TrOttm3

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Ottoman Empire II ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Ottoman Dynasty; Osmanli Dynasty; Othman Dynasty ♥ Western, Turkish, Arabic derived spelling of the name.[1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1520-1566 CE ♥ Suleiman I, referred to as "The Magnificent" and "The Lawgiver."


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1517-1683 CE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Ottoman Empire I ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Ottoman Empire III ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Turkish ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [4,500,000-5,000,000] ♥ km squared. Figure includes Anatolia, Transoxania, Persia, West Eurasian Steppe.

♠ Capital ♣ Istanbul ♥


♠ Language ♣ Turkish ♥ On a regional non-governing basis: "in no province of the Empire was there a unique language."[2] Other languages: Slavonic, Greek, Albanian, romance-speaking Vlachs, Greek, Armenian, Kurdish, Arabic, Persian.[3][4]

General Description

In the 15th century CE, the Turkic Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II conquered Constantinople, took from the last vestiges of the defeated Roman Empire the famous title 'caesar', and added to it the grandiose title 'ruler of the two continents and the two seas'.[5] However, it was Suleiman I (1520-1566 CE) who earned his sobriquets 'the Magnificent' and 'the Lawgiver' when he reformed the Ottoman system of government, codified Ottoman secular law, and extended the Ottoman Empire into Europe as far as Vienna.

Population and political organization

The Ottoman Empire was a hereditary dynasty under the rule of an Ottoman Sultan.[6] The Ottoman 'slave-elite' differed from that of the Mamluk Sultanate in that the Ottoman slaves could never achieve the position of sultan, which remained the hereditary property of the Osman dynasty. With its capital in Istanbul, the main organ of state power was the 'elaborate court, palace, and household government'.[7] Policy-making was weakly institutionalized: in theory, all decisions were made by the sultan himself, and so Ottoman policies were shaped by the sultan's personal character and by the 'individuals or factions who had his ear'.[8] The sultans appointed their own staff and paid them with a wage or (increasingly after 1600 CE) a fief.[9] State funding came in large part from money raised by fief holders until Grand Vizier Ibrahim Pasha Kulliyesi (in office from 1718 CE) introduced a property tax.[10]
The administrative and military officials around the sultan were slaves educated in palace schools.[11] The source of this non-Turkish administrative class was the devsirme tribute, which began in 1438 CE; by the 16th century about 1,000 boys were taken per year per recruiting province in the Balkans and non-Muslim communities in Anatolia. The system divided these slaves into those who would serve the bureaucracy and those who would form the elite military corps known as janissaries. In 1582 CE, recruits of non-devsirme origin, including free Muslims, were permitted to join the janissaries and after 1648 CE the devsirme system was no longer used to recruit for the janissaries.[12] The imperial household together with its armies and administrative officials was truly vast, numbering about 100,000 people by the 17th century.[13] The renowned Ottoman architect Sinan was a tribute slave; he notably designed the Sehzade and Süleyman külliyes (complexes of buildings including mosques and mausoleums) and the Selim Mosque at Edirne (1569-1575 CE), with its four 83-metre-high minarets.[14][15]
Ottoman sultans issued decrees through an imperial council (divan)[16] and the chief executive power below the sultan, the grand vizier.[17] Although certain regions (Egypt, for example) may have differed slightly in their governing structure, Ottoman regional government typically involved governors (beylerbeyi)[18] whose provinces were split into districts (sanjaks) under district governors (sanjak beyi).[19] The sanjak beyi also was a military commander.[20] Fief-holding soldiers were responsible for local law and order within their districts.[21] By the late 16th century, the lowest level of this system had transformed into a system of tax farms or fiefs given to non-military administrators.[22] In 1695 CE, these tax farms were 'sold as life tenures (malikane)', and later shares in tax farms were sold to the public.[23]
Ottoman law was divided into religious - Islamic sharia - and secular kanun law.[24] Kanun law essentially served to fill the gaps left by the religious legal tradition, regulating 'areas where the provisions of the sacred law were either missing or too much at at odds with reality to be applicable'.[25] In the Ottoman Empire, this included aspects of criminal law, land tenure and taxation; kanun law drew its legitimacy from precedent and custom.[26] Military judges (kadi'asker) were the heads of the empire's judiciary and heard cases brought before the imperial council.[27]
Ottoman Anatolia further enhanced many aspects of Byzantine culture. In 1331, in an attempt to spread Islam to new territories, Iranian and Egyptian scholars were brought to Iznik in northwestern Anatolia to teach at the first Ottoman college.[28] Palace schools were created to train the next generation of Ottoman officials. During the 15th and 16th centuries CE, about 500 libraries were built by sultans and high Ottoman dignitaries. These were maintained by waqf religious foundations; the majority in Istanbul, Bursa and Erdine. Initially, these were madrassa libraries and specialist libraries, but the first independent Ottoman waqf libraries were founded by the Koprulu family in 1678 CE.[29]
The Ottoman postal system (ulak) structured around postal stations (similar to the Mongol yam)[30] spanned an empire of 5.2 million square kilometres at its greatest extent,[31] with a population of approximately 28 million people in 1600 CE.[32] Istanbul likely had a population of at least 650,000 in 1600 CE.[33]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 4,836,000: 1600 CE ♥ 3,400,000: 1520 CE; 3,833,000: 1540 CE; 4,267,000: 1560 CE; 4,745,000: 1580 CE; 4,836,000: 1600 CE; 4,927,000: 1620 CE; 5,018,000: 1640 CE; 5,109,000: 1660 CE; 5,200,000: 1680 CE in squared kilometers [34]

5.2 million KM2 at greatest territorial extent. [35]

♠ Polity Population ♣ 28,000,000: 1600 CE ♥ People. 22,000,000: 1550 CE; 28,000,000: 1600 CE; 27,500,000: 1650 CE

Population of Ottoman Empire[36]

1,000,000: 1325 CE
2,500,000: 1350 CE
5,000,000: 1400 CE
7,000,000: 1450 CE
9,000,000: 1500 CE
22,000,000: 1550 CE
28,000,000: 1600 CE
27,500,000: 1650 CE
24,000,000: 1700 CE
24,000,000: 1750 CE
24,000,000: 1800 CE
25,000,000: 1850 CE
25,000,000: 1900 CE

Population growth in Anatolia. 1520-1530 CE: 872,610. 1570-1580 CE: 1,360,474. [37]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [650,000-700,000]: 1600 CE ♥ Inhabitants. 660,000: 1550 CE; 680,000: 1580 CE; [650,000-700,000]: 1600 CE; 700,000: 1650 CE

Istanbul

1600 CE: 650,000. 1700 CE: 700,000. 1800 CE: 570,000. [38]
1550 CE: 660,000. 1580 CE: 680,000. 1600 CE: 700,000. 1650 CE: 700,000. 1700 CE: 700,000. [39]

Cairo

150,000-200,000 in 1517 CE. Increased in size "by about 50 percent during the Ottoman period."[40]

Aleppo

67,344: 1519 CE; 56,881: 1520-1530 CE; 45,331: 1571-1580 CE [41]

Damascus

57,326: 1520-1530 CE; 42,779: 1595 CE [42]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 6 ♥ levels.

1. Capital city (Istanbul)

2. Provincial city
3. District city
By 16th century Sanjaks based around a town with a population of about 100,000.[43]
4. Town
5. Village
6. Nomadic tribes (Turcomans) [44]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [9-10] ♥ levels.


1. Sultan

Mehmet II also took the title "caesar" and "ruler of the two continents and the two seas"[45]
The Ottoman Empire was a dynastic state. Rule was passed on to male heir.[46]
Sultans "ruled the Empire through members of their own household, whom they had appointed to government office. This was a tendency which began probaby in the late fourteenth century, and had become very pronounced by the late fifteenth."[47]
"The sultans ruled the Empire through their court as much as through formal organs of government" and sometimes by-passed formal structures of government such as in diplomatic negotiations. "There never, it seems, was a formal mechanism for policy making. All decisions in theory were the sultan’s own. What mattered, therefore, was the character of the sultan, and the individuals or factions who had his ear."[48]
"At the center of the centralizing Ottoman state was an elaborate court, palace, and household government." [49]


_ Central government line _

2. Imperial Council (divan) under presidency of the grand vizier[50]
Issued decrees of Sultan and made less important and administrative policy decisions.[51] According to Ottoman tradition, grand vizirate may have come about after Mehmed II stopped attending meetings.[52]
3. Military judges (kadi'asker)[53]
3. Treasurers (defterdar)[54] of the Imperial Treasury of the Porte
4. Clerks under the Treasurer
Pages of the treasury were responsible to a eunuch.[55] Heads of treasury administration, chancery services etc. [56] Officials rotated.[57]
5. Clerks under the Treasurer
6. Clerks under the Treasurer
According to a register the suites of the Treasurers and Chancellor had a total of 18 clerks in 1527-1535 CE; 23 in 1531 CE; 34 in 1561 CE; 50 in 1605 CE; 64 by 1609 CE; 115 in 1627-1628 CE.[58] These numbers suggest more levels within these departments compared to previous periods.
7. Apprentice in the Treasury
Treasury documents in Persian not Turkish and used form of numbers "incomprehensible to the uninitiated." Clerks required apprenticeship.[59]
3. Chancellor (nishanji)[60]
"it was the chancellor who oversaw the clerks who drew up decrees and other documents"[61]
4. Clerks under the Chancellor
5. Clerks under the Chancellor
6. Clerks under the Chancellor
3. Controller of Registers headed the land registry [62]
4. Clerks of the land registry inferred
3. Head Clerk (reisu'l-kuttab)[63]
Head clerk was in charge of the clerks. Office dates from early 16th century.[64]
4. memorandum writer (tezkereji) under the Head Clerk[65]

_ Provincial line _

2. Provinces with governors (beylerbeyi)[66]
32 provinces by 1609 CE according to list of Ayn Ali.[67] Governor-generals (beylerbeyi) were the Sultan's appointees and they could be moved or changed at his request. They were not hereditary positions and not held for life.[68]
3. Judgeship of a town or city judge
"The judge, unlike the sanjak governor, had authority throughout his area, with judgeships forming what has been called 'a parallel system' of administration[69]
3. Districts (Sanjaks) under district governor (Sanjak beyi)[70] who was also a military commander[71]
Role of sanjak included law and order (with fief holder), pursuing bandits, investigating heresy, supplying army, materials for shipbuilding, and those on the frontier special military duties.[72]
4. Fief-holding soldiers responsible for local law and order[73] -- system declined late 16th century, reassigned as tax farms or to non-military nominees of Palace[74]
"The troops of each sanjak, under the command of their governor, would then assemble as an army and fight under the banner of the governor-general of the province. In this way, the structure of command on the battlefield resembled the hierarchy of provincial government."[75] [76]
Fiefs were only one form of land-holder in Sanjacks. Other land was privately owned, formed part of a trust, or controlled by the Sultan. Beglik or miri land was given out by Sultan as fiefs.[77]
By 1500 CE the smallest fiefs were called timar (village or group of villages and their fields). Larger ones subashilik (or zeamet). Largest called a hass.[78]


Egypt: 1517-1608 CE[79]

3. Imperial Treasury of the Porte
located at Ottoman central government
4. beylerbey (governor) Vali/Pasha in Egypt
in 1527 Ottoman Grand vizier Ibrahim Pasha "issued an edict which, legally at least, was to regulate the civil and military administration of the province until the end of Ottoman rule in 1798. ... Henceforward, the governor was to be a wali, and his council a diwan" [80]
beylerbey also held the title Pasha and was a minister in the Ottoman government [81]
5. diwan council members
a diwan al-Ali (High Council) and Ordinary Council contained the establishment (officers, ulama, others of high status) and could advise and obstruct the beylerbey in the event of "arbitrary or tyrannical actions.[82]
6. Scribe in the council inferred
4. Nazir-i Emval, or Defterdar "Keeper of the Books" (Chief Treasurer)
position "held by men sent from the Imperial Treasury of the Porte to represent the interest of the Sultan in Egypt." Initially appointed by Ottoman central government)
authority of the beylerbey was limited by the daftardar (treasury official appointed from Istanbul), the qadi (judge who had "direct links to Istanbul"), and the agha (appointed from Istanbul) of the janissary militia (odjaq)[83]
5. Principal executive officer for the Defterdar (Emin-i Sehir, or "Emin of the City" of Cairo)
6. Mamluk Mutahaddis, Emin or Efendi
each province had an inspector
7. Ruznameji department head (before 1608 CE the Ruznameji was the lowliest of the Efendis)
8. Scribe in Ruznameji inferred
7? beys (provincial governor) of a mamlaka
Run by Mamluks. Following the Ottoman conquest mamluks had "kept control of administration in the provinces" [84] In Egypt "beneath the top level of Ottoman administration the old institutional structure remained intact." [85]
"The title "bey" (bak or bayk), which originally denoted a rank and not specific function, was equivalent to the Mamluk title "emir of one hundred" (amir mi'a). There were in principle twent-four beys, just as there had been twenty-four first-class emirs. The title kashif for the governors of the provinces was also an inheritance from the Mamluk sultanate."[86]
In Cairo there were "no specialized municipal administration or public institutions."[87]
8? timar holders [88]
9? Wali, governor of a small town
10? Village leader / tribal leader inferred'

Egypt: 1608-1718 CE[89]

3. Imperial Treasury of the Porte
located at Ottoman central government
4. beylerbey (governor) Vali/Pasha in Egypt
in 1527 Ottoman Grand vizier Ibrahim Pasha "issued an edict which, legally at least, was to regulate the civil and military administration of the province until the end of Ottoman rule in 1798. ... Henceforward, the governor was to be a wali, and his council a diwan" [90]
beylerbey also held the title Pasha and was a minister in the Ottoman government [91]
5. diwan council members
a diwan al-Ali (High Council) and Ordinary Council contained the establishment (officers, ulama, others of high status) and could advise and obstruct the beylerbey in the event of "arbitrary or tyrannical actions.[92]
6. Scribe in council inferred
4. Nazir-i Emval, or Defterdar "Keeper of the Books" (Chief Treasurer)
position "held by men sent from the Imperial Treasury of the Porte to represent the interest of the Sultan in Egypt." Initially appointed by Ottoman central government)
authority of the beylerbey was limited by the daftardar (treasury official appointed from Istanbul), the qadi (judge who had "direct links to Istanbul"), and the agha (appointed from Istanbul) of the janissary militia (odjaq)[93]
6. Ruznameji department head "the director of the Efendis and scribes of the Treasury"
previously the lowliest of the Efendis, now at the top
7. Ruznameji Chief Clerk (Bas Halife)
8. Ruznameji Three Halife (Clerks)
7. Efendis who headed other departments
8. Specialised assistants of the Efendis (Halife or Mubasir).
9. Apprentices (Sakird, plural Sakirdan) who did menial scribal work in departments.
7? beys (provincial governor) of a mamlaka
Run by Mamluks. Following the Ottoman conquest mamluks had "kept control of administration in the provinces" [94] In Egypt "beneath the top level of Ottoman administration the old institutional structure remained intact." [95]
"The title "bey" (bak or bayk), which originally denoted a rank and not specific function, was equivalent to the Mamluk title "emir of one hundred" (amir mi'a). There were in principle twent-four beys, just as there had been twenty-four first-class emirs. The title kashif for the governors of the provinces was also an inheritance from the Mamluk sultanate."[96]
In Cairo there were "no specialized municipal administration or public institutions."[97]
8. Millet?
"Christians and Jews were expected to have their own laws. Everyone was organised in the so-called 'millets', communities based on faith, and as long as the millet did not come into conflict with Islamic organisation and society, paid its taxes and kept the peace, its leaders were largely left to run their own affairs."[98]
8? timar holders [99]
9? Wali, governor of a small town
10? Village leader / tribal leader inferred'


Other provinces [100][101]

2. beylerbeyliks[102] or Beylerbik
Province run by a beylerbey.
1500 CE four central provinces: Rumelia, Anatolia, Rum and Karaman under direct rule. [103]
3. sanjak beyliks[104] or sanjak
County run by a bey
4. timarliks[105]
"districts assigned to military officiers in lieu of salary" 37,500 timar holders in 1527 CE [106] timar holder was chief law enforcement officer on his lands.[107] "In the early seventeenth century, they replaced assignment of tax revenues to timar holders with direct taxation. Timars were sold to wealthy investors as tax farms." 1597 CE. in 1695 CE tax farms "sold as life tenures (malikane). [108]
5. Council of Elders / Intermediaries of timar holders[109]
run by headman or mayor [110] "timar holders themselves used intermediaries to oversee their domains. Local landowners, merchants, and village notables or headmen were important in tax collection and the administration of local affairs."[111]
3. Vassal provinces
"In matters of provincial government, the empire was never truly centralized. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, it was still common for newly conquered regions to remain vassal provinces, under the control of their former lords, often Christians, in return for tribute and military manpower."[112]
"The experience of Ragusa (modern Dubrovnik is a good illustration of the accommodating method operating on both sides. Its citizens had petitioned the Pope for permission to trade with infidels right after the Turks' first serious victory in Europe. By the 15th century the Ottomans had turned Ragusa into their own Venice, to every successive doge's fury and despair! The Ragusans' behaviour was so mild and noble that by 1347 they had erected an old people's home. By the mid-15th century they had abolished slave trading, forbidden torture, organised a dole, a public health service, a town planning institute and several schools."[113]
"Less compliant Ottoman vassal rulers were subjected to a number of requirements. They were forced to send their sons to the Ottoman court as hostages, had to pay tribute and to take part in the Ottoman wars either in person or represented by their sons. Control over their compliance was exercised by the watchful beys of the marches."[114]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 4 ♥ [115]

1. Sultan

Suleiman I called himself "caliph of all the Muslims in the world" [116]
2. Chief Mufti
called seyhulislam. Part of the ulema religious establishment.
3. Inner Circle
called ilmiye. Part of the ulema religious establishment.
4. Imams

"The population of the Empire was heterogenous in religion, language and social structure. As the Faith of the sultans and of the ruling elite, Islam was the dominant religion, but the Greek and Armenian Orthodox Churches retained an important place within the political structure of the Empire, and ministered to large Christian populations which, in many areas, outnumbered Muslims." There were also Jews (especially after expelled from Spain 1492), Maronites and Druzes.[117]

♠ Military levels ♣ 9 ♥

"On mobilization, one of every ten sipahis remained at home to maintain law and order. The rest formed into alay regiments under their çeribaşi, subaşi and alay bey officers. These led them to theş local sancak bey's two-horse-tail standard. The men of each sancak then assembled around a provincial governor or beylerbeyi before riding to the Sultan's camp."[118]

Janissaries were organized into ortas (regiments) of 100 - 3,000 men.[119]

1. Sultan

2. Commander in chief
3. Beylerbeyi
4. Sancak bey
5. çeribaşi, subaşi and alay bey officers of the alay (regiment)
6.
7.
8. Individual sipahis
sipahis (timar holders).
9. cebelus
larger timar holders of zeamets could equip mounted retainers (cebelus).[120]

Version based on Shaw (the following structure was the same for the administration and military)[121] implies that the çeribaşi and subaşi Nicolle mentions are below the alay beys.

1. Sultan

2. Commander in chief
3. eyalets lead by beylerbeyis or "beys of beys", ruled provinces
4. sancak or liva commanded by sancek bays (who ruled local administration. They appointed police chiefs. Religious judges - kadis - oversaw justice).
5. alay regiment, commanded by alay beys
6. sipahi
timar or fief holder (mounted soldier). Siphai had no rights of ownership, he was the Sultan's representative, whose job was to maintain order, over-see agriculture and collect taxes from the peasants. Distribution most concentrated in Balkans and Anatolia.
7. Man-at-arms
According to an Albanian register of 1431-1432 CE one timar holder had to be present on campaign together with one man-at-arms.[122]


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥

Emir Orhan: "A regularly paid force of Muslim and Christian cavalry and infantry was created by his vizier, Allah al Din. The horsemen were known as müsellems (tax-free men) and were organised under the overall command of sancak beys into hundreds, under subaşis, and thousands, under binbaşis. The foot-soldiers, or yaya, were comparably divided into tens, hundreds and thousands. These infantry archers occasionally fought for Byzantium, where they were known as mourtatoi. Müsellems and yayas were at first paid wages, but by the time of Murat I (1359) they were normally given lands or fiefs in return for military service, the yayas also having special responsibility for the protection of roads and bridges." [123] "Both [yaya] and the müsellems were gradually relegated to second-line duties late in the 14th century, and by 1600 such units had either been abolished or reduced to non-military functions."[124]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Salaried personnel increased from about 24,000 in 1527 CE to just under 100,000 in 1660 CE.[125]

"By 1400, therefore, most of the troops in the Ottoman army served on a contractual basis, allowing the sultan to levy a predictable number of reliable troops year after year."[126]

Emir Orhan: "A regularly paid force of Muslim and Christian cavalry and infantry was created by his vizier, Allah al Din. The horsemen were known as müsellems (tax-free men) and were organised under the overall command of sancak beys into hundreds, under subaşis, and thousands, under binbaşis. The foot-soldiers, or yaya, were comparably divided into tens, hundreds and thousands. These infantry archers occasionally fought for Byzantium, where they were known as mourtatoi. Müsellems and yayas were at first paid wages, but by the time of Murat I (1359) they were normally given lands or fiefs in return for military service, the yayas also having special responsibility for the protection of roads and bridges." [127] "Both [yaya] and the müsellems were gradually relegated to second-line duties late in the 14th century, and by 1600 such units had either been abolished or reduced to non-military functions."[128]

Janissaries were paid a monthly salary.[129]

In Egypt, "janissaries and the azab drew a large part of their income ... from urban tax-farms (muqata'at) and from the payment they received for the protection of artisans and shopkeepers in the city."[130]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ "Religious employees included the imams , the hatibs and the muezzin, who led daily prayers and served in local mosques. Some state employees, such as the muftis, the kadıs and the muderris, had both a legal and religious identity. The Ulema, scholars of the Quran and the holy law, are not priests in the sense of rituals etc."[131]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ [132] "By the seventeenth century, the imperial household, including the armies and the administration, numbered about 100,000 people." [133]

♠ Examination system ♣ present ♥ "Appointments to judgeships required the attainment of appropriate levels in the educational system." [134]

"The iç oğlani were trained forup to seven years in palace schools which concentrated on character-building, leadership, military and athletic prowess, languages, religion, science, and a creative art of the pupil's choosing. Three further examinations selected men for the Kapikulu cavalry, to be Kapikulu officers and, at the top of the tree, to become military or administrative leaders. All remained bachelors until their training ended, when most married women who had been through a parallel schooling in the Palace harem."[135]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ present ♥

Bureaucracy was staffed mostly from a slave class of boys raised from the devsirme tribute system, every five years, from Christian families (mostly from the Balkans region). They were taught Turkish, converted to Islam and educated from childhood to work in the military and government, excluding sons of most Muslim fathers within the Empire. [136]

"Appointments to judgeships required the attainment of appropriate levels in the educational system." [137]

Present in the Egyptian financial administration: "All the positions of Efendi in the Treasury were established as Muqata'at which were distributed when vacant at auctions held in the house of the Ruznameji to the highest bidder from amongst those members qualified to hold them, and whose price was delivered to the Vali as part of his Hulvan revenues. For that reason, the departments were also called Muqata'a and the Efendis Muqata'a'i, "holder of the Muqata'a",in the registers. Only those possessing the requisite qualifications, as manifested by prior membership in the scribal corporation of an Imperial Treasury, whether in Egypt or elsewhere in the Ottoman Empire, could bid for these positions." [138]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Customs house at Suez. [139]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ From 15th century Ottomans had secular law called kanun which coexisted with the religious law, shari'a.[140]

"Kanun regulated areas where the provisions of the sacred law were either missing or too much at at odds with reality to be applicable. These, in the Ottoman Empire as in other Islamic polities, were above all in the areas of criminal law, land tenure, and taxation. The origins of the secular law lay in custom, and it was long usage that in the first place gave it legitimacy." [141]

Justice system was the seriat, Islamic law, decided by the ulema religious establishment. [142]

Mehmet II "promulgated the first systematic legal codes dealing with the organization of the state and the obligations of subjects." [143]

"In matters of government administration, Ottomman law applied to all subjects, but in matters of family and business law, it applied only to Muslims. Non-Muslims had their own communal law and courts. In practice, however, Jews and Christians commonly had recourse to Ottoman courts in order to assure enforcement, or to have state guarantees for commercial and property transactions, or to win an advantage in marital and inheritance disputes." [144]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Called a Kadi. [145]

"The Ottoman state appointed all important judges, jurisconsults, and professors of law." [146] Military judges (kadi'asker) were the "chief judges of the Empire, who were responsible for judicial matters that came before the council."[147] Judges in towns.[148]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ State courts. [149] Ottoman Cairo had fifteen courts of justice. [150]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥ "The Ottoman state appointed all important judges, jurisconsults, and professors of law." [151]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Rebuilt Egyptian irrigation systems.[152] Maintained Egyptian irrigation systems with wood brought from Anatolia. [153]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ Aqueducts in Istanbul.[154] 111 drinking fountains built in Cairo during three centuries of Ottoman rule, 46 between 1626 and 1775 CE. Western area of Cairo two fountains built between 1517 and 1725 CE. [155] Water was brought to fountains or to the door of residents manually, via camel and water carriers (up to 10,000 daily), and the fountains were built by waqf foundations and individuals rather than a municipal authority.[156]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Mehmet II built commercial centres including a covered bazaar in the Old City of Istanbul.[157] Endowment funds were invested in bazaars and shops. [158] Fixed economy in Istanbul. "The state required traders to guarantee the delivery wheat, salt, meat, oil, fish, honey, and wax directly to the palace and the capital city at fixed prices. Merchants were thus made agents of the state to meet the fiscal and provisioning needs of the capital." [159] In Cairo, the waqf instigated urban development of Ridwan Bey (a "powerful emir" in the late seventeenth century) over one hectare included a "commercial structure" containing shops.[160]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Network expanded under Bayezid II (1481-1512 CE)[161] In Cairo, according to Jean de Thevenot in 1658 CE "There is not one fine street in Cairo, but a great number of small ones that twist and turn, showing that the houses in Cairo were all built without benefit of a city plan."[162]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Bridge building. [163]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ In Egypt, Maqsud Pasha (1642-1643 CE) "ordered the dredging of two canals, the Khalij al-Hakimi and the Khalij al Nasiri, which were threatened with silting."[164]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Istanbul. 1525 CE rebuilt naval base at Suez. 1530 CE added dockyard and warships at Basra. [165]


Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ present ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ In Egypt financial registers "were written in the special Siyaqat script, developed for financial purposes out of the Arabic script and introduced into the Treasury during the 10/16th century by the scribes who were sent to it from the Porte. The concise and regular nature of this script made it ideal for use in the limited space available in the registers, and is lack of the normal Arabic diacritical marks and violation of the usual rules for the formation and connection of Arabic letters made it incomprehensible to all but those especially initiated into the secrets of its formation and use." [166]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Molla Lutfi (Bayezid II period) classification of sciences and geometry. [167] "Legal and financial records."[168]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ [169]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ [170]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Piri Reis geography, first map 1511 CE. The Book of Bahriye (Book of Navigation). Admiral Seydi Ali Reis (d. 1562) maritime geography. [171] "Legal and financial records."[172]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Ibn Kemal. [173] Unknown author wrote Tarih-i Hind-i Garbi (History of Western India). Presented to Sultan Murad III in 1583 CE.[174]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ [175]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ [176] Ali Kuscu 1403-1474 CE. Samarkand tradition. Twelve works on mathematics and astronomy. Kadizade-i Rumî 1337-1437 CE. Mirim Celebi (d. 1525) mathematics and astronomy. Musa b. Hamun (d. 1554) Jewish physician. Nasuh al-Silahi al-Matraki (d. 1564) mathematics and geography. Taki al-Din al-Rasid (d. 1585) "wrote more than thirty books in Arabic on the subjects of mathematics, astronomy, mechanics, and medicine." [177] Piri Reis (d. 1553 CE) - maps.
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ 16th Century considered the Golden Age for Ottoman literature. [178] Poetry: Baki (d. 1600 CE). Panegyrist and satirist: Nef'i (d. 1636 CE).[179] Efendi (d. 1644 CE).[180]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ In Egypt the Imperial Treasury received and stored assets in kind. [181]
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ Unified currency from 17th century. [182] c1580 CE "Ottoman markets flooded were with European silver and counterfeit currency." [183]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ [184] Ottoman coinage introduced by Sultan Orhan Bey in 1328 CE.[185] Unified currency from 17th century. [186]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ Postal system called ulak. System of postal stations was similar to the Mongol yam. [187]
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥ Not until 1841 CE. Late development because foreign services permitted to operate within the Empire. For example, Austrians since 1721 CE. [188]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ Early Janissaries used weapons such as bows, slings, crossbows and javelins. "not until the end of the 16th century did the majority have tüfek matchlocks."[189]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ Early Janissaries used weapons such as bows, slings, crossbows and javelins. "not until the end of the 16th century did the majority have tüfek matchlocks."[190]
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Early Janissaries used weapons such as bows, slings, crossbows and javelins. "not until the end of the 16th century did the majority have tüfek matchlocks."[191] In the early 17th century Tartar cavalrymen used a bow.[192] Turkish bow fired from horseback. [193] Janissaries, founded in second half of the 14th century, were less numerous.[194]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ Early Janissaries used weapons such as bows, slings, crossbows and javelins. "not until the end of the 16th century did the majority have tüfek matchlocks."[195] Magaharibad, north African marines, used a crossbow.[196] At some stage crossbow came into use, mainly for use in fortresses.[197] Janissaries, founded in second half of the 14th century, were less numerous.[198]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ present ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ present ♥ "War in the Balkans also brought the Ottomans up against the Hungarians, from whom they adopted the tabur field fortification of en with hand-guns in waggons chained together to protect primitive artillery."[199]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ present ♥ Janissaries.[200]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ akinji (raiders) carried a mace.[201]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Illustration shows Peyk, messenger, with a battle axe.[202] Azabs carried a small axe.[203]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Curved daggers. [204]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Naval Janissary carried a curved sword.[205] Sipahi cavalry carried two swords.[206] Timar-holding cavalrymen also carried short sword.[207]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Illustration shows "Deli scout, c.1600" with a spear. [208]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Illustration shows "Arab auxiliary, early 17th C" with a very long spear. [209]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Mamluk Egypt e.g. Cairo (mentioned in the context of riding so pack use must be inferred) where foreign travellers were "particularly impressed by the omnipresence of donkeys. ... Abu Sa'id is quoted as remarking that he had never before seen so many donkeys in any city he had visited."[210]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Light cavalry. Mounted archers. [211]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ Used for transport. [212]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Magahāribad, north African marines, carried a moorish leather shield. "Deli scout, c.1600" wore animal skins. [213][214]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Shields.[215]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Magahāribad, north African marines, wore a salet helmet.[216] Helmets worn by kapikulu cavalry[217] and sipahi.[218]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ Sipahi cavalry armour had breastplate in early 17th century.[219]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Limb armour worn by kapikulu cavalry.[220] Sipahi cavalry armour had limb armour.[221]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Mail and plate korazin early 16th century[222] worn by Sipahi cavalry.[223] Magahāribad, north African marines, wore a mail shirt.[224] Sipahi cavalry armour had chain mail.[225]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ "Arab auxiliary, early 17th C." with mail-and-plate cuirass and coif"[226]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ In the 17th century "The Mediterranean fleet now consisted of three squadrons based in North Africa, Egypt and the Aegean. But a serious decline did set in with financial corruption in the Istanbul naval yards and the loss of direct control over Algeria and Tunisia." Magahāribad, North African corsairs, "were first recruited as marines in the 17th century."[227]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ "By the 16th century Ottoman tactics had reached their classic form. Within a formidable system of entrenchments..."[228] "At the battle of Varna in 1444 the formidable Janissaries occupied the centre positions with a ditch around them."[229]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ In the field the tabur fortification system was used, waggons would be chained together to protect artillery and manned by Janissaries. [230] "Ottoman strategy relied on mobility and offensive tactics during their era of expansion, but from the second half of the 17th century, as they lost the tactical initiative, the Turks were increasingly obliged to rely on elaborate field fortifications."[231]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Grand Vizier Mehmet Koprulu ordered the building of Seddulbahr and Kumkale castles.[232]
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ absent ♥ It was a dynasty state and the ruler passed on his power to a male heir.[233] "There never, it seems, was a formal mechanism for policy making. All decisions in theory were the sultan’s own. What mattered, therefore, was the character of the sultan, and the individuals or factions who had his ear."[234] The Ottoman Sultan had absolute authority like an emperor and could not be impeached through an official process.

Social Mobility

♠ RA ♣ Eli Levine ♥

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Sultans were always members of the Osman dynastic line.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ "Rulership was believed to be a grace from God and the ruler was considered to be God’s choice. Conceptions of divine appointment inherited from three major imperial and religious traditions fused together in the Ottoman ideology and created a broad basis for the ruler’s legitimacy. Accordingly, the Ottoman ruler was conceived to have received “fortune” (kut) as in the Turco-Mongolian tradition, “divine light” (farr) as in the Persian tradition, and “good turn of fortune” (devlet) as in the Islamic tradition." [235]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [236]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[237]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[238]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[239]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ "The religious traditions of Muslims, who made up the majority of Ottoman subjects, as well as those of the Jewish and Christian minorities, encouraged beneficence to the weak and the poor. Giving alms (zakat) is required of all Muslims who possess more than the minimum nec- essary for subsistence, and the Quran repeatedly reminds believers that prayer and almsgiving are fundamental aspects of belief. Alms are due from money earned in order to remove the taint of profit from the sum remain- ing. In addition, voluntary giving (sadaqah) is recommended emphatically as a way for believers to approach God and to atone for transgressions in the hopes of reach- ing Paradise after death. Traditions about the Prophet Muhammad (hadith) make it clear that anyone, even the poor, can give charity, if only by offering a blessing." [240] "A waqf is an endowment under Islamic law, or sharia, that benefits a pious cause by setting aside a personal source of revenue to finance the charitable cause in perpetuity. Within the Ottoman Empire, the institutions endowed by waqf contracts included religious structures such as mosques, madrasas, and Sufi hostels. Some of the complexes established as waqf were quite extensive, such as the complex that Sultan Süleyman (r. 1520-66) endowed in Istanbul, the Süleymaniye. Designed by the architect [...] In addition to religious functions, waqf endowments could support institutions that would benefit the community of Muslims at large, such as soup kitchens for the poor, hospitals, insane asylums, and caravansaries for travelers. Typically, the source of income that was alienated from the waqf donor’s private property consisted of commercial properties: shops, factories for the production of textiles or soap, bathhouses, even whole market complexes if the donor were rich and powerful. But private homes were also so designated by less wealthy Muslims, with their rent being used to help in the ongoing upkeep of the institution. Revenues from agricultural properties could also be alienated under waqf contracts and, in the Ottoman period, whole classes of tax revenue, such as the jizya paid by the Christians of Bethlehem, could also be designated to support the upkeep of waqf properties." [241]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ "A waqf is an endowment under Islamic law, or sharia, that benefits a pious cause by setting aside a personal source of revenue to finance the charitable cause in perpetuity. Within the Ottoman Empire, the institutions endowed by waqf contracts included religious structures such as mosques, madrasas, and Sufi hostels. Some of the complexes established as waqf were quite extensive, such as the complex that Sultan Süleyman (r. 1520-66) endowed in Istanbul, the Süleymaniye. Designed by the architect [...] In addition to religious functions, waqf endowments could support institutions that would benefit the community of Muslims at large, such as soup kitchens for the poor, hospitals, insane asylums, and caravansaries for travelers. Typically, the source of income that was alienated from the waqf donor’s private property consisted of commercial properties: shops, factories for the production of textiles or soap, bathhouses, even whole market complexes if the donor were rich and powerful. But private homes were also so designated by less wealthy Muslims, with their rent being used to help in the ongoing upkeep of the institution. Revenues from agricultural properties could also be alienated under waqf contracts and, in the Ottoman period, whole classes of tax revenue, such as the jizya paid by the Christians of Bethlehem, could also be designated to support the upkeep of waqf properties." [242]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [243] [244] [245]

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