TrByzM1

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Byzantine Empire I ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Byzantium; Empire of the Romans; Eastern Roman Empire; Middle Byzantine Empire I ♥ Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων (Greek) - Basileia ton Rhomaion (“Empire of the Romans”).

♠ Peak Date ♣ 741-775 ♥

Up turn begins during reign of Leo III (r.717-741 CE): "there is no doubt that it is in the reign of Leo III, a competent general and statesman, that the beginnings of a recovery in the empire's fortunes can be dated." [1]

741-775 CE is the period when the polity was at its peak, whether militarily, in terms of the size of territory controlled, or the degree of cultural development. This variable has a subjective element, but typically historians agree when the peak was. Series of military successes due to temporal weakness of neighbouring polities in the reign of Emperor Constantine V. [2]

Peak building under Basileus Theophilus (r.829-842 CE) who "put up the greatest number of buildings in Constantinople after Theodosius II [r.401-450 CE] and Justinian I [525-548 CE]"[3] In contrast, 695-717 CE period known for being a period of anarchy.

Warren T. Treadgold wrote a book called "The Byzantine Revival, 780-842". [4]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 632-866 CE ♥ Byzantine civilization "began to emerge in its own right in the second half of the seventh century."[5]

Heraclius (r.610-641 CE) - Michael III (r.842-867 CE).[6]

632 CE: Death of the Prophet Mohammed, beginning of the Arab expansion; this and other developments led to a dramatic transformation of Byzantium with regard to dimension and complexity of the society. - 867 CE: Dynastic change to the so-called Macedonian Emperors, beginning of a period of renewed expansion and increasing societal complexity. [7]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

alliance

with Khazars [8]
with Sassanid Persia 633 CE at Firaz against Arabs.[9]
Amazigh were "traditional" allies for the Byzantines.[10]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ East Roman Empire ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Byzantine Empire II ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Christianity ♥ "The Byzantine Empire recognized neither the western Frankish Empire nor the Bulgarian Emperor. It spoke of the archontes Boulgaron, the princes of the Bulgars, and the reges Francias, the kings of Francia. The Byzantine Empire never gave up its claims to universal rule. It claimed to be at the apex of the family of kings; it was the father, they were the sons. ... It was only with the Arab rulers that there had long been some recognition of equality, and also with the Persian kings, which was reflected in the title of 'brother' used in official documents."[11]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [15,000,000-20,000,000] ♥ km squared. The reach of Christendom in 600 CE was essentially global. In the early Muslim period the Muslims preferred to tax rather than to convert the Christians; in the ninth century the Christian realm included the Middle East. Theodore of Abu Qurra (d. c825 CE), born in northern Mesopotamia, "was the first important Christian theologian to write in Arabic."[12] In this period (8th-9th centuries CE) there were Christian communities in China.[13]

♠ Capital ♣ Constantinople ♥ By 395 CE capital of Eastern Roman Empire. [14]


♠ Language ♣ Greek ♥ "In some of the central authorities Greek had established itself as the language of the chancery since the beginning of the fourth century, in contrast to the army, which retained Latin as the official military language until the beginning of the seventh century. Other imperial authorities, above all the ministry of justice, kept to the Latin language until the beginning of the seventh century."[15] Heraclius (r.610-641 CE) made Greek the official language. [16] "Greek (spoken by the population as first language in southern Balkans and most of Anatolia, as second language Empire-wide) and Latin (spoken by part of the population as first language in the remaining possessions in Italy), Languages of minorities, migrants and deportees: Syriac, Armenian (in some eastern provinces of Anatolia, also as languages of liturgy and sacred literature), Slavonic (Balkans, deportees to Anatolia)." [17]

General Description

The first Byzantine period, which lasts from 632 CE in the reign of Heraclius (r.610-641 CE) to 866 CE at the end of the reign of Michael III (r.842-867 CE) [18] was in many ways characterized by the Greek response to the Arab expansion. This and other developments led to a dramatic transformation of Byzantium with regard to dimension and complexity of the society.[19]

The signature change was the reform of Byzantine control of the regions with the introduction of themes introduced under Constantine IV 668-685 CE[20] headed by commanders called strategi.[21] This was a progressive development as provinces still existed with the first themes, the last European theme (Nicopolis or Dalmatia) being set up about 900 CE.[22]

Reform of the regions into themes was directly reflected with administrative reforms at the capital. At the professional imperial administration in Constantinople, taxation and military administration was 'fused' about 680 CE into a single office called 'logothete tou stratiotikou.' "In this office, taxation and military administration were made the responsibility of one minister in the central government. The officials concerned with the muster rolls of the soldiers and with the collection of the annona were thus combined in a single functionary."[23]

From Justinian II (r.668-711 CE) the strategi gained powers of tax collection and each individual theme had a logothete who behaved like the logothete tou stratiotikou in Constantinople.[24] "Thus there grew up this fusion of military and civil authority which spread over the whole Empire with the introduction of the themes and undermined the control exercised by the state."[25] However, while control from the center was lost, the Byzantines gained the ability to more flexibly respond to external threats.

After the shock of losing 1 million km2 of territory by 700 CE to the expanding Islamic Caliphate the reforms eventually appear to have put the Byzantine state, and its 5 million inhabitants, on a stronger footing. While the 695-717 CE period was known for being a period of anarchy by the ninth century military success had slightly increased the land area to 520,000 km2.[26] Basileus Theophilus (r.829-842 CE) was able to finance a major construction spree.[27]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [1,500,000-2,000,000]: 632 CE; [470,000-700,000]: 700 CE; [520,000-650,000]: 800 CE ♥ in squared kilometers

Chase-Dunn

1,780,000: 640 CE; 1,650,000: 650 CE; 1,520,000: 660 CE; 1,260,000: 680 CE; 1,000,000: 700 CE; 1,000,000: 720 CE; 1,000,000: 740 CE; 1,000,000: 750 CE; 967,000: 760 CE; 900,000: 780 CE; 800,000: 800 CE; 790,000: 820 CE; 780,000: 840 CE; 775,000: 850 CE; 770,000: 860 CE [28] Estimates seem much too high for me, maybe relying on unrealistic assumption on the extent of Byzantine power in the Balkans etc. I have tried to circumscribe the Byzantine borders at a specific time for a specific region as exact as possible.[29]

Johannes Preiser-Kapeller 2015 [30]

630 (Victory over Sasanians, restoration of border of 591 in the East) 1.5 Million km²
700 (loss of Syria, Palestine, Egypt and North Africa as well as Armenia to the Arabs between 632 and 700, establishment of competing Bulgarian Empire north to the Mt. Haemus after 680): 470.000 km²
800 (stabilisation of frontier to the Arabs): 520.000 km²
867 (loss of Sicily and Crete to Arabs, but reconquest of territories in Greece): 520.000 km²

1,300,000 in 500 CE; 2,000,000 in 600 CE; 700,000 in 700 CE; 650,000 in 800 CE. Calculated using a GIS software by Alessio Palmisano.[31]

♠ Polity Population ♣ 11,000,000: 630 CE; [4,500,000-7,000,000]: 700 CE; [5,000,000-8,000,000]: 800 CE ♥ People.

Johannes Preiser-Kapeller 2015 [32]

(since 541/542: Plague epidemic, returns all 10-15 years until ca. 750)
630: 11 Million
700: 4.5 Million
800: 5 Million (stabilisation of population after end of plague epidemics)
867: 5.5 Million
These estimates are connected to the estimates of the territorial extent. All of these numbers are of course guesstimates, but we have to take into consideration both the effects of dramatic loss of territory and the recurrent plague epidemics until the mid-8th cent.[33]

"Furthermore, there is a significant drop in the number of subsistence crises in the seventh and eighth centuries throughout the empire compared to the period before that, indicating a population that did not put pressure on the available resources(Stathakopoulos 2004: 23-34). For that we may assume that large parts of the empire were less densely populated (at 9 inhabitants per km2) with an overall estimated population of 12 million (13 million in 800—Russell 1958:149; 7 million in the 780s—Treadgold 1997: 570)." [34]

"The outbreak of the so-called Justinianic Plague (541-750) represents a watershed for the demographic development of the Byzantine state. The pandemic ravaged the Mediterranean world in some eighteen waves, on average one every twelve years, causing large-scale mortality (Stathakopoulos 2004: 111-55; Conrad 1981; Little 2007)."[35]

Estimates based on McEvedy and Jones (1978).[36]

700 CE

Greece and Balkans extending to Italy (including Bosnia, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia) 3m, Anatolia 5.5m, southern Crimea ?m, Mediterranean islands ?m and southern Italy ?m, Ravenna region north-east Italy ?m.

750 CE

Greece and Balkans extending to Italy (including Bosnia, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia) 3m, Anatolia 5.75m, southern Crimea ?m, Mediterranean islands (except Sardinia) ?m and southern Italy ?m, Ravenna region north-east Italy ?m.

800 CE

Greece and Balkans extending to Italy (including Bosnia, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia) 3m, Anatolia 6m, southern Crimea ?m, Mediterranean islands (except Sardinia and Corsica) ?m and southern Italy ?m.

850 CE

Greece and part of Balkans 1.5m, Anatolia 6.25m, southern Crimea ?m, small part of southern Italy ?m.

19m in 500 CE; 17m in 600 CE; 7m in 700 CE; 8m in 800 CE.[37]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 150,000: 630 CE; [80,000-125,000]: 700 CE; [100,000-350,000]: 800 CE ♥ Inhabitants. Constantinople.

Johannes Preiser-Kapeller 2015 [38]

Constantinople (Estimates): 150,000: 630 CE; 80,000: 700 CE; 100,000: 867 CE
Earlier estimates somehow underestimated the impact of the plague epidemics and the loss of hinterland - I rely also on recent studies of Magdalino and Haldon.[39]

Constantinople

350,000: 622 CE; 250,000: 800 CE; 300,000: 900 CE [40]
600,000: 600 CE; 400,000: 700 CE; 400,000: 800 CE; 500,000: 900 CE [41]

"450,000 in 500 CE; 150,000 in 600 CE; 125,000 in 700 CE; 150-350,000 in 800 CE".[42]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 6 ♥ levels.

1. Capital

2. Capital of a province
3. City in a province
4. Town in a province
5. Chorion - village community.
6. Agridia - Hamlet
 ?. Farmstead

"Unlike the West, it did not originate as an independent peasant community with common meadowland and distribution of arable land, but was a taxable unit whose boundaries were defined by the fisc. The Byzantine rural community was only an economic unit in so far as this served the purpose of taxation. Membership of the village community resulted from inscription on the tax list. It was this principle which determined other forms of peasant settlements, individual farmsteads and hamlets. In Byzantine rural economy the most important role was played by the typical village settlement in which the farmsteads formed a close nucleus round which the arable land of the peasants was grouped. The Byzantines called this kind of settlement a chorion. In addition there were also individual farms situated in the middle of an agricultural estate. These were called ktesidia and for purposes of taxation were linked with the nearest village settlement as a taxable unit. The so-called hamlets (agridia), consisting of a widely distributed group of houses and farms, were treated in the same way."[43]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 8 ♥ levels.

Based on imperial administration c.700-1050 CE[44] Note: Provinces still existed contemporaneous with the first themes. Last European themes set up about 900 CE: "Strymon theme to protect the passes over the Rhodope mountains; the theme of Nicopolis to secure the coastal region on the gulf of Patras; and the Dalmatian theme to secure Byzantine access to the Dalmatian islands."[45]

1. Emperor

"In official titulature the older terms augoustos, autokrator, and despotes remained in use, but from the time of Herakleios the emperor was generally called basileus, whereas the Latinate augousta was preferred to basilissa for the empress." [46]
"wished to be regarded as the emanation of the sun-god and claimed the same veneration as the Apostles of Christ"[47] from "the point of view of the ceremonial" the Christian Emperor "was still a god" in the pagan tradition. "His arrival was heralded by the raising of several curtains, like the appearance of the deity in the oriental mystery religions. Hence the meetings of the Emperor's council held in this sacred setting were able to announce only decisions which had been discussed and settled outside this body (gremium)."[48]
2. sakellarios (general fiscal supervisor)
"In Constantinople, new offices and new actors emerged out of the old structures. For example, the sakellarios, at the head of the Sakellion, formerly a department of the Sacrum Cubiculum, became the chief officer of finance (Brandes 2002: 427-79; Haldon 1990:376-402)."[49]
3. Military finance
4. protonotarioi (thematic fiscal administration) - see below for additional levels
4. Prisons (Constantinople)
5. Noumera
5. Walls
5. Praitorion
5. demes of Blues and Greens
5. scholai, exkoubita, etc.
3. General treasury
sacellum (imperial treasury)[50]
4. department for money payments in the sacellum[51]
4. department for payments in kind in the sacellum[52]
4. protonotarioi (thematic fiscal administration) - see below for additional levels
3. Special treasury
3. Public wardrobe
3. Grand curator
After the theme organization introduced "The curatores, the heads of the great estate zones, now paid this revenue [tax] direct to the imperial sacellum, the imperial treasury. Within the treasury, as in all financial departments of state, there were two departments, the sacellum for money payments and the vestiarium for payments in kind."[53]
3. Curator of the Mangana
3. Orphanotrophos
"There was an imperial administrative department for orphanages and for old peoples' homes. Both these had their own special officials."[54]
2. logothete of the dromos
"In order to exercise some effective control over the themes, and particularly to safeguard the general interests of the state against the particularism of individual provinces, the office of logothete tou dromou was created. This high imperial official had the position of a commissioner with extraordinary powers. One of his most important duties was to provide for an army on the march. ... His competence included the supervision of imperial roads and post, and he also had the right to impose on any theme economic measures considered necessary to secure provisioning, maintenance and movement of troops on all routes within the Empire. With such authority this office attained so great an importance that the logothete tou dromou soon became the first minister of the Empire."[55]
3. Transport
4. Public post
2. Provincial military and navy
3. Thematic generals (strategos)
Themes introduced under Constantine IV 668-685 CE.[56] Commanders of theme called strategi [57] Military commander "dux" (highest rank) of a castella or "theme". Once castella set up in Asia Minor "The military zones took the place of the provinces and the military commanders became the provincial governors."[58]
4. Clerks (copyists and secretaries) of strategos
"The strategi of the themes, whose rank was similar to that of a present-day commander-in-chief, received salaries ranging from 5 to 40 gold pounds according to the strategic importance of the theme. ... higher ranking officers were themselves responsible for certain outgoings, such as the payment of their clerks - copyists and secretaries."[59]
4. protonotarioi (thematic fiscal administration)
"The protonotarius was in charge of financial administration. In regional administration there was a division between departments for receipts and disbursement. The taxes collected by the tax-collectors (dioketai) in the various tax zones were paid into the chartularius' office, entered and checked and then handed over to the protonotarius' office. From these receipts the protonotarius had to cover the expenses of the theme." These outgoings included the soldiers' pay, the salaries of officers and officials as well as expenditure for the upkeep of public welfare services, such as geriatric homes, orphanages and infirmaries."[60]
5. Department for receipts
5. Department for disbursement
"These outgoings included the soldiers' pay, the salaries of officers and officials as well as expenditure for the upkeep of public welfare services, such as geriatric homes, orphanages and infirmaries."[61]
6. Official who paid the salaries of soldiers and/or government workers inferred
7. Assistant/scribe of official who paid the salaries of soldiers and government workers inferred
7. Public welfare manager e.g. head of orphanage
8. Worker in public welfare service e.g. nurse
4. kritai (justice)
4. chartoularioi (military administration)
"The chartularius was the head of the taxation offices and his subordinates were in charge of the kataster of the peasants as well as the soldier-farmers."[62]
5. dioketai (tax-collectors)
"The taxes collected by the tax-collectors (dioketai) in the various tax zones were paid into the chartularius' office, entered and checked and then handed over to the protonotarius' office."
5. Book-keepers
"Some officials came from banking circles (argyropratai). They were entrusted with book-keeping and accounts, and had to spend many years as money-changers or transacting loans before they ventured to jump into state service. They mostly got posts in the taxation department, first in provincial administration, and then, if they were successful, they would be recalled to the central offices in Constantinople." [63]
5. anagrapheus (surveyor)
"The chartularius was the head of the taxation offices and his subordinates were in charge of the kataster of the peasants as well as the soldier-farmers." "The Byzantine surveyor, the anagrapheus, the official responsible for the precise valuation of land for purposes of taxation"[64]
6. Assistant/scribe inferred
2. Independent commands
3. doukes katepans
4. tagamata seconded to thematic duty
3. kleisourarchs
2. logothete of the herds
3. optimatoi (logistics unit)
2. Prefect of Constantinople
3. Judges of tribunals
2. quaestor (justice)
quaestor sacri palatii (minster of justice) "had among his duties the preparation of the imperial laws and documents, for which he took over part of the responsibility with the authorization legi ('I have read')."[65]
3. judges of tribunals
3. kritai (thematic justice officals)
2. Minister of petitions
2. Master of ceremonies
2. Imperial household
"The department for imperial possessions had a number of functions: there was the office responsible for the private wardrobe of the Emperor, the office for the care of the imperial table silver, the imperial art room, and finally even the imperial library."[66]
3. Imperial table
3. Butler
3. Private wardrobe
3. Privy purse
3. Chancery
praepostius sacri cubiculi was the head of the imperial cabinet in the cubiculum (Imperial private chancery)[67]
4. Minister of the inkwell
3. Chamberlain
cubicularri (chamberlains) and secreti (private secretaries). "The imperial eunuchs, the cubicularii (koubikoularioi), also paid for their office. They formed the emperor's escort and were a very influential body in the Palace."[68]
4. diaitarioi
"At the lower end of the scale, there were scores of minor employees of the Palace: diaitarioi, or servants attached to the various buildings, doorkeepers, lamplighters, etc., and there were certainly a great many slaves about whom we have little information. The employees of the Hippodrome and the circus factions were also on the rolls of the Palace."[69]
4. Imperial bedchamber
3. Head of the Imperial Library
4. Imperial Librarian inferred
5. Assistant to an Imperial Librarian inferred
6. Doorkeepers, lamplighters etc. inferred
3. Concierge of the Great Palace
3. Concierge of the Daphne Palace
3. Concierge of the Magnaura
3. Elite and household units (military)
2. droungarios of the imperial fleet
2. domestikoi of the Scholoi
3. scholai, exkoubita, etc.
3. tagamata seconded to thematic duty
2. Imperial private entourage
2. Imperial stables
3. protostrator


Where is the logothete tou stratiotkou? In central administration and in the regions?

"In the seventh century the office of praefectus praetorio completely disappeared and its place was taken by the departments of the logothete tou stratiotikou. This office combined the departments of tax collection and the valuation lists with that concerned with the army pay roll, but even here well-qualified personnel was essential and it was already becoming difficult to find this. Thus the more important responsibilities of the logothete tou stratiotikou fell to the chartularius of the theme who also received the title of logothete."[70]
In the central administration "the fusion of taxation and military administrative arrangements took place about 680. What had applied to individual provinces in Justinian's day was now extended to the central administration, and thence to the whole Empire. The inauguration of the new régime coincided with the introduction of the office of logothete tou stratiotikou. Holders of this office are first found in the second half of the seventh century, that is, at the same time as the appearance of the first five themes. In this office, taxation and military administration were made the responsibility of one minister in the central government. The officials concerned with the muster rolls of the soldiers and with the collection of the annona were thus combined in a single functionary." [71]
logothete tou stratiotikou equivalent of central administration. From Justinian certain military governors gained powers of tax collection to make system more responsible to local realities. "Thus there grew up this fusion of military and civil authority which spread over the whole Empire with the introduction of the themes and undermined the control exercised by the state."[72] In the central administration "the fusion of taxation and military administrative arrangements took place about 680. What had applied to individual provinces in Justinian's day was now extended to the central administration, and thence to the whole Empire."[73] "The logothete of each individual theme corresponded to the logothete tou stratiotikou."[74]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 7 ♥

1. Pope

Pope is primus inter pares among the five patriarchs.[75]

1. Patriarch of Constantinople

"Patriarchs were elected by the standing synod in Constantinople, which presented three names to the emperor. He was entitled to choose one of these, or, if unable to accept any of the candidates, to choose the new patriarch himself." [76] Five Patriarchs (Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem).
2. Metropolitans and archbishops
"the term 'bishop' applies to patriarchs, metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops (both suffragan and assistant bishops or chorepiskopoi) throughout the Byzantine period. After the 'ecumenical' patriarch of Constantinople, who after the seventh century occupied the only remaining patriarchal seat under Byzantine rule, metropolitans held the second highest rank in the Orthodox Church."[77]
"The title 'archbishop' emerged in special cases, for example in important cities such as Athens which did not possess a metropolitan."[78]
3. Bishops and Chorepiskopoi
Bishops and Chorepiskopoi form one rank below the metropolitans and archbishops[79]
"Chorepiskopoi (literally 'country bishops') were assigned to rural communities and were subject to a bishop in a nearby city."[80]
"After the fourth century, the powers and functions of chorepiskopoi were gradually restricted and they were allowed only to ordain clerics of the lower orders. After the second Council of Nicaea (787) which prohibited them from ordaining even readers (anagnostai) without episcopal assent (canon 14), this separate episcopal rank began to disappear (Jugie 1904)."[81]
3. Priest
"In the early Church, priests or presbyters served as advisers, teachers, and ministers who assisted the bishops to whom they were assigned."[82]
4. Deacon
"Deacon (diakonos, 'servant')"[83]
"Deacons assisted the priest or bishop at the Divine Liturgy, baptisms, and other sacraments. ... Various administrative and pastoral jobs were delegated to deacons from an early period; they helped bishops to dispense charity to the community, manage the diocese's finances and property, and to deal with other official business (Laodikeia, canons 21, 23, 25). Deacons were subject to the authority of both bishops and priests, but they came to exercise considerable power, especially in the patriarchate of Constantinople."[84]
4. Deaconess (diakonissa)
Become more and more rare, would be of equal rank as deacon.[85]
"The deaconess's chief liturgical role was to assist at the baptisms of women; she also acted as a mediator between women parishioners and their bishops, kept order among female members of the congregation, and ministered especially to women."[86]
5. Subdeacon
"The rank of subdeacon provided a stepping-stone to that of deacon; its duties were similar to those of the deacon."[87]
6. Reader (anagnostesj
"A reader is a member of the lower clergy with the responsibility of reading, usually from the ambo, passages from the Epistles and the Old Testament prescribed for offices and the Divine Liturgy."[88]
7. Minor orders
"Other members of the minor clerical orders included doorkeepers, exorcists, cantors, and widows. All of these officials helped in either liturgical, administrative, or pastoral functions. Most would have received payment from their dioceses, or, in the case of private foundations, from their donors, but it is likely that most would have been engaged in secular professions in order to supplement their incomes."[89]


"Hagia Sophia alone had 60 priests, 100 deacons, 40 deaconesses (infirmarians), 90 sub-deacons, 110 readers, 25 singers (psaltai) and 100 door-keepers."[90]

Chair of St Peter.[91]

End 6th century: "patriarchal sees in Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem and Rome were occupied by monks."[92] Not true, Patriarchs come from various backgrounds.[93]

"In Constantinople and other big cities of the Empire there were monastries whose monks were engaged in publicist activity in support of imperial policy. Commissioned by the Emperor they composed letters and polemic in various languages."[94]


♠ Military levels ♣ 8 ♥ levels.

Johannes Preiser-Kapeller 2015 [95]

1. Emperor (6)
2. Domestikos of the Scholai (5)
3. Strategoi of the themata (4)
4. Commanders of single units (3)
5. Commanders of subunits (100, 10, 5 men) (2)
6. of 10 inferred by Ed
7. of 5 inferred by Ed
8. Soldier (1)


After introduction of themes: "The difference between mobile field units and stationary frontier forces vanished."[96]

Based on imperial administration c.700-1050 CE[97]

1. Emperor

2. Provincial military and navy
3. Thematic generals (strategos)
2. Independent commands
3. doukes katepans Doux and katepan common only in the following period[98]
4. tagamata seconded to thematic duty
2. Imperial household
3. Elite and household units (military)
2. droungarios of the imperial fleet
2. domestikoi of the Scholoi
3. scholai, exkoubita, etc.
3. tagamata seconded to thematic duty

"The military units also used Germanic designations. Thus a small military unit was called Foulkon which was how the German word Folk (Volk) was written. The subdivision of a nmerus was called by the German word Band (field banner), which became bandus. This process even went so far as to adopt part of the military organization of the German army. In the ninth century the Byzantine army still had the troops of the Optimates; this was originally the designation of a crack corps of the Gothic army. In the territory of the lower Danube the racial characteristics of the soldiers in the frontier zones were entirely respected. The tribal chieftains were even granted the position of Roan officers and in this capacity continued to rule over their people."[99]

Regular guards had four divisions called tagmata: "The command of these troops stationed in Constantinople in the immediate neighbourhood of the imperial palace and the Hippodrome was in the hands of officers with the title of domesticus." The candidati (cavalry); excubiti (police duties); arithmus (marines); hikanatoi (crowd control).[100] Old guard troops, reorganised as tagmata by Emperor Constantine V (741-775 CE)[101]

1. Emperor

2. domesticus
3. candidati
4.
3. excubiti
4.
3. drungarius
4.
3. hikanatoi
4.


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ [102] "An officer's pay was so high that even the lower commissions had large sums of gold at their disposal. They also had a very substantial share in war booty, which was theirs by law."[103] "As far as salaries went the military were generally better off than civil servants. Officers were exceedingly well paid. And an ordinary soldier also received more pay than an artisan could earn."[104]

"According to Arabic sources every soldier received a year's wage of one nomisma. ... a soldier received maintenance and equipment for the duration of the campaign as well as his military grant of land (soldier's farm). ... He might also add to his cash remuneration by selling his share of war booty. ... According to the same Arabic source the group of officers including comites, pentekontarchs and dekarchs were paid from one to three gold pounds annually, that is, between 72 and 216 nomismata. In contrast to this, an ordinary soldier after twelve years service was only paid 12 nomismata a year (his pay was raised by one nomisma for each year of service."[105]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[106]

"Every military unit of the imperial army had its own muster roll which provided information about date of entry into the service, arms and equipment. These had been used earlier on by the legions in the early imperial era. Pay was issued on the strength of information in the muster roll. After entry on the muster roll each soldier received a document, the probatoria, which attested his enrolment in the service."[107]

"...the armies of the later eighth century and after consisted of several categories of soldier: regular professionals (the core of the thematic forces), the militia-like majority, full-time 'professional' regiments (imperial units or tagmata) at Constantinople, foreign mercenaries (Khazars, Kurds, Turks, and others)."[108]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[109] Professional clergy.[110]


Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[111]

"The council composed of professional officials was also preserved in the Byzantine state. This distinguishes it from the western states of the middle ages."[112]

"The growth of a special city aristocracy, or city patriciate, resulted from a subsequent development, which enabled some of the provincial aristocracy, such as the Ducas, to get a foothold in the capital."[113]

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥

There is no state-sponsored examination system as in China from the Tang or Song-period onwards.[114]

However (private) professional training was available which might have involved exams. "The allocation of chairs showed that the university as it existed in the first half of the fifth century, had sunk to the level of an institution for professional training. The universal nature of a real university had been lost since the days of the Alexandrines. Here young men now received the education necessary to equip them for the higher offices in the civil service."[115]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ present ♥ Much nepotism but "in various cases people are also promoted due to their talents."[116]

"The officials brought into association with the central administration in this way were not only the members of certain privileged families. They were often men who had risen from lower social classes by reason of their own ability."[117]

"Provincials, the best example being Michael Attaleiates, benefited from social mobility based on talent at a time of the development of the schools of Constantinople."[118]

Women and men from humble origins could rise to positions of power [119]. Woman played "leading part in state affairs and society... political constitution did not exclude women from the throne" [120]

Nepotism ("always, and widespread"[121])

"It often happened that certain particularly energetic civil servants through their unusual activity in the central departments gave their office far greater importance than really belonged to it. They took great care to ensure that the importance gained by this usurpation of the responsibilities of other departments was retained, and with this in mind they appointed suitable successors, colleagues or men drawn from their own circle of relatives."[122]
"The administration, in spite of the great services it rendered to the State, was honeycombed with vices. As places were sold, so were favours and justice. To make a fortune and gain advancement, merit was of less use than intrigue...". [123]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[124] Customs building. "The route by which oriental goods came is well known. All ships coming from Syria and Egypt had to go to Attaleia, the great harbour in south-west Asia Minor. Only then were they allowed to continue their journey to Constantinople. At Atteleia the customs officials came on board and entered against the list of goods the duty payable to the customs. The rate of duty was very high."[125]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ Special building in the imperial palace for administration.[126] Codex Justinianus (in the form of simplified extracts and translations into Greek). [127]

"In 741 Leo III and Constantine V issued a brief codification of Roman law, the Ecloga (selection), based on a combination of Justinianic law with Old Testament morality".[128]

"Between 600 and 800: private legal codes: The Farmer's Law (Georgikos Nomos) and the Rhodian Sea Law."[129]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[130]

"These schools were attended by practically everyone who wanted a public appointment. There were for instance the notaries. They began as legal copyists of documents (donations, wills) and deed of sale. After a lengthy private practice they would then get an appointment as judge in one of the provinces and then, after some years in office, with the help of influential friends would enter the imperial chancery." [131]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[132]

Courts. However: "There is no text explaining in so many words what courts existed in Constantinople at any one time."[133] One "court of the Hippodrome" is documented, for instance.[134]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥ People who have an education in laws and serve as representatives of clients in courts were present.[135]

"In the fourth century ... we find scarcely any professionals in the field of law. On the contrary, this century is known for its dramatic shortcomings in comparison with the previous Roman jurisprudence, while on the other hand the new Byzantine law schools did not arise before the end of the fifth century." [136]

"These schools were attended by practically everyone who wanted a public appointment. There were for instance the notaries. They began as legal copyists of documents (donations, wills) and deed of sale. After a lengthy private practice they would then get an appointment as judge in one of the provinces and then, after some years in office, with the help of influential friends would enter the imperial chancery." [137]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[138] According to Haussig (1971) "a highly developed use of land, particularly by means of irrigation, as in Egypt and Syria, was unknown to the Byzantine economy, where no progress had been made in working and cultivating the soil"[139] Territory of Egypt and Syria not held in this period. However Harvey (2008): "Landowners had the resources to make improvements to their properties, in particular the construction of irrigation systems, and to specialize in cash crops like vines and olives."[140] Vines and olives are typically grown in Greece and Turkey.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[141] Cisterns of St Mocius, Philoxenus and Illus (Yerebatansaray), Acqueduct of Valens in Constantinople.[142] "Over 150 covered cisterns and reservoirs survive of the complex water programme, the most impressive of which is the Basilica Cistern (Yerebatansaray) (Crow and Bayliss 2005)."[143]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[144] State-supplied food sent to markets (macella) which in Constantinople "were normally located by the fora and the Strategion (M. Mango 2000)." [145] "The market-places (agorai) built in the early Byzantine period follow Roman models (e.g. the oval Forum erected by Constantine I in Constantinople, the circular agora of Justiniana Prima built by Justinian I), so much so that the Forum Tauri in Constantinople was laid out by Theodosios I in imitation of Trajan's Forum in Rome."[146] "Shops lined the main thoroughfares and market-places of cities where they were grouped according to their speciality (the workshops/retail shops of the furriers of Constantinople stood in the Forum of Constantine, the Forum of Theodosios, and along the Mese)."[147]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[148] Castella settlements on the lower Danube "had common granaries for corn" [149] Such as in Constantinople: "Two granaries near the Marmara, the Alexandrina and Theodosianum, stored some of the grain from Egypt, while some was held in three granaries to the north, near the Srategion and Prosphorion harbour."[150]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[151] Certain streets paved with marble or other stone.[152] Road building, repairing and administration.[153]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[154] Bridges.[155]
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[156] Maintenance of existing canals.
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ See for instance recent excavations of the huge Theodosius-Harbour of Constantinople, in use from the 5th-11th cent.[157] "Commerce in the city was dependent on the four major harbours: the Prosphorion and the Neorion (naval dockyard) on the Golden Horn, and two artificial harbours on the Marmara Coast, built by Julian and Theodosius I (Magdalino 2000). Both state-supplied food (annona) (bread, wine, and oil, distributed until the seventh century) and privately marketed food were distributed from the harbours to warehouses (horrea) and then to bakeries, shops, and markets (macella), which were normally located by the fora and the Strategion (M. Mango 2000)." [158]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ absent ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says absent.[159]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ "Archaeological evidence provides us with insights into many key aspects of medieval life: dwellings, fortifications, diet, clothing, tools, and items of daily existence, as well as providing information on the production and distribution of luxury goods."[160] Pictures and artifacts are nonwritten records.
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[161] Legal texts, legislative documents, theological writings, chronicles and more.[162] Letters: "The total of extant letters may number somewhere around 15,000; there are upward of 150 major letter-collections dating between 300 and 1500."[163]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[164]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[165]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[166] E.g. tax assessment known as the kataster, "a central tax list covering all the cultivatable land".[167]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[168]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[169] Bible.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[170] John Damascenus, Theodore of Studion, Photius.[171] "The outstanding theologians of the Byzantine period, John of Damascus and Anastasius of Sinai, lived and worked under Arab rule." They "provided some of the leaders of the monastic movement." However, there was also Maximus, "secretary to the advisory council of the Emperor Heraclius" who came from Constantinople.[172] Major controversy of this period was the use of religious iconography: iconophiles versus iconoclasts.
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[173] encyclopaedias such as agricultural manuals.[174] Military manuals such as Tactica by or for Leo VI(r.886-912 CE) - this particular work compiled 903 CE or 907 CE - which offered advice such as "it is easier and less costly to wear out a Frankish army by skirmishes, protracted operations in desolate districts, and the cutting off of its supplies, than to attempt to destroy it at a single blow."[175]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[176] "At the beginning of the seventh century a period of great silence began. No literary work has come down from this period; a gap of almost 150 years yawns between the point when the last historian of the old late antique school laid down his pen and the moment when the account of past and present was resumed in the form of a monk's chronicle."[177] "History was written in the form of the world chronicle. As in the case of monastic rules, the antecedents for this are found in Syria. The work of John Malalas provided one such model. Malalas wrote in the first half of the sixth century. Another historian, John of Antioch, a contemporary of the Emperor Heraculius, belonged to these Syrian monastic circles, as also did the author of the Easter Chronicle (Chronicon Paschale), a man closely connected with the Patriarch Sergius. All three world chronicles were written by the religious for the religious. In the days of Theodore of Studius there was a return once more to this type of historical writing which had owed much to Syrian influence. In the early ninth century, George, the patriarchal syncellus (an official corresponding to the coadjutor of a western bishop) collected material for a world chronicle. When he died in 810 his chronicle covered the creation of the world to the year A.D. 284, that is, to the beginning of Diocletian's reign. ... His friend Theophanes undertook the continuation."[178] Seventh century: Menander, John of Epiphania and Theophylact Simacattes were imperial historians.[179] Chroniclers Nicephorus and Theophanes.
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[180] Procheiros Nomos (economics and law) 867-879 CE.[181]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[182] "Surgeons and their assistants followed Byzantine troops on campaigns. ... Small bands of medical corpsmen were recruited to bring the injured to field hospitals."[183] "Leo the Mathematician, a leading court scholar and inventor of the ninth century".[184]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[185] c6th century: "The disappearance of the novel and the decline of the old Roman comedy were dictated by the taste of the people."[186] Seventh century: George of Pisidia (Greek panegyric).[187] Casia "first Byzantine poetess (religious poetry, aphorisms, maxims, epigrams).[188] The Bibliotheca (literary criticism) and dictionary.[189]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ "The shift from payment in cash to payment in kind is also characteristic of further Byzantine development."[190] State salary part currency, part in kind.
♠ Tokens ♣ absent ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says absent.[191] Unknown in this period. "Within the Byzantine Empire, the billion trachy functioned as a virtual token or quasi-token coin. Its equivalence to the hyperpyron was legislated, and, in 1136, it was worth 1/48 of an hyperpyron, that is to say, one gold coin was worth 48 billion trachea or stamena. The intrinsic value of the billion trachy (based on its silver content) would have been much lower. It was, then, against this token coin that the denier and the mark were exchanged."[192]
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[193]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[194]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[195] "the solidus, later known as the nomisma, was the standard gold coin introduced by Constantine the Great in 309, which was to retain its weight and fineness well into the tenth century." 72 solidi were struck to the Byzantine pound (litra).[196]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says absent.[197]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[198] Imperial post. [199]
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says absent.[200]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Copper or bronze siphons used to spray Greek fire.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present for armor.[201] Copper or bronze siphons used to spray Greek fire.
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present for armor.[202] Iron helmets on cavalry.[203]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present for armor.[204] Byzantines imported steel swords from the Baltic and the forest peoples of Russia.[205] "The timber and beaches of Chalybia could always provide it, but villages in less fortunate areas may hardly have qualified for the Iron Age. On the other hand the armouries of Constantinople itself were capable of producing numbers of complex bronze, iron and steel weapons at short notice - for example for the Cretan expedition of 949."[206] Al-Kindi (801-870 CE) in a letter to the Caliph of Baghdad mentions that "swords may be made out of shaburqan by Rus, Slavs & Byzantines". Shaburqan meant 'hard iron.' Al-Kindi also said the Byzantines and others also made narmahan ('soft iron').[207]


Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[208] unarmoured cavalry known as trapezitoi carried two or three nine foot javelins.[209]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Generally not found in this region - weapon of the Americas.
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[210]
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ The writings of Procopius suggest that by 533 CE the composite bow was the main weapon of the Imperial army.[211] recurve composite bow from sinew, wood and horn.[212] "Leo says expressly that 'the bow of the infantry archer is larger and carries further.'"[213] Archery remained important "until at least 1204".[214]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ There are different definitions of a crossbow. Present on one definition.[215] "The use of the hand-crossbow in Europe thus divides into two quite distinct periods, the first between about -100 and +450; the second beginning in the +10th century."[216] solenarion or tzangra crossbow which could shoot multiple iron tipped arrows (or "mice") simultaneously "was apparently brought to the east Mediterranean by the Latins in the eleventh century."[217] Presumably also after 10th century, large stationary crossbow called cheiroballistrom which could fire arrows, bolts and small stones.[218]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[219] c900 CE alakatia "small traction (rope-pulled) trebuchets.[220]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Counter weight trebuchet almost certainly to have been used by the sieges of Zevgminom 1165 CE and Nicaea 1184 CE. The Byzantine Empire used two types of this trebuchet: bricola (gravity powered, single pole) and tresle-framed, or trebuchet. Helepoleis used at seige Laodicea 1104 CE, at Mylos, Aretai, Durazzo, Kastoria, Apollonias Dristra, Chios, Abydos. Alexios I possibly helped invent the helepolis and counter-weight trebuchet. [221] First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[222]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says absent.[223] Bombards, first mentioned at 1393 CE. Early 15th century, arquebus. Not much evidence heavy firearms under Byzantine control. Probably occurred albeit a rare event. [224]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Late Byzantine small and made little impact on events. [225] The so-called “Greek fire” was a kind of flame-thrower first deployed on ships against the Arab fleet during the siege of Constantinople 674/678 CE (reportedly introduced by an architect named Kallinikos who had flead from Syria to the capital); later on, we also have reports about the usage of this weapon on land (at sieges) and in a smaller version as handheld arm.[226]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ "The Byzantines also used the war mace: not only as a striking weapon as it was principally used, but also as an effective throwing weapon."[227] Infantry: "Weapons included various types of spear, mace, and axe (single-bladed, double-bladed, blade-and-spike, etc.), along with the traditional sword, although not all heavy infantrymen carried the latter."[228]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Infantry: "Weapons included various types of spear, mace, and axe (single-bladed, double-bladed, blade-and-spike, etc.), along with the traditional sword, although not all heavy infantrymen carried the latter."[229] Later forces of the Varangian Guard wielded an axe.
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Sword called spathion.[230] "in the eighth or ninth century the single-edged cavalry sabre ... was adopted from the steppe, probably through the Khazars and Magyars". [231] Infantry: "Weapons included various types of spear, mace, and axe (single-bladed, double-bladed, blade-and-spike, etc.), along with the traditional sword, although not all heavy infantrymen carried the latter."[232]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ In the sixth century cavalry carried bow and lance but by 907 CE "Horsemen specialised either as archers or as lancers armed with the kontarion or long thrusting spear."[233]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ Heavy infantry pikemen.[234]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says absent.[235]
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ used as pack animals.[236] Constantine V in the mid-eighth century created a division 'of two thousand muleteers intended to transport the baggage of other troops during campaigns.'[237]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ In the sixth century cavalry carried bow and lance but by 907 CE "Horsemen specialised either as archers or as lancers armed with the kontarion or long thrusting spear."[238]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ Used as pack animals in Cappadocia. [239]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says absent.[240]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[241]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[242] By 10th century there was "greater use of felt and quilted defences".[243] "According to the manuals, the common infantryman wore quilt armour and a turban-like ‘pseudo-helmet’ of felt. (McGeer pp.203-4; illustrations by McBridein Dawson 2007b)."[244] "Infantry wore quilted or lamellar body-armour, or mail, although those that could afford the more expensive mail or lamellar equipment may also have possessed horses and been classed among the mounted troops: the evidence suggests that, on the whole, the foot soldiers were less well outfitted than in the late Roman period."[245]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[246] c900 CE cavalry had a round, medium-sized shield.[247]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[248] "The majority of infantry, even the heavy infantry, had felt caps rather than metal helmets, for example, and this must have been standard wear from the later seventh or eighth century on, and remained so until the eleventh century and after (although there were certainly exceptions, especially among infantry tagmata recruited from foreign mercenaries, for example, whose panoply reflected their own cultural and martial traditions)."[249]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[250] "In the infantry of the later fifth and sixth centuries ... breastplate, helmet, leg-armour (splinted greaves of either iron or leather or felt), and wide round or oval shields." [251]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[252] "Pteruges or leather thongs or strips provided upper-arm protection."[253] "Some cavalry also wore splinted lower leg armour (greaves) of bronze(Haldon 1999:131), but high leather boots seem to me more common in the pictorial sources."[254] "in the eighth or ninth century ... the lamellar cuirass with associated splinted arm-guards was adopted from the steppe, probably through the Khazars and Magyars". [255]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[256] "Thematic cavalry were armed with mail, lamellar, or quilted armour, according to individual wealth and status" [257] "Infantry wore quilted or lamellar body-armour, or mail, although those that could afford the more expensive mail or lamellar equipment may also have possessed horses and been classed among the mounted troops: the evidence suggests that, on the whole, the foot soldiers were less well outfitted than in the late Roman period."[258]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[259] "The lamellar or scale corselet (klibanion, plural klibania)"[260]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[261] "Thematic cavalry were armed with mail, lamellar, or quilted armour, according to individual wealth and status" [262] "Infantry wore quilted or lamellar body-armour, or mail, although those that could afford the more expensive mail or lamellar equipment may also have possessed horses and been classed among the mounted troops: the evidence suggests that, on the whole, the foot soldiers were less well outfitted than in the late Roman period."[263]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present with a ?.[264]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[265]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[266]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[267] At the end of the seventh century the Byzantines had an "excellent fleet" which could be used to enforce a trade blockade on the West.[268] Dromons carried about 200 men (100 rowers, 30 sailers, 70 soldiers). Equipped with greek fire and battering ram. However, the dromon "was in use only for a limited period" since later vessels were modeled on Viking ships. Number of fleets increased from one to four: Constantinople under direct imperial control; Carabisiani theme in south west Asia Minor; Sicily based fleet; Sardinia and the Balearics fleet. [269]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Such as castella in Asia Minor used to defend "strategically important points".[270]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[271] "Like their ancestors the antique Romans, the Byzantines dug camp every night, surrounding it with a ditch and palisade." [272]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[273]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ "Like their ancestors the antique Romans, the Byzantines dug camp every night, surrounding it with a ditch and palisade." [274]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ Moats.[275]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Damascus was "surrounded by an 11m high wall and guarded by six gates."[276]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present.[277] "Like their ancestors the antique Romans, the Byzantines dug camp every night, surrounding it with a ditch and palisade." [278]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Preiser-Kapeller says present. Theodosian Landwalls of Constantinople - maintained from the preceding period.[279]
♠ Long walls ♣ 56 ♥ km. Anastasian Long Walls in Thrace to the west of Constantinople - maintained from the preceding period.[280]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ absent ♥ Once formally crowned Emperor, the ruler was changed either through death - natural or violent - or abdication. No mention of a legal mechanism. "Of the 109 sovereigns twenty-three ended by being assassinated. Twelve died in a convent or prison. Three died of starvation. Eighteen were mutilated by castration, or had their eyes gouged, or nose or hands cut off; and, apart the thirty-four who died in their beds, and eight that were killed in a war or accident, the others were poisoned, suffocated, strangled, stabbed, hurled from the top of a pillar, or driven away ignominiously. Altogether, within 1058 years, there were sixty-five palace-, street-, or barracks revolutions, and sixty-five dethronements."[281]

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ e.g. Macedonian Emperors

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ "The emperor was held to be God's earthly representative and his laws essential for maintaining stability."[282] “This providential man was chosen by God: his coins proclaimed the fact that he was ‘from God’ (‘’ek theou’’). [...] The ‘’basileus’’ was God’s own representative on earth who had inherited the trappings of the cult of his pagan Roman predecessors’ divinity.” [283] Byzantine Emperors were revered in many ways, echoing some of the treatment of eastern Mediterrannean rulers in previous eras as divine or semi-divine figures, showing the close connection between political and religious authority. "Proskynesis of the emperor and his haloed image, the image’s privilege of asylum and placement on church altars, the custom of receiving objects from the emperor with covered hands, silence, incense, and lighted candles in his presence stemmed ultimately from the imperial cult and characterized Byz. rulership.” [284]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ As Christian rulers, Byzantine emperors avoided explicit worship of themselves or descendents as gods, though they were revered in many ways, echoing some of the treatment of eastern Mediterranean rulers in previous eras as divine or semi-divine figures, showing the close connection between political and religious authority. “In the capital, the emperor’s status as God’s representative on earth maintained and even expanded aspects of the imperial cult, esp. the sacredness of imperial persons and institutions concretized by ceremonies and divinizing epithets. Although Constantine avoided ‘’divus’’ for his person, his successors revived the custom, whence arose the Byz. usage of ‘’theios’’ for the imperial person and institutions and ‘’sakra’’ for documents."[285] Emperors were also frequently depicted as gods in works of art, in frescoes and mosaics, though this appears to be a stylistic representation of reverence for the rulers rather than a declaration of divinity.[286]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ Distinctions between emperor and subjects [287] and between men and women [288].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “This providential man was chosen by God: his coins proclaimed the fact that he was ‘from God’ (‘’ek theou’’). His subjects called themselves ‘’douloi’’, which in the time of Thucydides had meant ‘slaves’ but now perhaps connoted something closer to ‘servants’. The ‘’basileus’’ was God’s own representative on earth who had inherited the trappings of the cult of his pagan Roman predecessors’ divinity.” [289]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Byzantine Empire maintained a network of philanthropic institutions designed to shelter travellers and homeless migrants (‘’xenoi’’), provide free medical care for the ill, nurture orphans, and organize food allotments during famines (Constantelos 1991: 113). [...] Modern scholars agree that Christ’s command to assist the suffering underlay the development of specialized welfare services in Byzantium. According to Matthew’s gospel, Jesus required that Christians feed the hungry, clothe the naked, welcome the stranger, and care for the sick (Matt. 25: 34-5).” [290]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [291] [292] [293]

References

  1. (Haldon 2008, 258) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  2. (Johannes Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)
  3. (Haussig 1971, 169) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.
  4. (Treadgold 1988) Treadgold, W T. 1988. The Byzantine Revival, 780-842. Stanford University Press.
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