TrNeoCR

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Katarzyna Harabasz ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Konya Plain - Ceramic Neolithic ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Ceramic Neolithic; Neolithikum Keramik in der Ebene von Konya; Neolithique Ceramique sur la Plaine de Konya; Konya Seramik Neolitik Ovalar ♥ Ceramic Neolithic; Neolithikum Keramik in der Ebene von Konya; Néolithique Céramique sur la Plaine de Konya; Konya Seramik Neolitik Ovalar ... this is not machine readable.

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥ unknown


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 7000-6600 BCE ♥ This time range occurs in literature as 'Ceramic Neolithic', the beginning of which is dated to 7000 BCE at the sites such as: Çatalhöyük, Boncuklu Höyük, Canhasan III, Aşıklı Höyük. Which are providing a new story of how and when people first settled down into villages and began farming in this region. Characteristics traits for this period are: local changes in pottery and lithic technologies reflect changes in subsistence modes.[1]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unknown ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ unknown ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Konya Plain - Early Neolithic ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Konya Plain - Late Neolithic ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥ unknown

♠ Language ♣ ♥ inapplicable

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Katarzyna Harabasz ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 1 ♥ unknown

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 1 ♥ village management by council and / or chiefs [2]

♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥ unknown

♠ Military levels ♣ 1 ♥ unknown

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ inapplicable

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥ inapplicable

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ absent ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ absent ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ absent ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ absent ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ absent ♥
♠ Canals ♣ absent ♥
♠ Ports ♣ absent ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥
♠ History ♣ absent ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ absent ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ absent ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Katarzyna Harabasz; Thomas Cressy; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later. Beads and tools carved from copper have been found but no weapons or smelting at this time [3]
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Bone harpoons found for this time, but it is unclear if used for warfare or hunting. There is no reason to believe that other humans couldn't be the target for these though [4]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to a military historian (this data needs to be checked by a polity specialist) 4500 BCE: "Sling invented at Catal Huyuk in Anatolia."[5] The shape and appearance of the blunt force traumatic injuries identified at Çatalhöyük are consistent with injuries from both handheld blunt objects but also from projectiles - thrown stones or other objects. The number, shape, and location on the top and back of the cranium suggest that objects, thrown or sling-delivered, support an association.[6]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ At Çatalhöyük clay balls have been interpreted as sling ammunition."The use of the sling is alos attested in wall art that features a purported slinger."[7]According to a military historian (this data needs to be checked by a polity specialist) "The bow was probably between 6,000 and 10,000 years old by the dawn of the Bronze Age".[8] Was the bow used in warfare?
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE."[9] "The composite bows spread into Palestine around 1800 BCE and were introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos in 1700 BCE."[10]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to a military historian (this data needs to be checked by a polity specialist) "The mace was among man's oldest weapons (at least 6000 B.C.E. at Catal Huyuk)".[11] The shape and appearance of the blunt force traumatic injuries identified at Çatalhöyük are consistent with injuries from both handheld blunt objects but also from projectiles-thrown stones or other objects. The number, shape, and location on the top and back of the cranium suggest that objects, thrown or sling-delivered, support an association.[12]
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ Bone needles/knives were present by 7200 BC, but no hard evidence for use in warfare [13] Stone blades had been in production in Iraq/Iran since the Paleolithic: 'The Baradostian lithic industry is dominated by blade production. Characteristic tools include slender points, backed blades and bladelets, twisted bladelets with various kinds of light retouch, end scrapers, discoidal scrapers, side scrapers, and burins.' [14] Obsidian blades have also been found for this period [15] Knife blades became longer during this time but this was for butchery rather than warfare[16]
♠ Swords ♣ absent ♥ According to a military historian (this data needs to be checked by a polity specialist) "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier's primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken."[17]
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ present ♥ Dogs were used to defend villages against attacking humans/animals[18]
♠ Donkeys ♣ [absent; present] ♥ I don't understand the reference to 'donkeys' at Tepcik-ciflik if the the species was only domesticated and at much later time and in Africa. In the Near East pack animals appears by around 7000 BC onward.[19] "The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass 'in more than one place' but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan.[20] (Only in Africa, presumably, so the donkey would not have been here yet). "Well before 3000 BC donkeys in Upper Egypt were trained to carry loads."[21]
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥ Earliest reference for present we currently have is for the Hittites.[22] In Egypt helmets were probably first worn by charioteers in the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE.[23] According to a military historian (this data needs to be checked by a polity specialist) earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer.[24]
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred absent ♥ According to a military historian (this data needs to be checked by a polity specialist) the earliest reference in Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply."[25] It is also earlier than the earliest reference in Anatolia, the Hittite period.[26]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Base camps with fortified walls are present, defending against animal or human attackers [27]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ absent ♥ not yet found in settlements such as Çatal Höyük
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ absent ♥ not yet found in settlements such as Çatal Höyük
♠ Ditch ♣ absent ♥ not yet found in settlements such as Çatal Höyük
♠ Moat ♣ absent ♥ not yet found in settlements such as Çatal Höyük
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time, even if stone architecture has been found in Göbekli Tepe, it does not appear to be for military purposes [28]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Only archaeological evidence for mudbrick walls at this time
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km. not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [29] [30] [31]

References

  1. Yakar Y. 2011. Anatolian Chronology and Terminolog [in]: Steadman S, R., G. McMahon (eds.) "The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia 10,000- 323 B.C.E." Oxford University Press.
  2. Yakar Y. 2011. Anatolian Chronology and Terminolog [in]: Steadman S, R., G. McMahon (eds.) "The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia 10,000- 323 B.C.E." Oxford University Press.
  3. https://www.tf.uni-kiel.de/matwis/amat/iss/kap_a/advanced/ta_1_2c.html
  4. (Leverani 2014, 36) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  5. (Gabriel 2007, xii) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers' Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.
  6. Christopher J. Knüsel, Bonnie Glencross, ‘Çatalhöyük, Archaeology, Violence’, ‘’Contagion: Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture’’, Volume 24, 2017, pp. 29-32
  7. (Knüsel: Glencross and Milella 2019: 83) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/WH6NHDHM.
  8. (Gabriel 2002, 27-28) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  9. Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.
  10. (Roy 2015, 20) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.
  11. (Gabriel 2002, 51) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  12. Christopher J. Knüsel, Bonnie Glencross, ‘Çatalhöyük, Archaeology, Violence’, ‘’Contagion: Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture’’, Volume 24, 2017, pp. 29-32
  13. (Alizadeh 2003, 82)
  14. Nicholas J. Conard, Elham Ghasidian, and Saman Heydari-Guran, 'The Paleolithic of Iran', In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, pp. 38-39
  15. Lloyd R. Weeks, ‘The Development and Expansion of a Neolithic Way of Life’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, p. 57
  16. (Leverani 2014, 41) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  17. (Gabriel 2002, 26-27) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  18. (Leverani 2014, 41-44) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  19. (Leverani 2014, 41) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  20. (Mitchell 2018, 39) Peter Mitchell 2018. The Donkey in Human History: An Archaeological Perspective. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  21. (Drews 2017, 34) Robert Drews. 2017. Militarism and the Indo-Europeanizing of Europe. Routledge. Abingdon.
  22. Bryce T. (2007) Hittite Warrior, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, pp. 15-16
  23. (Hoffmeier 2001) J K Hoffmeier in D B Redford. ed. 2001. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  24. (Gabriel 2002, 22) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  25. (Gabriel and Metz 1991, 51) Richard A Gabriel. Karen S Metz. 1991. The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Greenwood Press. Westport.
  26. Bryce T. (2007) Hittite Warrior, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, pp. 15
  27. (Leverani 2014, 39-42) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  28. https://www.tf.uni-kiel.de/matwis/amat/iss/kap_a/advanced/ta_1_2b.html
  29. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  30. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  31. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html