[23]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [15,000-20,000] ♥ Gordion. 100 ha * 200 per ha is 20,000.

Gordion: total settlement area at peak (eighth century BCE) 1 km2. [24]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥

1. Capital

2. Town
3.

The number of settlements and their sizes are unknown. We can just identify two big cities (Gordion, Ankyra), and some other sites with Phrygian layers, but their function in settlement net is unknown[25].

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [4-5] ♥

1. King

2. Central administration?
3.
4.
2. Governors of biggest cities [26].
3. Local government
There was a king in Gordion, and the other cities had local authorities and governments[27]
4.
5.

♠ Religious levels ♣ [1-3] ♥

1.

2.
3.

We do not know a lot about the cult and we know nothing about its organisation[28].

♠ Military levels ♣ 4 ♥

Likely had at the least king - commander - officer - individual soldier.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥ Present for the New Kingdom Hatti which preceded the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: "the core of the defence force was a full-time, professional standing army. ... They lived together in military barracks, so that they could be mobilized at a moment's notice."[29]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥ Present for the New Kingdom Hatti which preceded the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: "the core of the defence force was a full-time, professional standing army. ... They lived together in military barracks, so that they could be mobilized at a moment's notice."[30]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There was a king in Gordion, and the other cities had local authorities and governments,[31] but this does not necessarily mean there were full-time bureaucrats.

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There was a king in Gordion, and the other cities had local authorities and governments,[32] but this does not necessarily mean there were specialized government buildings.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥ unknown. Coded present for New Kingdom of Hatti and inferred present for Neo-Hittites. However, the Phyrgians were not Neo-Hittites.

♠ Judges ♣ ♥ unknown. Coded present for New Kingdom of Hatti and inferred present for Neo-Hittites. However, the Phyrgians were not Neo-Hittites.

♠ Courts ♣ ♥ unknown. Coded present for New Kingdom of Hatti and inferred present for Neo-Hittites. However, the Phyrgians were not Neo-Hittites.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥ unknown

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Known from Gordion economy[33].
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ markets ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ at Gordion?

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Road conducted to Gordion[34].
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Bridges known near the capital city[35].
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥ unknown

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥ Rock-cut shrines[36].

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ [37]
♠ Script ♣ inferred present ♥ Greek alphabetic script[38]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Greek alphabetic [39].
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ They used the Greek alphabet[40].

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ literacy + government
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥ literacy + government
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Dedication to Matar[41] Votive inscriptions[42]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Political documents, epitaphs[43]
♠ History ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Elites took taxes by goods[44].
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Jedrzej Hordecki; Thomas Cressy ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ used in bronze
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ bronze swords have been uncovered in Anatolia during this time[45]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ iron swords have been uncovered in Anatolia during this time[46]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Not known to have been in use here yet

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Gaebel (referring to New Kingdom Hittites) thinks it is "probable that the Hittite chariots carried javelin throwers and archers."[47] We currently have no closer reference than this, except for Lydia which follows.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ weapon of the Americas
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Known from Phrygian drawings[48]. ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region.[49]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[50]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records.[51] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone".[52] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE.[53] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did.[54] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE.[55] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons.[56] There is no direct evidence for catapults for this time/location. The aforementioned evidence we currently have covering the wider ancient world suggests they were probably not used at this time, perhaps because effective machines had not been invented yet.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Present, but appear only in the context of hunting[57].
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region.[58]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Known from Phrygian drawings.[59]. ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region.[60] "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier's primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken."[61]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Known from Phrygian drawings.[62] ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region.[63] Spear-using phalanx first used in Sumer 2500 BCE. The phalanx was in use until the 1st century BCE.[64]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥ no record of such weapons

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Dogs are known only from drawings depicting hunting[65].
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ use as Pack Animals appears by around 7000 BC onward [66]
♠ Horses ♣ inferred present ♥ Based on previous polities, it is clear horses were a large part of warfare in the region, particularly chariots
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Bactrian Camels' first used in battle 853 BC by the nearby Assyrians, but no evidence of use in Tabal [67]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for use in warfare yet, so I changed the code from unknown to absent

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Rounded helmet with a high crest[68]. ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region.[69] Which polity does this quote reference?
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Closest reference in Anatolia is the Hittite period.[70] In Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply."[71] Mesopotamia (the Assyrians) c800 BCE?: iron plates used for shin protection.[72]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples.[73]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region.[74]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ boats had been in use for thousands of years in this NGA
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ A citadel in Gordion[75].
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Yassıhöyük ‘To the northwest of the Citadel lies a large Outer Town partially or completely enclosed by an earth rampart.’[76]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in the literature
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in the literature
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ Urartu’s craftsmen used iron picks and hammers to forge horizontal planes out of bedrock on which to erect the empire’s numerous and imposing stone fortresses.[77]‘Brian Rose provided a better definition of the walled Lower Town to the south of the Citadel and confirmed the presence of a similar area to the north that had been suspected based on massive stone walls in the Sakarya River bed’[78]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Around the citadel in Gordion, but stone walls appear to have been shaped with iron picks and hammers rather than mortar. [79].
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Citadel in Gordion.
♠ Long walls ♣ 7 ♥ 'Occupation seems to have ended when the main buildings at the site were burned and the seven-kilometer defensive wall was razed, apparently as a single event sometime in the mid-sixth century b.c.e. (other than phrygian graffiti, little to differentiate from other areas)[80]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Cannon equipped reinforced star forts are not yet in use

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥ Unknown?
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥ Unknown?
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥ Unknown?

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Dynastic rule.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣inferred absent♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣inferred absent♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣inferred present♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣inferred present♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣inferred present♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣inferred present♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣[absent;present]♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣inferred absent♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣inferred present♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣inferred present♥

For a detailed description, refer to the Seshat History of Moralizing Religion [81]

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