TrByzM3

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Bzyantine Empire III ♥ Common name.

♠ Alternative names ♣ Eastern Roman Empire; Byzantium; Empire of the Romans; Basileia ton Rhomaion; Middle Byzantine Empire III ♥ Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων (Greek) - Basileia ton Rhomaion (“Empire of the Romans”).

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1180 CE ♥

"The first acute period of disintegration in Constantinople occurred in the early 1180s as various court parties fought for control of Manuel's young heir Alexios II."[1]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1073-1204 CE ♥

Michael VII Ducas (r.1071-1078 CE) - Isaac II Angelus (again) and Alexius IV Angelus (r.1203-1204 CE), Alexius V Murtzuphlus (r.1204 CE).[2]

1204 CE: "Conquest of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade, temporal collapse of the Empire"[3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

Alliance with Venice in 1082 CE.[4]

Alliance: "Emperors from the time of Basil II found it cheaper to call upon allies and dependents, such as Venice, to supply warships, than to pay for an expensive standing fleet at Constantinople."[5]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Byzantine Empire II ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Latin Empire ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Christianity ♥ "The Byzantine Empire recognized neither the western Frankish Empire nor the Bulgarian Emperor. It spoke of the archontes Boulgaron, the princes of the Bulgars, and the reges Francias, the kings of Francia. The Byzantine Empire never gave up its claims to universal rule. It claimed to be at the apex of the family of kings; it was the father, they were the sons. ... It was only with the Arab rulers that there had long been some recognition of equality, and also with the Persian kings, which was reflected in the title of 'brother' used in official documents."[6]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [20,000,000-25,000,000] ♥ km squared. To the East, Christianity extended not only into the Middle East, but also as far as Central Asia, India and China. Westernmost reach was Ireland. In Africa present as far south as Ethiopia.[7] Expansion to the north and west into Scandinavia and Russia in this period increased the total area under Christendom.


♠ Capital ♣ Constantinople ♥ By 395 CE capital of Eastern Roman Empire. [8]


♠ Language ♣ Greek ♥ "In some of the central authorities Greek had established itself as the language of the chancery since the beginning of the fourth century, in contrast to the army, which retained Latin as the official military language until the beginning of the seventh century. Other imperial authorities, above all the ministry of justice, kept to the Latin language until the beginning of the seventh century."[9] Heraclius (r.610-641 CE) made Greek the official language. [10]</ref> "Greek (spoken by the population as first language in southern Balkans and most of Anatolia, as second language Empire-wide) and Latin (spoken by part of the population as first language in the remaining possessions in Italy), Languages of minorities, migrants and deportees: Syriac, Armenian (in some eastern provinces of Anatolia, also as languages of liturgy and sacred literature), Slavonic (Balkans, deportees to Anatolia)." [11]

General Description

The Byzantine period (1073-1204 CE) began with Michael VII Ducas (r.1071-1078 CE[12] and ended in disintegration with court in-fighting over the regency agenda for Manuel's heir Alexios II[13], which preceded the devastating 1204 CE conquest of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade.[14] The state had controlled about 500,000 km2 territory and upwards of 6 million people.

In ideology the Byzantine Empire carried the Roman worldview of its rightful domain of influence. Byzantine Emperors "recognized neither the western Frankish Empire nor the Bulgarian Emperor" and "never gave up its claims to universal rule. It claimed to be at the apex of the family of kings; it was the father, they were the sons."[15] The reality was that, although the state could maintain a professional army of over 100,000 soldiers, [16] increasingly the Byzantine state was dependent on allies for the the projection of military power. "Emperors from the time of Basil II found it cheaper to call upon allies and dependents, such as Venice, to supply warships, than to pay for an expensive standing fleet at Constantinople."[17]

Nevertheless the Byzantine government was, in terms of sophistication, with its legion of professional officials employed on state salary, a cut-above that which was present in the western states of the middle ages.[18][19] The Emperor headed a complex imperial government that was led by a Mesazon (Prime minister) who had secretaries and an official called Master of Petitions who took feedback from the people. Provinces were governed by doukes (provincial governors) who had provincial administrations staffed with multiple levels of fiscal administrators.[20]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 1,115,000: 1050 CE; [400,000-750,000]: 1090-1150 CE; [480,000-600,000]: 1200 CE ♥ in squared kilometers

Chase-Dunn

743,000: 1080 CE; 500,000: 1100 CE; 540,000: 1120 CE; 580,000: 1140 CE; 600,000: 1150 CE; 580,000: 1160 CE; 540,000: 1180 CE; 500,000: 1200 CE; 350,000: 1204 CE [21] Estimates seem much too high for me, maybe relying on unrealistic assumption on the extent of Byzantine power in the Balkans etc. I have tried to circumscribe the Byzantine borders at a specific time for a specific region as exact as possible.[22]

Preiser-Kapeller[23]

400,000: 1090 CE - temporal loss of almost entire Anatolia to Turkish groups and of the control over parts of the Balkans to the Pechenegs; permanent loss of remaining possessions in Italy to Normans
670,000: 1150 CE - control over most of the Balkans south of the Danube, of Western Asia Minor and the coastal zones of Anatolia
490,000: 1200 CE - loss of control over Northern Balkans to newly emerging independent kingdoms and of parts of possessions in Anatolia, loss of Cyprus

"750,000 in 1100 CE; 600,000 in 1200 CE; 200,000 in 1300 CE." Calculated using a GIS software by Alessio Palmisano.[24]

"1,115,000 in 1050 CE, 480,000 in 1200 CE, 30,000 in 1400 CE."[25]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [5,000,000-6,000,000]: 1100 CE; {6,000,000; 10,000,000}: 1150 CE; {6,000,000; 7,300,000; 9,000,000}: 1200 CE ♥ People.

Preiser-Kapeller[26]

6,000,000: 1090 CE
10,000,000: 1150 CE
7,300,000: 1200 CE

"... around 1025, although the empire occupied more or less the same amount of territory as in 750, it was more densely populated (at c.20 inhabitants per km2) and all in all more populous at roughly 18 million (between 10 and 18 million—Koder 1984/2001: 153; 19 million around 1025—Laiou 2002: 50-1; 18 million around 1050—Stein 1949-51:154)."[27]

"5m in 1100 CE; 9m in 1200 CE; 2 m in 1300 CE."[28]

Estimates based on McEvedy and Jones (1978).[29]

1100 CE

Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.

1150 CE

Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.

1200 CE

Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.

According to Stein, Byzantine Empire (1951) Mid-11th Century time of Michael VIII: 5m. [30]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [100,000-400,000] ♥ Inhabitants. Constantinople.

Everything between 100,000 and 400,000 possible.[31]

Preiser-Kapeller[32]

Constantinople 300,000: 1200 CE

Stathakopoulos[33]

Constantinople [300,000-400,000]: 1150 CE ("12th century")
Thessalonike 150,000: 1150 CE ("12th century")

Chase-Dunn[34]

Constantinople 200,000: 1100 CE; 200,000: 1150 CE; 150,000: 1200 CE

"250,000 in 1100 BC; 150,000 in 1200; 100,000 in 1300."[35]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 6 ♥ levels.

1. Capital

2. Capital of a province
3. City in a province
4. Town in a province
5. Chorion - village community.
6. Agridia - Hamlet
 ?. Farmstead

"Unlike the West, it did not originate as an independent peasant community with common meadowland and distribution of arable land, but was a taxable unit whose boundaries were defined by the fisc. The Byzantine rural community was only an economic unit in so far as this served the purpose of taxation. Membership of the village community resulted from inscription on the tax list. It was this principle which determined other forms of peasant settlements, individual farmsteads and hamlets. In Byzantine rural economy the most important role was played by the typical village settlement in which the farmsteads formed a close nucleus round which the arable land of the peasants was grouped. The Byzantines called this kind of settlement a chorion. In addition there were also individual farms situated in the middle of an agricultural estate. These were called ktesidia and for purposes of taxation were linked with the nearest village settlement as a taxable unit. The so-called hamlets (agridia), consisting of a widely distributed group of houses and farms, were treated in the same way."[36]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 8 ♥ levels.

Court and administration c.1081-1204 CE[37]

1. Emperor

2. Megas doux (Supreme Naval Commander)
3. Imperial fleet
2. Megas domestikos (east and west)
3. Provincial tagmata
2. Household units (Military)
2. doukes (provincial governors)
3. Provincial tagmata
3. Provincial administration
4. Provincial fiscal administrators - multiple levels
2. Mesazon (Prime Minister)
3. mystikos (private secretary)
3. protasekretis
3. Master of the Inkwell
3. Privy purse
3. Master of Petitions
3. Imperial table
3. Imperial private wardrobe
3. Cellarer
3. logothete of the sekreta
4. Megas logariastes of the charitable bureaux (imperial estates)
5. orphanotrophos
6. Head of a single orphanage inferred
7. Worker in an orphanage inferred
5. Curators and stewards of other charitable estates
After the theme organization introduced "The curatores, the heads of the great estate zones, now paid this revenue [tax] direct to the imperial sacellum, the imperial treasury. Within the treasury, as in all financial departments of state, there were two departments, the sacellum for money payments and the vestiarium for payments in kind."[38]
4. Megas logariastes of the sekreta
5. vestiarion
5. oikeiaka (public fiscal lands)
6. episkepseis (public fiscal estates)
6. Provincial fiscal administrators - multiple levels
5. General treasury
6. Provincial fiscal administrators - multiple levels
3. protostrator
4. Imperial stables
3. chartoularios of the stables
4. chartoularata (stock-raising estates)
3. logothete of the dromos
4. chartoularata (stock-raising estates)
3. dikaiodotes
3. Prefect of Constantinople
4. demes
4. Prisons
3. quaestor
3. Megas droungarios (court of the velon)
3. parathalassites (waterways and maritime law)

"This preponderance of civil officials became accentuated, and by the eleventh century the strategos had given way to the judge (krites) as the head of the thematic administration."[39]

♠ Religious levels ♣ 7 ♥

1. Pope

Pope is primus inter pares among the five patriarchs.[40]

1. Patriarch of Constantinople

"Patriarchs were elected by the standing synod in Constantinople, which presented three names to the emperor. He was entitled to choose one of these, or, if unable to accept any of the candidates, to choose the new patriarch himself." [41] Five Patriarchs (Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem).
2. Metropolitans and archbishops
"the term 'bishop' applies to patriarchs, metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops (both suffragan and assistant bishops or chorepiskopoi) throughout the Byzantine period. After the 'ecumenical' patriarch of Constantinople, who after the seventh century occupied the only remaining patriarchal seat under Byzantine rule, metropolitans held the second highest rank in the Orthodox Church."[42]
"The title 'archbishop' emerged in special cases, for example in important cities such as Athens which did not possess a metropolitan."[43]
3. Bishops and Chorepiskopoi
Bishops and Chorepiskopoi form one rank below the metropolitans and archbishops[44]
"Chorepiskopoi (literally 'country bishops') were assigned to rural communities and were subject to a bishop in a nearby city."[45]
"After the fourth century, the powers and functions of chorepiskopoi were gradually restricted and they were allowed only to ordain clerics of the lower orders. After the second Council of Nicaea (787) which prohibited them from ordaining even readers (anagnostai) without episcopal assent (canon 14), this separate episcopal rank began to disappear (Jugie 1904)."[46]
3. Priest
"In the early Church, priests or presbyters served as advisers, teachers, and ministers who assisted the bishops to whom they were assigned."[47]
4. Deacon
"Deacon (diakonos, 'servant')"[48]
"Deacons assisted the priest or bishop at the Divine Liturgy, baptisms, and other sacraments. ... Various administrative and pastoral jobs were delegated to deacons from an early period; they helped bishops to dispense charity to the community, manage the diocese's finances and property, and to deal with other official business (Laodikeia, canons 21, 23, 25). Deacons were subject to the authority of both bishops and priests, but they came to exercise considerable power, especially in the patriarchate of Constantinople."[49]
4. Deaconess (diakonissa)
Become more and more rare, would be of equal rank as deacon.[50]
"The deaconess's chief liturgical role was to assist at the baptisms of women; she also acted as a mediator between women parishioners and their bishops, kept order among female members of the congregation, and ministered especially to women."[51]
5. Subdeacon
"The rank of subdeacon provided a stepping-stone to that of deacon; its duties were similar to those of the deacon."[52]
6. Reader (anagnostesj
"A reader is a member of the lower clergy with the responsibility of reading, usually from the ambo, passages from the Epistles and the Old Testament prescribed for offices and the Divine Liturgy."[53]
7. Minor orders
"Other members of the minor clerical orders included doorkeepers, exorcists, cantors, and widows. All of these officials helped in either liturgical, administrative, or pastoral functions. Most would have received payment from their dioceses, or, in the case of private foundations, from their donors, but it is likely that most would have been engaged in secular professions in order to supplement their incomes."[54]


♠ Military levels ♣ 9 ♥ levels.

Preiser-Kapeller[55]

1. Emperor

2. Domestikos of the Scholai
3. Commanders of larger frontier commands (Dux, Katepanos)
4. Strategoi of the themata
5. Comanders of single units
6. Commanders of subunits 100
7. of 10 inferred by Ed
8. of 5 inferred by Ed
9. Soldier


Haldon

Court and administration c.1081-1204 CE[56]

1. Emperor

2. Megas doux (Supreme Naval Commander)
3. Imperial fleet
2. Megas domestikos (east and west)
3. Provincial tagmata
2. Household units (Military)
2. doukes (provincial governors)
"By the end of the reign of Manuel I (1143-80), the restored themata of Asia Minor stretched from Trebizond on the south-eastern stretch of the Black Sea coast westwards through Paphlagonia and around the western edges of the central plateau down to Cilicia. The armies based in these regions were under doukes who usually held both military and civil authority; while the fortresses and towns were administered by imperial officers called prokathemenoi aided or supported by a kastrophylax, or 'fortress warden'."[57]
3. Provincial tagmata


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[58] "An officer's pay was so high that even the lower commissions had large sums of gold at their disposal. They also had a very substantial share in war booty, which was theirs by law."[59] "As far as salaries went the military were generally better off than civil servants. Officers were exceedingly well paid. And an ordinary soldier also received more pay than an artisan could earn."[60]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[61] "Major military and fiscal reforms under the emperors of the Komnenian dynasty after 1081 re-established a properly paid and trained regular army."[62]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[63] Professional clergy.[64]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[65] "The council composed of professional officials was also preserved in the Byzantine state. This distinguishes it from the western states of the middle ages."[66]

♠ Examination system ♣ present ♥ "Attempts towards such a system in 11th century, but still not as permanent or sophisticated as in China.".[67] "The allocation of chairs showed that the university as it existed in the first half of the fifth century, had sunk to the level of an institution for professional training. The universal nature of a real university had been lost since the days of the Alexandrines. Here young men now received the education necessary to equip them for the higher offices in the civil service."[68]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[69]

"The officials brought into association with the central administration in this way were not only the members of certain privileged families. They were often men who had risen from lower social classes by reason of their own ability."[70]

"Provincials, the best example being Michael Attaleiates, benefited from social mobility based on talent at a time of the development of the schools of Constantinople."[71]

Women and men from humble origins could rise to positions of power [72]. Woman played "leading part in state affairs and society... political constitution did not exclude women from the throne" [73]

Nepotism (very widespread[74])

"It often happened that certain particularly energetic civil servants through their unusual activity in the central departments gave their office far greater importance than really belonged to it. They took great care to ensure that the importance gained by this usurpation of the responsibilities of other departments was retained, and with this in mind they appointed suitable successors, colleagues or men drawn from their own circle of relatives."[75]
"The administration, in spite of the great services it rendered to the State, was honeycombed with vices. As places were sold, so were favours and justice. To make a fortune and gain advancement, merit was of less use than intrigue...". [76]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[77] Customs building. "The route by which oriental goods came is well known. All ships coming from Syria and Egypt had to go to Attaleia, the great harbour in south-west Asia Minor. Only then were they allowed to continue their journey to Constantinople. At Atteleia the customs officials came on board and entered against the list of goods the duty payable to the customs. The rate of duty was very high."[78]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ "Codex Justinianus (in the form of simplified extracts esp. translation into Greek - "Basilika" - under Basil I and Leon VI at the end of the 9th century).[79] "Revision of canon law by Theodore Vestes (c.1090)."[80]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[81]

"These schools were attended by practically everyone who wanted a public appointment. There were for instance the notaries. They began as legal copyists of documents (donations, wills) and deed of sale. After a lengthy private practice they would then get an appointment as judge in one of the provinces and then, after some years in office, with the help of influential friends would enter the imperial chancery." [82]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ "Court of the Hippodrome", "Court of the Velum" very well documented - see the entry on "Judges" in the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, for instance.[83][84]

"There is no text explaining in so many words what courts existed in Constantinople at any one time."[85]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[86]

"In the fourth century ... we find scarcely any professionals in the field of law. On the contrary, this century is known for its dramatic shortcomings in comparison with the previous Roman jurisprudence, while on the other hand the new Byzantine law schools did not arise before the end of the fifth century." [87]

"These schools were attended by practically everyone who wanted a public appointment. There were for instance the notaries. They began as legal copyists of documents (donations, wills) and deed of sale. After a lengthy private practice they would then get an appointment as judge in one of the provinces and then, after some years in office, with the help of influential friends would enter the imperial chancery." [88]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[89] According to Haussig (1971) "a highly developed use of land, particularly by means of irrigation, as in Egypt and Syria, was unknown to the Byzantine economy, where no progress had been made in working and cultivating the soil"[90] Territory of Egypt and Syria not held in this period. However Harvey (2008): "Landowners had the resources to make improvements to their properties, in particular the construction of irrigation systems, and to specialize in cash crops like vines and olives."[91] Vines and olives are typically grown in Greece and Turkey.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[92] Cisterns of St Mocius, Philoxenus and Illus (Yerebatansaray), Acqueduct of Valens in Constantinople.[93] "Over 150 covered cisterns and reservoirs survive of the complex water programme, the most impressive of which is the Basilica Cistern (Yerebatansaray) (Crow and Bayliss 2005)."[94]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[95] Eleventh century: "Emperors from the aristocratic magnate class give up a planned economy."[96] State-supplied food sent to markets (macella) which in Constantinople "were normally located by the fora and the Strategion (M. Mango 2000)." [97] "The market-places (agorai) built in the early Byzantine period follow Roman models (e.g. the oval Forum erected by Constantine I in Constantinople, the circular agora of Justiniana Prima built by Justinian I), so much so that the Forum Tauri in Constantinople was laid out by Theodosios I in imitation of Trajan's Forum in Rome."[98]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Castella settlements on the lower Danube "had common granaries for corn". [99] Such as in Constantinople: "Two granaries near the Marmara, the Alexandrina and Theodosianum, stored some of the grain from Egypt, while some was held in three granaries to the north, near the Srategion and Prosphorion harbour."[100]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[101] Certain streets paved with marble or other stone.[102] Road building, repairing and administration.[103]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[104] Bridges.[105]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[106] Maintenance of existing canals. Need examples.
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[107] "Commerce in the city was dependent on the four major harbours: the Prosphorion and the Neorion (naval dockyard) on the Golden Horn, and two artificial harbours on the Marmara Coast, built by Julian and Theodosius I (Magdalino 2000). Both state-supplied food (annona) (bread, wine, and oil, distributed until the seventh century) and privately marketed food were distributed from the harbours to warehouses (horrea) and then to bakeries, shops, and markets (macella), which were normally located by the fora and the Strategion (M. Mango 2000)." [108]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ [109]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ absent ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says absent.[110]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ "Archaeological evidence provides us with insights into many key aspects of medieval life: dwellings, fortifications, diet, clothing, tools, and items of daily existence, as well as providing information on the production and distribution of luxury goods."[111] E.g. pictures and artefacts.
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[112] Legal texts, legislative documents, theological writings, chronicles and more.[113] Letters: "The total of extant letters may number somewhere around 15,000; there are upward of 150 major letter-collections dating between 300 and 1500."[114]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[115]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says absent.[116]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[117]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[118] E.g. tax assessment known as the kataster, "a central tax list covering all the cultivatable land".[119]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[120]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[121] Bible.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[122] Euthymius Zigabenus, Nicolas of Methone, Nicetas Acominatas.[123]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[124] encyclopaedias such as agricultural manuals.[125] Military manuals such as Tactica by or for Leo VI(r.886-912 CE) - this particular work compiled 903 CE or 907 CE - which offered advice such as "it is easier and less costly to wear out a Frankish army by skirmishes, protracted operations in desolate districts, and the cutting off of its supplies, than to attempt to destroy it at a single blow."[126]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[127] Late eleventh century: "High officials as historians: Michael Attaleiates, John Scylitzes, The history of poor Leo, John Zonaras."[128] Anna Comnena 1143 CE "Alexiad", history of Nicephorus Bryennius, her dead husband soldier. [129] Nicephorus Bryennius, Anna Comnena, Cinnamus, Nicetas and Chroniclers Cedrenus and Zonarus. Acropolita, Pachymeres.
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[130] John Italus. [131]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[132] Highly literate culture.
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[133] Twelfth century: "Theodore Prodromus, representative of Byzantine satirists. Composes in vernacular and in the literary language."[134] Porikologos.[135] 1204 CE "First sagas of epic poetry in the vernacular: Digenis Akritas (first redaction of this epic), Bellhandros and Chrysantzas, Callimachus and Chrysorrhoe."[136]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ "The shift from payment in cash to payment in kind is also characteristic of further Byzantine development."[137]
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ "Within the Byzantine Empire, the billion trachy functioned as a virtual token or quasi-token coin. Its equivalence to the hyperpyron was legislated, and, in 1136, it was worth 1/48 of an hyperpyron, that is to say, one gold coin was worth 48 billion trachea or stamena. The intrinsic value of the billion trachy (based on its silver content) would have been much lower. It was, then, against this token coin that the denier and the mark were exchanged."[138]
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[139]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[140]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ "the solidus, later known as the nomisma, was the standard gold coin introduced by Constantine the Great in 309, which was to retain its weight and fineness well into the tenth century." 72 solidi were struck to the Byzantine pound (litra).[141] Under Nicephorus II Botaneiates (1078-1081 CE) "Debasement of the Byzantine currency. Reduction of gold content of the solidus."
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says absent.[142]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[143]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[144] Imperial post. [145]
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says absent.[146]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[147]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[148] Varangian guard wore iron helmets.
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[149] Byzantines imported steel swords from the Baltic and the forest peoples of Russia.[150] "The timber and beaches of Chalybia could always provide it, but villages in less fortunate areas may hardly have qualified for the Iron Age. On the other hand the armouries of Constantinople itself were capable of producing numbers of complex bronze, iron and steel weapons at short notice - for example for the Cretan expedition of 949."[151] Al-Kindi (801-870 CE) in a letter to the Caliph of Baghdad mentions that "swords may be made out of shaburqan by Rus, Slavs & Byzantines". Shaburqan meant 'hard iron.' Al-Kindi also said the Byzantines and others also made narmahan ('soft iron').[152]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[153]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[154]
♠ Self bow ♣ ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Hunnic bow.[155]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ There are different definitions of a crossbow. Present on one definition.[156] "Whether Byzantine soldiers also used the hand-held crossbow, some evidence for which exists from the late Roman period (as opposed to the much larger frame- or swivel-mounted weapon used as field or siege-artillery, which certainly did continue in use), seems doubtful."[157] Preiser-Kapeller says present.[158]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[159]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ present ♥ Counter weight trebuchet almost certainly to have been used by the sieges of Zevgminom 1165 CE and Nicaea 1184 CE. The Byzantine Empire used two types of this trebuchet: bricola (gravity powered, single pole) and tresle-framed, or trebuchet. Helepoleis used at seige Laodicea 1104 CE, at Mylos, Aretai, Durazzo, Kastoria, Apollonias Dristra, Chios, Abydos. Alexios I possibly helped invent the helepolis and counter-weight trebuchet. [160] First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[161]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says absent.[162] Bombards, first mentioned at 1393 CE. Early 15th century, arquebus. Not much evidence heavy firearms under Byzantine control. Probably occurred albeit a rare event. [163]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Late Byzantine (not this period) small and made little impact on events.[164] "The so-called “Greek fire” was a kind of flame-thrower first deployed on ships against the Arab fleet during the siege of Constantinople 674/678 CE (reportedly introduced by an architect named Kallinikos who had flead from Syria to the capital); later on, we also have reports about the usage of this weapon on land (at sieges) and in a smaller version as handheld arm."[165]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ Iron mace.[166]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Varangian guard carried an axe.
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ sword called spathion.[167] Varangian guard carried a sword.
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "Byzantine heavy cavalry were armed more after the fashion of westerners where it could be afforded"[168] Present.[169]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ Present.[170]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says absent.[171]
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[172] if pack animals code is absent
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ "Byzantine heavy cavalry were armed more after the fashion of westerners where it could be afforded"[173]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[174] if pack animals code is absent
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says absent.[175]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[176]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[177] "light cavalry and infantry continued to be armed, like their Seljuk or Saracen enemies, with the traditional combination of lamellar corselets or mail, quilted fabrics or boiled leather, felt and cotton headgear"[178]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[179] Varangian guard carried a round shield.
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[180] Varangian guard wore an iron helmet.
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[181]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[182] Varangian guard wore limb protection on arms and legs.
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[183] "light cavalry and infantry continued to be armed, like their Seljuk or Saracen enemies, with the traditional combination of lamellar corselets or mail, quilted fabrics or boiled leather, felt and cotton headgear"[184] Varangian guard wore a mail hauberk.
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[185]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[186] "light cavalry and infantry continued to be armed, like their Seljuk or Saracen enemies, with the traditional combination of lamellar corselets or mail, quilted fabrics or boiled leather, felt and cotton headgear"[187] Varangian guard wore a lamellar cuirrass.
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present with a ?.[188]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[189]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[190]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[191] Great martime power with an imperial fleet, until 13th Century.[192]


Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Such as castella in Asia Minor used to defend "strategically important points".[193]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[194] "Like their ancestors the antique Romans, the Byzantines dug camp every night, surrounding it with a ditch and palisade." [195]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[196]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ "Like their ancestors the antique Romans, the Byzantines dug camp every night, surrounding it with a ditch and palisade." [197]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ Present.[198]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[199] "Like their ancestors the antique Romans, the Byzantines dug camp every night, surrounding it with a ditch and palisade." [200]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says absent.[201]

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

These codes refer to an explicit or defined right for some group to constrain the activity of the executive in some way, typically through a legal code, but other ways are imaginable (explain in paragraph if other mechanisms found). When coding ‘present’ for each of the below codes, provide explanation and give examples of the constraints being used, or note that the constraints were formalized but are no known instances of its use in practice.

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Governmental officials (i.e. judiciary/legislature) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Non-governmental organization (elite, social group, community organization, economic group, etc.) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph. Note: this does not include religious groups (Church leaders, Buddhist monks, etc.), since that is coded elsewhere)
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. There is a legal mechanism for removing and replacing the head of state

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Members of the ‘elite’ inherit their status and positions. If the ruler position is inherited most of the time, then these are sufficient grounds to code this variable as present

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ "The emperor was held to be God's earthly representative and his laws essential for maintaining stability."[202] “This providential man was chosen by God: his coins proclaimed the fact that he was ‘from God’ (‘’ek theou’’). [...] The ‘’basileus’’ was God’s own representative on earth who had inherited the trappings of the cult of his pagan Roman predecessors’ divinity.” [203] Byzantine Emperors were revered in many ways, echoing some of the treatment of eastern Mediterrannean rulers in previous eras as divine or semi-divine figures, showing the close connection between political and religious authority. "Proskynesis of the emperor and his haloed image, the image’s privilege of asylum and placement on church altars, the custom of receiving objects from the emperor with covered hands, silence, incense, and lighted candles in his presence stemmed ultimately from the imperial cult and characterized Byz. rulership.” [204]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ As Christian rulers, Byzantine emperors avoided explicit worship of themselves or descendents as gods, though they were revered in many ways, echoing some of the treatment of eastern Mediterranean rulers in previous eras as divine or semi-divine figures, showing the close connection between political and religious authority. “In the capital, the emperor’s status as God’s representative on earth maintained and even expanded aspects of the imperial cult, esp. the sacredness of imperial persons and institutions concretized by ceremonies and divinizing epithets. Although Constantine avoided ‘’divus’’ for his person, his successors revived the custom, whence arose the Byz. usage of ‘’theios’’ for the imperial person and institutions and ‘’sakra’’ for documents."[205] Emperors were also frequently depicted as gods in works of art, in frescoes and mosaics, though this appears to be a stylistic representation of reverence for the rulers rather than a declaration of divinity.[206]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

These codes refer to acts undertaken without direct compulsion from or out of adherence to a religious system (religious aspects of prosociality are coded below)

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Byzantine Empire maintained a network of philanthropic institutions designed to shelter travellers and homeless migrants (‘’xenoi’’), provide free medical care for the ill, nurture orphans, and organize food allotments during famines (Constantelos 1991: 113). [...] Modern scholars agree that Christ’s command to assist the suffering underlay the development of specialized welfare services in Byzantium. According to Matthew’s gospel, Jesus required that Christians feed the hungry, clothe the naked, welcome the stranger, and care for the sick (Matt. 25: 34-5).” [207]

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