TrNHitt

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Marika Wałęga; Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Neo-Hittite Kingdoms ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Early Iron Age in Central Anatolia; wczesna epoka zelaza w centralnej Anatolii; Fruhe Eisenzeit in Zentralanatolien; Debut de l age du fer en Anatolie centrale; Orta Anadolu da Erken Demir Cagi ♥ wczesna epoka żelaza w centralnej Anatolii; Frühe Eisenzeit in Zentralanatolien; Début de l'âge du fer en Anatolie centrale; Orta Anadolu'da Erken Demir Çağı ... this is not machine readable.

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥ unknown


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1180-900 BCE ♥ 1180-900 BCE In south-east Anatolia "The crucial period when the region was organised into city-states covers the five hundred years from ca. 1200 to ca. 700 B.C."[1]

mid-9th century BCE Assyrian records suggest Tabal "consisted of a number of small independent states (which may have evolved several centuries earlier) whose rulers became tributaries of Assyria." [2]

"The Neo-Hittite period can be divided into two main phases, as suggested by Mazzoni ([1995] 189). The first phase covers the period from the 12th century to the mid 9th century B.C. This period is characterised by the rise of kingdoms each centred on a town. Some of these towns were new foundations, but some were refoundations of earlier urban centres now embellished with monumental iconography. The second period covers the ca. 150 years from the mid 9th century to the Assyrian conquest in the late 8th century B.C. This phase saw the growth of centres and also an increasing concern for security expressed in the building of fortified strongholds throughout the region." [3]


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥

Autonomous states: "from the time written records begin for the individual states that lay within the land called Hatti in Iron Age texts, it is clear that there was no sense of these states constituting a single political entity, or any form of political federation. Each was entirely independent from the others, each had its own autonomous ruler."[4]


♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

Alliances

alliances negotiate between Neo-Hittite kingdoms against one another and against the Assyrians [5]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Hatti - New Kingdom ♥ "Hittite appanage kingdom called Tarhuntassa, which extended eastwards through part of Classical Cilicia and inland to the region of modern Konya." [6] "According to a proposal recently made by I. Yakibovich, the core area of Luwian population was located in central Anatolia, in the region of the Konya Plain, and Luwian migration into western Anatolia occurred only after the Arzawan kingdom had been established." [7]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ "the Neo-Hittite kingdoms of the Land of Hatti were essentially an evolution out of the peoples who were already there rather than the result of large waves of new immigrants from devastated homelands in the west. And whether they were of post-Bronze Age or earlier origin, the Luwian-speaking inhabitants of these kingdoms probably constituted only a minority of their populations." [8] "Carchemish and probably Malatya apparently continued from their Late Bronze Age predecessors with little or no interruption."[9] Tabal region (Konya Plain): "There is nothing in the material record to indicate that it was significantly affected by the upheavals at the end of the Late Bronze Age, or by the collapse of the Hittite empire. Certainly there is no evidence of a shift of peoples from it in this period." [10]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Tabal Kingdoms ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Neo-Hittite ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥ unknown

♠ Language ♣ Luwian ♥ "The region called Tabal in the Iron Age extended over a large part of south-eastern Anatolia, southwards from the southern curve of the Halys river (Kizil Irmak) toward the Taurus mountains, westwards to the Konya Plain and eastwards towards the anti-Taurus range. The population of the region was very likely a predominantly Luwian one, as it had been throughout the Late Bronze Age and perhaps already in the early second millennium."[11] "In the post-Bronze Age era, Hittite cuneiform disappeared entirely. There is not the slightest trace of it in any of the Iron Age successor-kingdoms of the Hittites. One might reasonably suppose that along with the disappearance of the written language, Nesite also disappeared as a spoken one." [12]

General Description

After Hattusa was destroyed by fire ending the New Kingdom period of the Hittites[13] elements of the Hittite civilization lingered in peripheral areas of the former kingdom[14] which included the Konya Plain region. The primary region of the Syro-Hittite kingdoms was however in Syria. The small states lasted for almost 500 years and were culturally and politically prominent from c900 BCE until the last of them fell to the Assyrian king Sargon II between 717-708 BCE.[15] The cultural links between these kingdoms and the Late Bronze Age Hittite Empire can be seen in the iconography and architecture.[16]

In the 1180-900 BCE post-Empire period the region reorganized into city-states.[17] The earliest written records suggest there was no kind of federation, "each was entirely independent from the others, each had its own autonomous ruler."[18] The label 'Neo-Hittite' applies to 15 states spread through south-eastern Anatolia and northern Syria.[19] Those present in the area around or on the Konya Plain were the following: Pisidia; Pamphylia; Lycaonia; Tabal; Cilicia (Hilakku and Que).[20]

Although there was some continuity with the preceding period major cultural changes occurred in the Neo-Hittite era. According to Bryce (2012) "Hittite cuneiform disappeared entirely. There is not the slightest trace of it in any of the Iron Age successor-kingdoms of the Hittites. One might reasonably suppose that along with the disappearance of the written language, Nesite also disappeared as a spoken one." [21] Although we do not have any historical records associated with this epoch, historians have speculated that the society of this era used the Hieroglyphic Luwian language.[22] [23] I. Yakibovich has suggested that the core area of Luwian population was located in central Anatolia, in the region of the Konya Plain.[24]

Many Neo-Hittite rulers took the titles "Great King" and "Hero" and it is likely an administrative centre existed in the central town.[25] At the better known Neo-Hittite site of Carchemish, in western Anatolia, a central bureaucracy is known which had scribes, clerks and other officials[26]; although "Carchemish and probably Malatya apparently continued from their Late Bronze Age predecessors with little or no interruption"[27] which might not be the case for other lesser-known polities of the Neo-Hittite states.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Marika Wałęga; Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [300-700] ♥

"The Neo-Hittite states varied considerably in size, from a few to several hundred square kilometres. The smaller Tabalian kingdoms are examples of the former, Hamath and Bit-Burutash of the latter." [28]

Tabal --- the region

"Tabal covered much of what was called the Lower Land in Late Bronze Age Hittite texts, including the territory of the Classical Tyanitis. Westwards, it extended to the Konya Plain, encompassing the sites now known as Kizildag and Karadag. The region had been integrated into Hittite territory, probably very early in Hittite history, and served as a kind of southern and south-western buffer zone to the Hittite homeland." [29]

Northern Tabal (Tabal 'Proper') --- a kingdom in the region of Tabal

ruling line possibly dates to mid-9th century BCE but could be earlier [30]
largest of the Tabal Kingdoms, probably contained sub-regions [31]
"it corresponded roughly to the modern provinces of Kayseri and Nigde." [32]

Carchemish --- may have had some control over Konya Plain region after the fall of the Hittite Empire?

"If one identifies the agricultural hinterland of Karkamis with the plains and valleys west of the river and excludes the mountainous regions to the north, the territory of the kingdom can be assessed at over 750 km2."[33]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [80,000-160,000] ♥

New Kingdom of Hatti coded 2 million for up to 45,000 km2, which is 44.4 per km2. Neo-Hittite state of 700 km2 * 44.4 density per km2 would provide an estimate of about 30,000. However, the Neo-Hittite states were no doubt based around the larger urban areas so this could be a bottom line figure. Considering that there would need to be 100 such states in the region of Turkey to reach the 3 million population figure (for Turkey - see McEvedy and Jones estimate) this "bottom line" figure may be too low. 3 million split among, say, 15 states in Turkey as a whole would give us 200,000 per polity. This seems closer to a reasonable range of perhaps 80,000-160,000.

Turkey contained 3 million "during the course of the full Bronze age".[34]


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [12,000-18,000] ♥ 18,000 if we use Carchemish as an outside of NGA analogue at 200 per 90ha.

Carchemish (outside NGA region unless Carchemish had some control over Konya Plain region in early period)

"The area enclosed by the outer wall covered more than 90 ha, which made it the largest urban centre in the region."[35]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥

1. City/Town

At time when Konya Plain controlled by larger kingdom e.g. Carchemish? Northern Tabal?
2. Village
3. Hamlet

In the early iron age in central Anatolia are known only villages and hamlets (Gordion, Boğazköy, Kaman Kalehöyük) [36] [37]

"Peripheral areas within the kingdom's frontiers typically contained a number of communities called 'cities' in the texts, the majority of which could have been no more than small villages. But the larger kingdoms must have contained, in addition to the capital, one or more relatively large settlements or cities, the centres probably of regional sub-kingdoms, over each of which a local ruler presided. Regional administrations under local rulers appear to be attested within the kingdoms of Carchemish and Adanawa, for example. at certain periods in their history. The local man was subordinate and directly answerable to the occupant of the royal seat in the kingdom's capital."[38]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 4 ♥

1. King

many Neo-Hittite rulers took the titles "Great King" and "Hero".
"There are inscriptions that identify Kuzi-Teshub as Great King of Carchemish and son of Talmi-Teshub, the last-known Hittite viceroy at Carchemish. They indicate that at least one branch of the royal dynasty survived the fall of the empire and continued to exert authority through the early decades of the Iron Age. Since Hattusa was abandoned c.1185, Kuzi-Teshub's rule at Carchemish must date to the first half of the 12th century. His title 'Great King' is a significant one. No subordinate ruler within the Hittite kingdom, even a viceroy, would have used such a title while there was still a central regime at Hattusa."[39]
2. Head bureaucratic official (inferred)
"The focus of each state was an administrative centre where the royal seat was located." [40]
central bureaucracy in Carchemish with scribes, clerks and other officials [41] and note that "Carchemish and probably Malatya apparently continued from their Late Bronze Age predecessors with little or no interruption."[42]
3. Assistant scribe (inferred)
4. Lesser scribes (inferred)


_Sub-Kingdom administration_

2. Sub-king
"Peripheral areas within the kingdom's frontiers typically contained a number of communities called 'cities' in the texts, the majority of which could have been no more than small villages. But the larger kingdoms must have contained, in addition to the capital, one or more relatively large settlements or cities, the centres probably of regional sub-kingdoms, over each of which a local ruler presided. Regional administrations under local rulers appear to be attested within the kingdoms of Carchemish and Adanawa, for example. at certain periods in their history. The local man was subordinate and directly answerable to the occupant of the royal seat in the kingdom's capital."[43]
3. Village leader (inferred)


♠ Religious levels ♣ [2-3] ♥

1. King?

2-3. Priests in temples.


♠ Military levels ♣ 4 ♥

Likely had at the least king - commander - officer - individual soldier.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ unknown. Present for the New Kingdom Hatti which preceded the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: "the core of the defence force was a full-time, professional standing army. ... They lived together in military barracks, so that they could be mobilized at a moment's notice."[44] According to H. Genz "So far not a single burial from the Early Iron Age is known from Central Anatolia"[45] which makes it difficult tell whether professionalism was maintained.

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ unknown. Present for the New Kingdom Hatti which preceded the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: "the core of the defence force was a full-time, professional standing army. ... They lived together in military barracks, so that they could be mobilized at a moment's notice."[46] According to H. Genz "So far not a single burial from the Early Iron Age is known from Central Anatolia"[47] which makes it difficult tell whether professionalism was maintained.

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ In temples. E.g. temple of the Storm God in Carchemish. [48]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ "the retention of the Luwian language and script in various parts of the Neo-Hittite world until the end of the 8th century attests the existence of a professional scribal class trained in reading and writing the language."[49]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "the retention of the Luwian language and script in various parts of the Neo-Hittite world until the end of the 8th century attests the existence of a professional scribal class trained in reading and writing the language."[50]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "the retention of the Luwian language and script in various parts of the Neo-Hittite world until the end of the 8th century attests the existence of a professional scribal class trained in reading and writing the language."[51]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "the retention of the Luwian language and script in various parts of the Neo-Hittite world until the end of the 8th century attests the existence of a professional scribal class trained in reading and writing the language."[52] However, we have found no references to specialized government buildings in the sources consulted.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥ Coded present for New Kingdom of Hatti (predecessor). "Carchemish and probably Malatya apparently continued from their Late Bronze Age predecessors with little or no interruption."[53] Tabal region (Konya Plain): "There is nothing in the material record to indicate that it was significantly affected by the upheavals at the end of the Late Bronze Age, or by the collapse of the Hittite empire. Certainly there is no evidence of a shift of peoples from it in this period." [54]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred present ♥ Coded present for New Kingdom of Hatti (predecessor). "Carchemish and probably Malatya apparently continued from their Late Bronze Age predecessors with little or no interruption."[55] Tabal region (Konya Plain): "There is nothing in the material record to indicate that it was significantly affected by the upheavals at the end of the Late Bronze Age, or by the collapse of the Hittite empire. Certainly there is no evidence of a shift of peoples from it in this period." [56]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥ Coded present for New Kingdom of Hatti (predecessor). "Carchemish and probably Malatya apparently continued from their Late Bronze Age predecessors with little or no interruption."[57] Tabal region (Konya Plain): "There is nothing in the material record to indicate that it was significantly affected by the upheavals at the end of the Late Bronze Age, or by the collapse of the Hittite empire. Certainly there is no evidence of a shift of peoples from it in this period." [58]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥ unknown. Coded inferred present for New Kingdom of Hatti (predecessor). "Carchemish and probably Malatya apparently continued from their Late Bronze Age predecessors with little or no interruption."[59] Tabal region (Konya Plain): "There is nothing in the material record to indicate that it was significantly affected by the upheavals at the end of the Late Bronze Age, or by the collapse of the Hittite empire. Certainly there is no evidence of a shift of peoples from it in this period." [60]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred continuity with earlier periods in the region
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred continuity with earlier periods in the region
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred continuity with earlier periods in the region
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Granaries.
♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ inherited and still maintained?
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥ inherited and still maintained?
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥

Information

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Marika Wałęga; Thomas Cressy ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ "Iron was first utilized as a technology of war around 1300 BCE by the Hittites."[61] At the earliest times bronze was preferred and iron had mainly ornamental uses.[62] In Eastern Anatolia "the shift from bronze to iron was more gradual than abrupt" and in some areas bronze was used into the 750-400 BCE period.[63] Iron was used for weapons and tools, and by non-elites, from the Urartian period after about 850 BCE.[64] In nearby Georgia, a regional center for iron smelting, massive finds of iron tools and weapons appear from about 700 BCE.[65]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Gaebel thinks it is "probable that the Hittite chariots carried javelin throwers and archers."[66]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ weapon of the Americas
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region.[67] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[68]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ "The principal weapon of the Hittite chariot contingent was the bow and arrow. The bow was made of a composite of wood and horn glued together, which gave it a lot of strength and flexibility."[69]. "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[70]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records.[71] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone".[72] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE.[73] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did.[74] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE.[75] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons.[76] There is no direct evidence for catapults for this time/location. The aforementioned evidence we currently have covering the wider ancient world suggests they were probably not used at this time, perhaps because effective machines had not been invented yet.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ used throughout the Hittite times
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region.[77] also presence in previous polity
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Swords had long been in use and have been uncovered in Anatolia during this time.[78] ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region.[79] According to a military history (data requires check by polity expert): "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier's primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken."[80]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region.[81] According to a military history (data requires check by polity expert): Spear-using phalanx first used in Sumer 2500 BCE. The phalanx was in use until the 1st century BCE.[82]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ use as Pack Animals appears by around 7000 BC onward [83]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ [84]. "The horse and light chariot were introduced into the Hittite world, as elsewhere in the Near East, probably around 1600..."[85]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ "Helmets made of leather, textiles and bronze" [86]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ "The shields are either rectangular or of the figure-of-eight type[87] also presence in previous polity
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region.[88] Which time/polity does this quote precisely refer to? Helmets were present in Egypt probably worn by charioteers by the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE.[89] According to a military history (data requires check by polity expert): Earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer. After this time use of helmets became widespread.[90]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ not mentioned in archaeological record, but this code has not yet received an expert check
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Closest reference in Anatolia is the Hittite period.[91] According to a military history (data requires check by polity expert): In Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply."[92]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ According to a military history (data requires check by polity expert): Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples.[93]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region.[94] also presence in previous polity
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Naval technology

♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ 'There was no Hittite fleet, and we do not know what ships were used for intercourse with the island of Cyprus, which the Hittites appear to have controlled. They used the services of the countries covered, especially Ugarit. However, the last king of Hatti, Suppiluliuma II actually boasts of victory in two sea battles (but does not describe them).' [95]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ 'There was no Hittite fleet, and we do not know what ships were used for intercourse with the island of Cyprus, which the Hittites appear to have controlled. They used the services of the countries covered, especially Ugarit. However, the last king of Hatti, Suppiluliuma II actually boasts of victory in two sea battles (but does not describe them).' [96]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Boğazköy on the hill. ‘judging from the fact that in the Late Bronze I (Period V B, 1750-1600 b.c.e.), a town gate was built in the Arslantepe earthen wall defense system, flanked by two bipartite quadrangular towers, which was highly reminiscent of similar central Anatolian gates, such as those at AliŞar or Boğazköy (Palmieri 1978). ... this fortification system arrangement remained unchanged throughout the imperial Hittite and Neo-Hittite periods’[97]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ 'this fortification system arrangement remained unchanged throughout the imperial Hittite and Neo-Hittite periods’[98]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ same as the previous polity: 'this fortification system arrangement remained unchanged throughout the imperial Hittite and Neo-Hittite periods’[99]
♠ Ditch ♣ absent ♥ 'this fortification system arrangement remained unchanged throughout the imperial Hittite and Neo-Hittite periods’[100]
♠ Moat ♣ absent ♥ 'this fortification system arrangement remained unchanged throughout the imperial Hittite and Neo-Hittite periods’[101]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown: 1180-1000 BCE; present: 1000-901 BCE ♥ following evidence between 1000 BCE and 700 BCE: Urartu’s craftsmen used iron picks and hammers to forge horizontal planes out of bedrock on which to erect the empire’s numerous and imposing stone fortresses.[102]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ stone only being used as a wall foundation in previous polity (Around the citadel in Gordion) [103]. Wall fortifications found in Kaman Kalehöyük [104] [105].
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ 'this fortification system arrangement remained unchanged throughout the imperial Hittite and Neo-Hittite periods’[106] e.g. Carchemish: "The defence consisted of several walls or ramparts that protected an outer city with private houses and an inner city with gates, temples, the Great Staircase and hilani-buildings. A fortified citadel was located by the river at what was probably the centre of the city. ... According to Mazzoni a new lay-out of the citadel, squares and public buildings with facade sculptures took place during the late 11th and early 10th centuries B.C. (Mazzoni [1995] 182). Thereafter there is a change in iconography marked by the disappearance of the traditional Hittite motifs..."[107]
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km. not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥ Unknown?
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥ Unknown?
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥ Unknown?

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ The Neo-Hittite kingdoms were organised by dynasties: we can infer that elite status was hereditary. [108]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred present ♥ "They are commonly referred to as the Neo-Hittite kingdoms, since they preserved a number of Hittite cultural traditions, including elements of Hittite religion, architecture and iconography." [109] Unfortunately, the authors of this quote do not then go on to explain which specific 'elements' of Hittite religion were preserved by the Neo-Hittites, but, for now, this seems sufficient to infer continuity. “As the protegé of the national deity, the Storm-God or, later, the Sun-Goddess of Arinna, the king acted as his or her chief priest. The Sun-Goddess was said to run before the king in battle, thus ensuring his victory. From the earliest records, the throne-deity Halmasuitt was a divine patron of the office she symbolized. In a ritual for the foundation of the king’s palace, she delivered the insignias of power to the king. The kings of the empire period also enjoyed the protection of a personal deity. In monumental reliefs as well as on seals, the personal deity is sometimes shown protectively embracing the king, as Sharruma embraces Tudhaliya IV at Yazilikaya.” [110]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ inferred absent ♥ "They are commonly referred to as the Neo-Hittite kingdoms, since they preserved a number of Hittite cultural traditions, including elements of Hittite religion, architecture and iconography." [111] Unfortunately, the authors of this quote do not then go on to explain which specific 'elements' of Hittite religion were preserved by the Neo-Hittites, but, for now, this seems sufficient to infer continuity. “The most common way of saying in Hittite that the king or queen had died was ‘the king became a god.’ And logically, if the king ‘’became’’ a god at death, he was not such during his lifetime.” [112]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ inferred absent ♥ "They are commonly referred to as the Neo-Hittite kingdoms, since they preserved a number of Hittite cultural traditions, including elements of Hittite religion, architecture and iconography." [113] Unfortunately, the authors of this quote do not then go on to explain which specific 'elements' of Hittite religion were preserved by the Neo-Hittites, but, for now, this seems sufficient to infer continuity. “In contrast to the intimacy that the Hittite king enjoyed with the divine sphere, his connection to his subjects was guarded. This relationship is expressed officially in the imagery of the shepherd protecting his flock: 'May the land of Hatti graze abundantly (?) in the hand of the labarna (i.e., the king) and tawananna (i.e., the queen), and may it expand!' In reality, however, outside of his family and principal advisors, the king probably had almost no contact with the people he ruled, living instead an isolated existence designed in part to preserve his life and in part to protect him from pollution. As priest of the gods, the king’s purity was a matter of considerable concern, and the lives of those whose carelessness jeopardized his higher state were forfeit. One cannot help but wonder what the average farmer or coppersmith privately thought of this remote figure.” [114]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ "They are commonly referred to as the Neo-Hittite kingdoms, since they preserved a number of Hittite cultural traditions, including elements of Hittite religion, architecture and iconography." [115] Unfortunately, the authors of this quote do not then go on to explain which specific 'elements' of Hittite religion were preserved by the Neo-Hittites, but, for now, this seems sufficient to infer continuity. “In contrast to the intimacy that the Hittite king enjoyed with the divine sphere, his connection to his subjects was guarded. This relationship is expressed officially in the imagery of the shepherd protecting his flock: 'May the land of Hatti graze abundantly (?) in the hand of the labarna (i.e., the king) and tawananna (i.e., the queen), and may it expand!' In reality, however, outside of his family and principal advisors, the king probably had almost no contact with the people he ruled, living instead an isolated existence designed in part to preserve his life and in part to protect him from pollution. As priest of the gods, the king’s purity was a matter of considerable concern, and the lives of those whose carelessness jeopardized his higher state were forfeit. One cannot help but wonder what the average farmer or coppersmith privately thought of this remote figure.” [116]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "They are commonly referred to as the Neo-Hittite kingdoms, since they preserved a number of Hittite cultural traditions, including elements of Hittite religion, architecture and iconography." [117] Unfortunately, the authors of this quote do not then go on to explain which specific 'elements' of Hittite religion were preserved by the Neo-Hittites, but, for now, this seems sufficient to infer continuity.

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "They are commonly referred to as the Neo-Hittite kingdoms, since they preserved a number of Hittite cultural traditions, including elements of Hittite religion, architecture and iconography." [118] Unfortunately, the authors of this quote do not then go on to explain which specific 'elements' of Hittite religion were preserved by the Neo-Hittites, but, for now, this seems sufficient to infer continuity.

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "They are commonly referred to as the Neo-Hittite kingdoms, since they preserved a number of Hittite cultural traditions, including elements of Hittite religion, architecture and iconography." [119] Unfortunately, the authors of this quote do not then go on to explain which specific 'elements' of Hittite religion were preserved by the Neo-Hittites, but, for now, this seems sufficient to infer continuity.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [120] [121] [122]

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Bryce, T. 2012. The World of The Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

Bryce, T. 2002. Life and Society in the Hittite World. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

Burnley, C. 2004. Historical Dictionary of the Hittites. Scarecrow Press.

Thuesen, I. "The Neo-Hittite City-States" in Mogens, H H ed. 2002. A Comparative Study of Six City-state Cultures: An Investigation, Volume 27. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab.

Harrison, T. P. 2009. NEO-HITTITES IN THE “LAND OF PALISTIN”: Renewed Investigations at Tell Taʿyinat on the Plain of Antioch. Near Eastern Archaeology. 72:4. pp.174-189. http://sites.utoronto.ca/tap/publications/Harrison_NEA_2009_72_4.pdf