TrNeoER

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Aleksandra Neumannn ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Konya Plain - Early Neolithic ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Pre-Pottery Neolithic; Konya Ovasnda Erken Neolitik Canak Comleksiz Neolitik; Neolithique inferieur en Anatolie centrale Néolithique pre-ceramique ♥ Pre-Pottery Neolithic; Konya Ovasι’nda Erken Neolitik Çağ/Çanak Çömleksiz Neolitik; Néolithique inférieur en Anatolie centrale/Néolithique pré-céramique ... this is not machine readable.

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥ unknown


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 9600-7000 BCE ♥ {9600 BCE; 9500 BCE}-7000 BCE uncertainty/disagreement cannot be coded for this variable

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unknown ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ unknown ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Konya Plain - Ceramic Neolithic ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥

♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Aleksandra Neumannn ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 1 ♥ unknown

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 1 ♥ unknown

♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥ unknown

♠ Military levels ♣ 1 ♥ unknown

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ inapplicable

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥ inapplicable

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ absent ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ absent ♥
♠ Ports ♣ absent ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ absent ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥
♠ History ♣ absent ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Aleksandra Neumannn; Thomas Cressy; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later. Beads and tools carved from copper have been found but no weapons or smelting at this time [1]
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Bone harpoons found for this time, but it is unclear if used for warfare or hunting. There is no reason to believe that other humans couldn't be the target for these though [2]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ At Çatalhöyük clay balls have been interpreted as sling ammunition."The use of the sling is alos attested in wall art that features a purported slinger."[3]
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE."[4] "The composite bows spread into Palestine around 1800 BCE and were introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos in 1700 BCE."[5]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time
♠ Daggers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time
♠ Swords ♣ absent ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time but there is evidence they were used for hunting and guarding purposes. [6]
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ "The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass 'in more than one place' but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan. Only in Africa, presumably, so the donkey would not have been here yet [7]
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥ Earliest reference for present we currently have is for the Hittites.[8] In Egypt helmets were probably first worn by charioteers in the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE.[9]
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred absent ♥ Polity earlier than the earliest reference in Anatolia, the Hittite period.[10]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ absent ♥ not yet found in settlements such as Göbekli Tepe
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ absent ♥ not yet found in settlements such as Göbekli Tepe
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ absent ♥ not yet found in settlements such as Göbekli Tepe
♠ Ditch ♣ absent ♥ not yet found in settlements such as Göbekli Tepe
♠ Moat ♣ absent ♥ not yet found in settlements such as Göbekli Tepe
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time, even if stone architecture has been found in Göbekli Tepe, it does not appear to be for military purposes [11]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Only archaeological evidence for mudbrick walls at this time
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km. not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [12] [13] [14]

References

  1. https://www.tf.uni-kiel.de/matwis/amat/iss/kap_a/advanced/ta_1_2c.html
  2. (Leverani 2014, 36) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  3. (Knüsel: Glencross and Milella 2019: 83) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/WH6NHDHM.
  4. Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.
  5. (Roy 2015, 20) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.
  6. (Leverani 2014, 36) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  7. (Mitchell 2018, 39) Peter Mitchell 2018. The Donkey in Human History: An Archaeological Perspective. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  8. Bryce T. (2007) Hittite Warrior, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, pp. 15-16
  9. (Hoffmeier 2001) J K Hoffmeier in D B Redford. ed. 2001. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  10. Bryce T. (2007) Hittite Warrior, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, pp. 15
  11. https://www.tf.uni-kiel.de/matwis/amat/iss/kap_a/advanced/ta_1_2b.html
  12. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  13. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  14. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html