TrOttm1

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Ottoman Emirate ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Ottoman Beylik; Ottoman Dynasty; Osmanli Dynasty; Othman Dynasty; Ottoman Principality ♥ Western, Turkish, Arabic derived spelling of the name.[1] Ottoman Principality[2]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1402 CE ♥ In terms of territorial extent, period of Bayezit I 1402 CE before the Battle of Anakara.[3]

Other dates coud be 1364 CE Murat I or Bayezit I in the 1390s.


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1299-1402 CE ♥ [4]

Dynasty starts with Osman of Sogut, the ruler of a principality near modern Eskisehir in Turkey.[5]

Shaw refers to an "interregnum" (in the aftermath of the defeat at Ankara against Tamerlane 1402 CE[6] ) 1402-1413 CE in which "different elements of Ottoman society struggled for power, with chaos again enveloping the entire area." Breakdown was a "struggle for power between the Turkish notables and their descendants, who wanted to restore the gazi tradition and the primacy of the High Islamic institutions of the Seljuks, and the survivors of the kapikullars and the Christian advisors, who proposed opposite policies... As Bayezit's sons fought for power, they gained support of one or another of these groups, with the alliances changing rapidly as the groups changed their estimates of which prince had the best chance of leading them to victory." [7]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose: 1290-1326 CE; unitary state: 1326-1402 CE ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none; vassalage; nominal allegiance ♥ Until 1335/1350 CE the Ottomans as other Turkish Emirates in Anatolia were (first actually, later nominally) subordinated to Mongol Ilkhan-Rulers of Persia, Iraq and Anatolia as their overlords and had to pay tribute.[8]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Late Byzantine; Karamanid Emirate ♥ Seljuk sultans lost their power to Mongol governors by 1243 and by the early fourteenth century, what had been Seljuk and Ilkhanid Anatolia fragmented into a kaleidoscope of principalities. The Largest and longest lived was the emirate of Karaman in south-central Anatolia, with the old Seljuk capital of Konya as its principal city. In western Anatolia, Byzantine rule did not survive Turkish immigration of the late thirteenth century, and by 1300 Turkish rule had replaced Greek with several Turkish principalities on the former Byzantine territory. In the former Byzantine province of Bithynia was the emirate of Osman, the founder of the Ottoman dynasty whose lands would form the nucleus of the Ottoman Empire. [9]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ elite migration ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Ottoman Empire I ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Turkic; Islamic; Persian ♥ Turkic. Maybe also Islamic World, also strong ties to Persian Cultural Sphere.[10]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [4,500,000-5,000,000] ♥ km squared. Figure includes Anatolia, Transoxania, Persia, West Eurasian Steppe.

♠ Capital ♣ Sogut; Bursa; Adrianople; Karajahisar; Erdine ♥ Sogut: 1299-1325 CE; Bursa: 1326-1364 CE; Adrianople: 1364-1413 CE. [11][12][13] Residence in Bursa maybe right after conquest in 1326.[14]

In Ottoman tradition, first Ottoman, Osman had a base at Karajahisar (Malagina in Sakarya valley) in the palace of an old Bishopric. In 1387 CE the Genovese concluded a royal treaty at Malagina. However, Bursa was the capital under Orhan right after 1326 CE.[15]

Murad I had a palace built at Edrine.[16]

♠ Language ♣ Ottoman Turkish ♥ "Ottoman Turkish" as language of elite, administration and learning then strongly influenced by Persian and Arabic.[17]

General Description

The polity of the Ottomans was originally one of many small Turkish principalities on the border of the Byzantine realm[18] against whom their ghazi chieftain launched raids for territory and plunder. Through both warfare and diplomacy with farmers, townspeople and Christian nobles, they eventually forced the submission of the western Balkans and then annexed their rival Turkish principalities in western Anatolia.[19] The massive expansion of the Ottoman polity (18,000 km2 in 1320 CE to 690,000 km2 by 1400 CE) came to an abrupt halt with the invasion of Timur in 1402 CE who conquered the Ottomans and made its ruler a vassal. There was then a civil war for control of the Ottoman state which ends the first period (1290-1402 CE).

As the polity rapidly expanded, the Ottoman government was run out of a succession of capitals: Sogut (1299-1325 CE), Bursa (1326-1364 CE), and Adrianople (1364-1413 CE) all provided a base for a period. The title of Sultan was introduced in 1383 CE by Murat I (1362-1389 CE). His government was an extension of his court and the top officials were directly appointed, and increasingly powerful through the period.[20] An Imperial Council (divan)[21] issued his decrees and made less important and administrative policy decisions.[22] Viziers in the government were able to make some appointments in the name of the Sultan at the very least by the fifteenth century.[23] The date when the Grand Vizier became the most powerful official in the state is disputed; some scholars believe this occurred c1360 CE[24] while Ottoman tradition has it when Mehmed II stopped attending meetings in early 15th century.[25]

Provinces with governors probably did not exist until the 1380s CE.[26] The rapid increase in size of the Ottoman state meant that the winner of the Ottoman civil war would gain control of territory that held 5 million people.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 18,000: 1320 CE; 52,000: 1340 CE; 70,000: 1360 CE; 260,000: 1380 CE; 690,000: 1400 CE ♥ KM2. [27]

Permanent basis on the Balkans only from 1352 CE onwards.[28]

according to J. MATUZ, Das Osmanische Reich. Grundlinien seiner Geschichte. Darmstadt 2006.[29]

Ca. 18,000 1320 CE
260,000 in 1389 CE according to Matuz 2006.
690,000 in 1402 CE according to Matuz 2006.

♠ Polity Population ♣ [200,000-400,000]: 1325 CE; [700,000-1,400,000]: 1350 CE; 5,000,000: 1400 CE ♥

Population of Ottoman Empire[30]

1,000,000: 1325 CE
Too high compared to territory; rule of thumb for this period ca. 10-20 people/km2 as good estimate for medieval/Byzantine/Mediterranean provinces - thus more around 200,000-400,000.[31]
2,500,000: 1350 CE
Maybe 700,000-1,4 Million; starting from 1346 effects of Black Death also in Ottoman area have to be taken into consideration - cf. the excellent new book N. VARLIK, Plague and Empire in the Early Modern Mediterranean World. The Ottoman Experience, 1347-1600. Cambridge 2015.[32]
5,000,000: 1400 CE
Due to plague effects maybe in this order of magnitude, otherwise maybe larger.[33]
7,000,000: 1450 CE
9,000,000: 1500 CE
22,000,000: 1550 CE
28,000,000: 1600 CE
27,500,000: 1650 CE
24,000,000: 1700 CE
24,000,000: 1750 CE
24,000,000: 1800 CE
25,000,000: 1850 CE
25,000,000: 1900 CE

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [20,000-30,000] ♥

Bursa.

In 1485, Bursa has 5,000 households - that would be 20,000-30,000 inhabitants. For such data see esp. H. İNALCIK, An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, Volume I: 1300-1600. Cambridge 1997 (and the second volume for the later period).[34]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3: 1290-1380 CE; 4: 1381-1402 CE ♥

1. Capital (Bursa, Adrianople)

2. Chief town of a province (from late 14th century)
[35]
3. Town
4. Village

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 2: 1290-1328 CE; [3-4]: 1329-1359 CE; 5: 1360-1402 CE ♥

For the administrative history, I would recommend C. IMBER, The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke. 2009.[36]

1290-1326 CE

1. Chief

Chief was first among equals in the Council of Elders
2. Council of Elders


"The Ottoman Empire lived for war. Every governor in this empire was a general and every policeman was a Janissary. Every mountain pass had its guards and every road had a military destination."[37]

1326-1360 CE

1. Sulan


_Central government_[38]

2. Minister for central administration (from Orhan) [39]
3.

_Provincial line_[40]

2. appanages
Osman and Orhan divided territory into appanages for sons, family members and followers.[41]
by 1350s CE, however, Suleyman's son was "in effect" a governor of the western "province" of Thrace.[42]


1360-1413 CE

1. Sultan

title from 1383 CE under Murat I (1362-1389 CE)
Sultans "ruled the Empire through members of their own household, whom they had appointed to government office. This was a tendency which began probably in the late fourteenth century, and had become very pronounced by the late fifteenth."[43]

_Central government_[44]

2. Imperial Council (divan)[45]
Issued decrees of Sultan and made less important and administrative policy decisions.[46] "These scattered references suggest that probably during the fourteenth and certainly during the fifteenth century, a small group of viziers advised the sultan on political and administrative affairs, and had the power to make appointments in his name."[47] Grand Vizier became chief executive officer of state c1360 CE.[48] However this date is disputed. According to Ottoman tradition, grand vizirate may have come about after Mehmed II stopped attending meetings in early 15th century.[49]
3. Chancellor
Post dates to earliest days of empire.[50]
3.
Military judges (kadi'asker) were the "chief judges of the Empire, who were responsible for judicial matters that came before the council."[51] First one dated to Murad I.[52]
4.

_Provincial line_[53]

2. Provinces with governors c1380 CE
Provinces with governors probably did not exist until last two decades of fourteenth century.[54]
3. Judgeship [kadi] of a town or city judge[55]
"The judge, unlike the sanjak governor, had authority throughout his area, with judgeships forming what has been called 'a parallel system' of administration[56]
3. Districts (Sanjaks) under district governor (Sanjak beyi)[57] who was also a military commander[58]
Role of sanjak included law and order (with fief holder), pursuing bandits, investigating heresy, supplying army, materials for shipbuilding, and those on the frontier special military duties.[59]
4. Fief-holding soldiers responsible for local law and order[60]
"The troops of each sanjak, under the command of their governor, would then assemble as an army and fight under the banner of the governor-general of the province. In this way, the structure of command on the battlefield resembled the hierarchy of provincial government."[61] [62]
Fiefs were only one form of land-holder in Sanjaks. Other land was privately owned, formed part of a trust, or controlled by the Sultan. Beglik or miri land was given out by Sultan as fiefs.[63]


Millet "Christians and Jews were expected to have their own laws. Everyone was organised in the so-called 'millets', communities based on faith, and as long as the millet did not come into conflict with Islamic organisation and society, paid its taxes and kept the peace, its leaders were largely left to run their own affairs."[64]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 2 ♥

For the administrative history, I would recommend C. IMBER, The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke. 2009.[65]

Ulema

Imams

Ulema means "scholars" - they are scholars of the Quran and the holy law, but not priests in the sense of rituals etc. But one should discuss this categorisation with an expert on Islam.[66]

♠ Military levels ♣ 6 ♥

C. IMBER, The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke 2009, and Rh. Murphey, Ottoman Warfare 1500-1700. New Brunswick, New Jersey 1999 (esp. for the classical period).[67]

Emir Orhan: "A regularly paid force of Muslim and Christian cavalry and infantry was created by his vizier, Allah al Din. The horsemen were known as müsellems (tax-free men) and were organised under the overall command of sancak beys into hundreds, under subaşis, and thousands, under binbaşis. The foot-soldiers, or yaya, were comparably divided into tens, hundreds and thousands. These infantry archers occasionally fought for Byzantium, where they were known as mourtatoi. Müsellems and yayas were at first paid wages, but by the time of Murat I (1359) they were normally given lands or fiefs in return for military service, the yayas also having special responsibility for the protection of roads and bridges." [68]

1. Sultan

2. sancak beys
3. Thousands
4. Hundreds
5. Tens
6. Individual soldier (yaya or müsellems)

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ absent: 1290-1328 CE; present: 1329-1402 CE ♥

Emir Orhan: "A regularly paid force of Muslim and Christian cavalry and infantry was created by his vizier, Allah al Din. The horsemen were known as müsellems (tax-free men) and were organised under the overall command of sancak beys into hundreds, under subaşis, and thousands, under binbaşis. The foot-soldiers, or yaya, were comparably divided into tens, hundreds and thousands. These infantry archers occasionally fought for Byzantium, where they were known as mourtatoi. Müsellems and yayas were at first paid wages, but by the time of Murat I (1359) they were normally given lands or fiefs in return for military service, the yayas also having special responsibility for the protection of roads and bridges." [69]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ absent: 1290-1328 CE; present: 1329-1402 CE ♥ "By 1400, therefore, most of the troops in the Ottoman army served on a contractual basis, allowing the sultan to levy a predictable number of reliable troops year after year."[70]

Emir Orhan: "A regularly paid force of Muslim and Christian cavalry and infantry was created by his vizier, Allah al Din. The horsemen were known as müsellems (tax-free men) and were organised under the overall command of sancak beys into hundreds, under subaşis, and thousands, under binbaşis. The foot-soldiers, or yaya, were comparably divided into tens, hundreds and thousands. These infantry archers occasionally fought for Byzantium, where they were known as mourtatoi. Müsellems and yayas were at first paid wages, but by the time of Murat I (1359) they were normally given lands or fiefs in return for military service, the yayas also having special responsibility for the protection of roads and bridges." [71]

Janissaries were paid a monthly salary.[72]

The Janissary organization is believed to have started during the reign of Murat I.[73]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Ulema means "scholars" - they are scholars of the Quran and the holy law, but not priests in the sense of rituals etc. But one should discuss this categorisation with an expert on Islam.[74] "Religious employees included the imams, the hatibs and the muezzin, who led daily prayers and served in local mosques. Some state employees, such as the muftis, the kadıs and the muderris, had both a legal and religious identity. The Ulema, scholars of the Quran and the holy law, were not priests in the sense of rituals etc. These scholars were trained in medreses, which first appear during the reign of Orhan."[75]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent: 1290-1388 CE; inferred present: 1389-1402 CE ♥ The first emirs issued charters and foundation documents, but these were probably written by members of the ulema, serving for the ruler´s chancery part-time.[76]

Bayezit I (1389-1402 CE) attempted to break from the Turkish aristocracy by recruiting trained slaves to government positions. The aristocrats saw this as a challenge to their power. Murat I (1362-1389 CE) had previously attempted this with the army, Bayezit I took it further. [77]

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥ A fully developed hierarchical system of administrators and ulema with an examination system is visible in the 16th century. Maybe Imber writes more on the development in the earlier centuries.[78]

"Appointments to judgeships required the attainment of appropriate levels in the educational system." [79] - when did this happen?

"The ic oglani were trained forup to seven years in palace schools which concentrated on character-building, leadership, military and athletic prowess, languages, religion, science, and a creative art of the pupil's choosing. Three further examinations selected men for the Kapikulu cavalry, to be Kapikulu officers and, at the top of the tree, to become military or administrative leaders. All remained bachelors until their training ended, when most married women who had been through a parallel schooling in the Palace harem."[80]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥ For later centuries, merit promotion present within the slave class.

Bureaucracy was staffed mostly from a slave class of boys raised from the devsirme tribute system, every five years, from Christian families (mostly from the Balkans region). They were taught Turkish, converted to Islam and educated from childhood to work in the military and government, excluding sons of most Muslim fathers within the Empire. [81]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ ♥ Was coded "present" but without a reference

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ absent: 1290-1325 CE; present: 1325-1402 CE ♥ Law at this stage was dominated by tribal custom rather than religious authorities.[82] It was Mehmet II who "promulgated the first systematic legal codes dealing with the organization of the state and the obligations of subjects." [83]

But there is the huge corpus of islamic law integrated into the Ottoman realm during this period.[84]

Coded switchover at time capital moved to Bursa.

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Religious judges called kadis. [85]

Military judges (kadi'asker) were the "chief judges of the Empire, who were responsible for judicial matters that came before the council."[86] First one dated to Murad I.[87]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥ Fiqh (islamic jurisprudence) knows courts.[88] (However, judges could also conduct business from their homes -- it would be good to have a reference. )

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred present ♥

Ulema means "scholars" - they are scholars of the Quran and the holy law, but not priests in the sense of rituals etc. But one should discuss this categorisation with an expert on Islam.[89]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred present from territory held
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ present ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ [90]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ roads [91]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Repaired to facilitate movement of army. [92]
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥ maintenance of historic networks?
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ [93]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ present ♥ [94]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ [95]
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ [96]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ [97]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥ [98]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥ [99]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ [100]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ [101]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ [102]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ The Ottomans integrated the traditions of classical Arabic and Persian literature - but original own works start mostly in the later period.[103]
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Literate society: "The first Ottoman college was established in Iznik in 1331, when scholars were invited from Iran and Egypt to augment Muslim instruction in the new territories."[104] The Ottomans integrated the traditions of classical Arabic and Persian literature - but original own works start mostly in the later period.[105]
♠ History ♣ inferred present ♥ The first works of Ottoman historiography come from the later 15th century.[106] The Ottomans integrated the traditions of classical Arabic and Persian literature - but original own works start mostly in the later period.[107] Coding inferred present because the written document does not have to be original to the polity. It can be republished work, or existing text that is kept and consulted.
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ Literate society: "The first Ottoman college was established in Iznik in 1331, when scholars were invited from Iran and Egypt to augment Muslim instruction in the new territories."[108] The Ottomans integrated the traditions of classical Arabic and Persian literature - but original own works start mostly in the later period.[109]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Literate society: "The first Ottoman college was established in Iznik in 1331, when scholars were invited from Iran and Egypt to augment Muslim instruction in the new territories."[110] The Ottomans integrated the traditions of classical Arabic and Persian literature - but original own works start mostly in the later period.[111]
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred present ♥ Literate society: "The first Ottoman college was established in Iznik in 1331, when scholars were invited from Iran and Egypt to augment Muslim instruction in the new territories."[112] The Ottomans integrated the traditions of classical Arabic and Persian literature - but original own works start mostly in the later period.[113]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ Unified currency from 17th century. [114]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ [115] Ottoman coinage introduced by Sultan Orhan Bey in 1328 CE.[116]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ [117]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ Postal system called ulak. System of postal stations was similar to the Mongol yam. [118]
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥ Not until 1841 CE. Late development because foreign services permitted to operate within the Empire. For example, Austrians since 1721 CE. [119]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Iron helmet such as worn by Tucoman tribal horseman.[120]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ [121]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ Early Janissaries used weapons such as bows, slings, crossbows and javelins. [122]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ Early Janissaries used weapons such as bows, slings, crossbows and javelins. [123]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ if composite bow used
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Ex-Byzantine troops used the bow.[124] Early Janissaries used weapons such as bows, slings, crossbows and javelins. [125] Gazi used a bow. [126]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ Early Janissaries used weapons such as bows, slings, crossbows and javelins. [127]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ [128]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ present ♥ [129]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent: 1290-1387 CE; [absent; present]: 1388-1413 CE ♥ Possibly used at Karamania 1388 CE, Kosova 1389 CE and Nikopol 1396 CE.[130]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Hand-guns first used by Janissaries against the Hungarians 1440-1443 CE. [131]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ akinji (raiders) carried a mace.[132]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Present.[133]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Illustration of "West Anatolian infantryman, first half 14th C." shows dagger. [134]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Gazi had a straight sword.[135]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Present.[136]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ Present.[137]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Cavalry.
♠ Camels ♣ absent: 1290-1325 CE; [absent; present]: 1326-1402 CE ♥ later, yes.[138]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ Shields in an illustration have wooden appearance. [139]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Turcoman nomads rarely had "more than leather lamellar armour"[140] Ottoman Gazi, first half 14th century, often wore "buff-leather armour originally introduced by the 13th century Mongols." [141]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Illustration of "West Anatolian infantryman, first half 14th C." shows shield. [142]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Isik and tugulka crested helmets.[143] Illustration of "West Anatolian infantryman, first half 14th C." shows helmet. [144]
♠ Breastplates ♣ ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Greaves. Cavalry wore shoulder protection. [145]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Budluk cuisse, cebe hauberk, cevsen lamellar cuirass, cebe cevsen "which was perhaps an early form of mail-and-split cuirass." zirh mail hauberk and zirh kulah mail coif. [146] Illustration of "West Anatolian infantryman, first half 14th C." shows chainmail. [147]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ cukal lamellar or scale armour.[148]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ [149]
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ [150]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ [151]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent: 1290-1308 CE; present: 1308-1413 CE ♥ Capture of Imrali island in the Sea of Marmara 1308 CE "may have been the Ottomans' first seaborne adventure." First fleet was "built and crewed by ex-Byzantine sailors and manned by gazi warriors." [152] Mehmed II (1444-1446 CE and 1451-1481 CE) was the first Sultan to build up large naval forces. [153]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ [154]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ [155]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ [156]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ [157]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ Present.[158]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ "Ottoman strategy relied on mobility and offensive tactics during their era of expansion, but from the second half of the 17th century, as they lost the tactical initiative, the Turks were increasingly obliged to rely on elaborate field fortifications."[159] Present, see description of Battle of Nikopolis 1396 CE.[160]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ absent ♥ It was a dynasty state and the ruler passed on his power to a male heir.[161] "There never, it seems, was a formal mechanism for policy making. All decisions in theory were the sultan’s own. What mattered, therefore, was the character of the sultan, and the individuals or factions who had his ear."[162] The Ottoman Sultan had absolute authority like an emperor and could not be impeached through an official process.

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ dynastic system. [163]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [164]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [165]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[166]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[167]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[168]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [169] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [170]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [171]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [172] [173] [174]

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