TrBrzMD

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Alicja Piślewska ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Middle Bronze Age in Central Anatolia ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ The Old Assyrian Colony Period; Old Assyrian; karum colony period in Anatolia; karum period; Periode de l Ancien assyrien; karum colonie en Anatolie; Altassyrischen karum Kolonie Zeit in Anatolien; Anadolu da Eski Asur Karum koloni donemi ♥ The Old Assyrian Colony Period; Old Assyrian; karum/colony period in Anatolia; karum period; Période de l'Ancien assyrien; karum/colonie en Anatolie; Altassyrischen karum/Kolonie Zeit in Anatolien; Anadolu'da Eski Asur Karum/koloni dönemi ... this is not machine readable.

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1850-1750 BCE ♥ [1]

This period corresponds with the biggest settlement of Assyrian merchants. Also, most of the cuneiform tablets come from the stratygraphic levels dated to this period. After the conflagration which destroyed most of the mound and lower city at Açemhöyũk, and similar disasters on other temporal sites, a new settelment was built, but the care of architectural detail was much smaller. All second phase of Assyrian Colony Period in Anatolia seems to be a slow collapse of interregional net of trade[2].


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 2000-1700 BCE ♥ [3]

MBI cca. 2000-1850 B.C.

MBII cca. 1850-1650 B.C. (actual Assyrian Colony Period, which is divided into two periods due to data from Kültepe-Kaneš: 1850-1750 B.C. visible in mound Stratum 8 and karum strata II; 1730-1700 B.C. visible in mound Stratum 7 and karum strata Ib)

MBIII cca. 1650-1500 B.C. All dates are following the lower chronology[4].

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose; quasi-polity ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ vassalage ♥ [5][6] States, which actually correspond to such polity relations are bigger settlements, around which smaller villages are set and taken into bigger centers jurisdiction, e.g. Kaneš, Purušhattum, Zalpa, Hattuš Wahšaniya or Mamma[7][8]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ KonyEBA ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ KonLBA1 ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Kanish ♥ Kaneš, Kanesh

Kanish is one of the biggest settelments during middle bronze age in Anatolia and, moreover, it seems to have been the first place where Assyrian merchants came. However, there is no record for only one center, which would have controlled the whole central Anatolia. Scientists rather assume that there were a few politically independent polities, centralized around bigger settlements, like in the case of earlier mentioned Kanish, Purušhattum, Zalpa, Hattuš Wahšaniya and Mamma [9]

♠ Language ♣ Hattic, Luwian, Hittite, Hurrian, Old Assyrian dialect of Akkadian ♥ [10][11][12]Most of the society was bilingual or even polilingual in order to be able to run their trade business, which demanded communication with merchants from Ašur and other places. Most cuneiform texts are written in Old Assyrian dialect of Akkadian[13]

General Description

While dealing with a case of Anatolian society of early second millennium B.C. one has to face with many different cultures, people, languages and traditions gathered in a bigger settlement in order to conduct interregional commerce. Old Assyrian merchant settlement is visible in most of the sites dated to the Middle Bronze Age[14]. But even more proof of cosmopoliticy during the examined period is gained from the Assyrian archives excavated in Kültepe-Kaniš[15]. Most of the cuneiform tablets give simple business information (who bought how much of what), but through these descriptions archaeologists and other scientists have a better idea of what was happening during these centuries, that precede the Hittite Empire period[16].


Middle Bronze Age period (later MBA) is the time when Assyrian merchants established their trade colonies in the region of Central Anatolia. What is most fascinating about the period of Assyrian Colonies is that a writing system was then first introduced to the Anatolians, and thus the historical era for this region begins. Middle Bronze Age involved a big step in terms of civilization for Anatolian kingdoms, which were then just standing in front of empire unification. According to geomorphological studies, the landforms and landscapes of Central Anatolia, particularly Konya Plain, looked more or less the same during MBA as they do now. However, pollen studies proved the climate was a lot wetter during MBA and forests extended to the margins of the plain (Arbuckle 2012: 465). There were many kingdoms in the area in question, dependent on one another through a vassal treaties. The kingdoms that have been archaeologically identified are Kanish, in the Kayseri region (site called Kültepe), Hatti (later Hittite Hattush) on the Bogazkoy site, and Purushanda (alternatively Burushattum, Purushattum), which is believed to be now known as the site of Acemhoyuk (but there is still an on-going discussion on this hypothesis). The Wahusasna kingdom is known only from written records (Bryce 2006: 24).

While investigating the chronology of the MBA period, the Assyrian list of eponyms is useful - the names of the eponyms are included in some of the cuneiform texts from Kanesh. Scientists divided MBA in Anatolia into three periods: MBI cca. 2000-1850 B.C.

MBII cca. 1850-1650 B.C. (the actual Assyrian Colony Period, which is divided into two periods based on data from Kültepe-Kaneš: 1850-1750 B.C. visible in mound Stratum 8 and karum strata II; 1730-1700 B.C. visible in mound Stratum 7 and karum strata Ib) MBIII cca. 1650-1500 B.C. (Açıkkol et al. 2009: 30).

The peak date of MBA seems to be represented by the period visible in karum strata II, the times from before Zalpa conquest of Kanesh, when the long distance trade was really prosperous. Direct proof of this development can be seen in the presence of a huge amount of cuneiform texts, which come from Assyrian archives from karum-Kanesh (Dercksen 2004: 137-139). Cuneiform texts represent mostly personal letters exchanged between Assyrians from Ashur and Anatolian colonies, economical contracts, loan agreements and other similar texts (Bryce 2006: 27). While a lot is known about the economic and personal life of MBA people thanks to the nature of known texts, there is very little information about gods (they come up only as witnesses in economical transactions), rituals, history and social life. A few later, Hittite texts inform about last rulers of Kanesh, Pithana and his son Anitta (Topçuoğlu 2010: 25). These texts bear information about some conquests and disagreements between Anatolian kingdoms that were fighting for one anther, probably in order to gain very beneficial geographical position on long distance trade routes (Bryce 2006: 30).

Bronze production was dependent on trade. Anatolia is very rich in gold, silver and copper, with absolute absence of tin, which had to be transported through the city of Ashur, from far away deposits in modern Afghanistan. Besides tin, Assyrian caravans transported huge amounts of woolen textiles that were often valued higher than precious metal (Barjamovic 2005). In return, they hoped for payment in pure silver and copper (Dercksen 2005). These two materials were a kind of currency used in MBA period in Anatolian trade. Bigger ingots, if needed, were crushed into smaller pieces to meet the demands of the trade exchange value. During the MBA period, trade was the main accelerator of intercultural exchange of thoughts and social accomplishments (Veenhof 1982). Many colonies were established then - texts inform us about 21 such places, while archaeological evidence may confirm only 3 of them (karum-Kanesh, Merchant settlement in Hatti (Bogazkoy site) and in Acemhoyuk (Bryce 3006). These colonies were called karum, which seem to correspond with the bigger settlements near city mounds like in the case of karum-Kanesh and wabartum, which are believed to represent smaller settlements on route, established in order to keep passing caravans safe.

Assyrians found Anatolia particularly interesting because of its stable political situation, which fostered security for merchandise transported with caravans. On the other hand, Anatolian rulers found the trade to be beneficial, and started to impose taxes on merchants in exchange for safe passage. These taxes were an inconvenience that the merchants tried to bypass in two ways: either through smuggling merchandise into en route cities, or by choosing the so called “narrow track”, if it was safe (Barjamovic 2011). There is very little information about punishments, law and justice, that would explain the mechanism of judicial system. But on the other hand. some cuneiform texts write about court cases, often describing consecutive court cases. Surely though, smuggling was punished with jail (Bryce 2006).

Anatolian rulers saw advantages in controlling strategic trade points on long distance routes. Besides taxes, some of merchandise was traded in such places. Moreover, merchants had to stay somewhere, eat something and etc., so the reception facilities appeared and created profit as well. As the rulers desired to become richer and gain more control over neighboring kingdoms, there was an increase in the amount of border misunderstandings. Best examined archaeological examples of such conflicts (which obviously crossed borders) is conflagration of some major sites, like Kultepe or Acemhoyuk in the end of karum II period, and their revival in the beginning of karum Ib period. These events are linked with passages about the ruler of Kussaras, Pithana, and his son Anitta, who had recaptured city of Kanesh from Zalpian king Uhna. Subsequently, during Anitta’s reign the city was fortified (which is confirmed archaeologically) and trade colonies were restored (these activities date to the karum Ib period) (Hamblin 2013).

Due to the nature of known cuneiform texts (personal and economical mostly) and scientific focus directed only on bigger city settlements, and not hinterland ones, there is very little trace of what rural settlements may have looked like. What seems to be sure is that pastoralism was more profitable than agriculture - this was because of secondary animal products, such as milk, wool etc. (Arbuckle 2012). Thanks to field walking research we do have data about existence of many rural sites, but none of them are under investigation.

Similar situation occurs in the case of rituals. Cuneiform texts do not inform us about any, but in excavated burials there are traces of two different traditions, presumably reflecting Assyrian and native Anatolian. Burial gifts do not show many differences though, which seems to reflect the level of cultural integration between these two cultures, and possibly with some other, like Luwians and Hurrain, who participated in the trade network as well. This unification of culture is visible also in similar building traditions, employing stone foundations with mudbrick walls. Furthermore, some cuneiform texts testify marriages across nations.

To sum up, MBA period in central Anatolia was time of lively intercultural contacts and social development, thanks to exchange of technological and social inventions between Anatolia and Mesopotamia. The first introduction of writing system influenced bureaucracy and palace administration, which then developed into an imperial system. The need for tin, in order to make bronze alloy, motivated merchants engage in long distance trade and host foreign traders. Stable political situation had attracted Assyrian merchants in the beginning of second millennium, but in XVIII century BC, due to increasing amount of conflicts between kingdoms, this trade started to crush and finally ended. After that, the Hittite Empire arose, and completely changed the political map of what used to be Anatolia. With a new polity, rulers and a new nation, a new came along. Iron was much easier to obtain, because only one ingredient was needed, so the long distance trade stopped, and new ideologies (military conquest) started to run international connections. But we may surely say the that Middle Bronze Age Assyrian Colony period created the foundation for the development of the Hittite Empire.


Hereditary Monarchy

International Relations present [17]

Taxation present [18]

Army Recruitment present On the obligatory service terms due to the land possession[19].

Public works present These works might have regarded buildings, harvesting, and other similar works, not exactly specified[20]

Transport infrastructure present [21]

Taxation

By the local elites present [22]
By the state officials present [23]

Type of taxes

Staple present [24]
Labor present [25]
Currency absent

Taxes are imposed on

Land present [26]
Property present [27]
Trade present [28]
Income present [29]

Degree of taxation unknown For example 1/120 of a whole silver cargo, or merchandise like textiles, tin, wool and so on. While passing through centrally reigned territory, for safe passage, one had to pay such an example amount[30].


Native pottery, coarse, not very fine. Knots, seals, mold bricks[31].

Wooden beams were strengthening constructions. The Black Sea Region was always rich in timber, so kingdoms from central Anatolia might have gotten wood from there[32].

Stone for tool making present For example moulds, seals[33]

Building stone present Most of the constructions have stone foundations, first of all palaces at Kültepe and Acemhöyük [34].

Copper present [35] mean of payment, transported in round, planoconvex or oblong ingots. Person who worked with copper was called nappáhum.[36]

Copper was acquired and refined near town called Turhumit, which indicates the presence of a mine nearby, but no traces of any mines where find in Anatolia so far.[37]

Tin/Arsenic present Means of payment, part of bronze alloy, transported from Ashur as obolon ingots called 'tongues'[38]

It is unclear where exactly tin was mined. Surely tin was conveyed to Ashur and then taken with caravans to be sold in Anatolian kingdoms. There are also some traces of another direction where tin was imported from. According to letters which refer to such activity, there was a route that either started or passed through the Lower Country. Caravans, which transported tin from South-Eastern direction seem to be organized by non-Assyrian merchants.[39]

Iron present [40][41] mostly jewelry, pins and finger rings[42]

Assyrian merchants brought iron to Anatolia, where because of its insufficient mastering it was used in jewelry production.[43] Meteoritic iron was also known and found somwhere in the central Anatolia region, and often smuggled abroad[44]

Lead was used mostly for figurines and seals[45]

Lead was extracted where the silver-lead ore deposits were, in particular galena[46].

Agropastoral with pastoral dominating present [47]

Copper present [48] Means of payment, transported in round, planoconvex or oblong ingots. A person working with copper was called nappáhum[49].

Bronze present [50]Swords, spearheads, axes, fighting forks, arrow heads and daggers[51], also tableware (such as bowls, dishes, cups, knives, forks, spoons, ladles, measuring vessels), mirrors, lamps and stands[52].

Iron present [53][54] Mostly jewelry, pins and finger rings[55].

Steel present Steel arrowheads from Kaman-Kalehöyük[56]

Roads present [57]

For more information see the following numbers on the reference list [58][59][60][61]

Metals present tin, iron (for jewelry: pins and finger rings)[62]

Fabrics present high-quality woolen and linen rolls of textiles[63]

Raw materials present ivory, lead[64], lapis lazuli, carnelian[65]

Pottery present Syrian bottles - they appear in karum graves in 1 level at Kültepe, are made from dark grey paste and are slipped in black. They are between 6 and 23 centimeters high. These vessels are proof for Anatolian contacts with Northern Syria during Assyrian Colony Period[66].

Metals present Silver and copper were the metals, which were the most important for foreign merchants. Mesopotamians lacked them, but upon that, silver and copper served as money. As the weight of particular pieces was not standardized, people weighed them and if necessary broke them into smaller scraps. One could buy food, slaves and even services for these metals.[67]

Fabrics present Wool, from pastoral hinterlands towards bigger, centralized settlements[68]

Pack animals present [69]

Draft animals present [70]

Coppersmith present [71]

Cloth-making present Textile manufacturing[72]

Armorer present [73]

Scribe present [74]

Teacher unknown There were people more like masters, who taught how to read and count.[75]

Cuneiform texts mention mines, but until now none have been unearthed[76].

Slavery present [77]

Ethnic groups present Different groups: native Anatolians, merchants from Ashur and others, like Hurrians, Luuwians and so on. However, there is little evidence concerning the actual ethnic differences among Anatolian polities.[78]

Monogamy present[79]

Polygyny present [80]

Seizure of property can by imposed by

Holders of special offices or positions There was a special category of people whose task was to supervise if people carried out their obligatory services towards the ruler. There were also people who guaranteed and supervised loans, and took care of punishments for not paying one's debts.[81]

Some social categories consume more over a lifetime unknown While this is unknown, it must be noted that it is highly probable that richer elites consumed more than farmers and regular craftsmen (concerning analogies to other societies on the similar level of evolution). Still, there is no straight proof for that in cuneiform texts.


Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Alicja Piślewska; Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [15,000-25,000] ♥

157km long journey from Kaniš to Açemhöyük would be a polity of 25,000 if 157 represented a side of a square. Using 25k as upper limit of a range.

♠ Polity Population ♣ [50,000-100,000] ♥

Turkey-in-Asia contained 1.5 million by the chalcolithic (2500 BC) and 3 million "during the course of the full Bronze age".[82] If we assume 2 million for this period that is about 2.67 persons per KM2 across the whole area of Anatolia. Multiplied by the territory we could have a polity population range of between 50,000-100,000.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [9,000-11,000] ♥

AcemhÖyük 56ha at 200 person per ha would be a town of 11,000.

large settlements (e.g. Kaneš estimated range 50ha, AcemhÖyük 56ha, Karahōyük Konya 50 ha, Alişar 28ha)[83]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 2 ♥ [84]

1. large settlements (e.g. Kaneš estimated range 50ha, AcemhÖyük 56ha, Karahōyük Konya 50 ha, Alişar 28ha)[85]

2. small villages and farmsteads 0,1-5 ha (very poorly investigated, data about their existance comes from field walking surveys, not regular excavation)[86]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [3-6] ♥

1. ruler (royal couple) called rubā'um ('prince') and rubātum ('princess')[87]

2. higher officials, such as 'chief of the stairway', who could correspond with the main ruler; rabi sikkitim (chief of man)[88][89], who was responsible for military and trade;'chief sceptcr bearer, 'chief cup bearer' and 'chief of tablets' were directly serving the king. 'The chief of workers' took care and supervised craftsmen, who were also organised under a chief of their profession (e.g. 'chief of blacksmith' etc).
3. Scribe?

rest of the population, lower class hupšum, mostly shepherds and farmers[90][91].

NOTE: Barjamovic points to evidence for a "complex administrative hierarchy",[92] and though he does not provide quite enough information to infer the exact number of "levels" this hierarchy might have had, it seems reasonable to infer more than three.


♠ Religious levels ♣ [1-2] ♥

Very little is known about religious system during Old Assyrian Colony period in Anatolian kingdoms. Published cuneiform tablets often mention names of gods, but as the role of temples in the economic system is unclear, and hardly ever spoken about, there is not much trace of religious hierarchy. Priests are called kumurum and knowledge about their existence comes from tablet on which they are mentioned as witnesses to the economic transactions. [93]

♠ Military levels ♣ [3-4] ♥

1. Chief

2.
3.
4. Individual soldier

The same situation as in the case of priests - cuneiform tablets do not inform about military hierarchy in Anatolian kingdoms. The only thing we have is a position of 'chief of man' called rabi şabim, who is thought to have been responsible for workforce in harvesting and building, and it is assumed also in military force.[94]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ The only thing we have is a position of 'chief of man' called rabi şabim, who is thought to have been responsible for workforce in harvesting and building, and it is assumed also in military force.[95]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ [96]
As was stated above, there are only some traces concerning priests, who occur as witnesses to the economic transactions. Because they might have witnessed such legal acts, their position must have been well, even highly situated among MBA Anatolian society[97][98].

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥ [99]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥

There are some buildings, like 'official storage building' from Kültepe, which are supposed to have something to do with polity-managemgent activities[100].

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥

There is no evidence that would surely confirm the existence of a legal code in Anatolian kingdoms in second millenium BC. However, researchers have investigated legal transaction texts from Kültepe, and deduced some single roles, such as obligatory services of arhalüm and unuššum. There is also some indication concerning people or group of people, who were responsible for supervising performance of some obligatory services.[101]

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ System is known from cuneiform texts, but has not been yet unearthened during excavations.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ [102]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ For example, Kaman-Kalehöyük, where large assemblages were found, while at other sites excavations mostly unearth household storages[103].

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ [104]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ [105]
♠ Canals ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Ports ♣ ♥ unknown

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ [106]

All texts are written in Old Assyrian dialect of Akkadian and they refer mostly to economic transactions and resemble private correspondence[107].

♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ likely what bureaucrats would do with writing
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ The calendar used was related to harvesting during summer (cereals) and autumn (grape).[108]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Religious literature ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ History ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥ unknown


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ textiles, silver, tin,copper, gold, iron[109]
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ Metals according to documents from Kültepe-Kanish dating to the Old Assyrian Colony Period. In Yalcun, Ü. (Ed.), Anatolian Metal III. Der Anschnitt, Beiheft 18. (pp. 17-34). Bochum: Deutsches Bergbau-Museum</ref>
♠ Foreign coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ Had bureaucrats. Full-time messengers would have been useful.
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Alicja Piślewska; Edward A L Turner; Thomas Cressy ♥

Thomas Cressy: Some of the variables will be inferred from the previous polity as several archaeological sites showed very close continuity with the previous polity:‘Most of the evidence from the Middle Bronze Age (period V A, 2000-1750 b.c.e.) has been found in the southwestern area of the mound, exhibiting very close continuity in terms of the architecture and material culture with the Early Bronze III settlements, on which they were directly superimposed’[110]

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Arslantepe had particularly good metallurgy, copper swords and spearheads [111]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ The bronze was produced locally, by Anatolian metalworkers, to make tools, weapons, and household objects, many of which have been found in the houses and graves of the kārum: spearheads, axes, daggers, forks, needles, nails, and chains [112]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Not yet the Iron Age
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ The earliest evidence of steel use are dated to 1800 BC and site Kaman-Kalehoyuk in Central Anatolia, but there is lack of traces of steel in Early Elam Period[113]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Bone harpoons found for a much earlier period. The harpoon could have been used for hunting or warfare. No evidence yet of a javelin weapon designed specifically for or in active use for warfare.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ weapon of the Americas
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ 4000 BCE in the Middle East and southeastern Europe: "sling, dagger, mace, and bow are common weapons".[114]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ There is no information about bows, but during excavations arrowheads are often found in such contexts as dwellings, graves and workshops[115]. "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[116] Self bows still in general use after composite bow introduced.[117]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred absent: 2000-1900 BCE; suspected unknown: 1800 BCE; present: 1700 BCE ♥ Composite bows were present in nearby Mesopotamia, even Eastern Anatolia had become separated from this culture by around 2500 BCE: from about 2500 BC ‘From that moment onward the history of the site and of the region was completely separated from the history of the Syro-Mesopotamian areas and that of the southernmost region of the Middle/Upper Euphrates Valley; it now began to gravitate toward the eastern Anatolian world.’[118] "The composite bows spread into Palestine around 1800 BCE and were introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos in 1700 BCE."[119] Possibly introduced toward the end of this period?
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ "The mace was among man's oldest weapons (at least 6000 B.C.E. at Catal Huyuk)".[120] 4000 BCE in the Middle East and southeastern Europe: "sling, dagger, mace, and bow are common weapons".[121]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Axes have been found in the context of metallurgical workshops. We may then assume that they were not only objects for sale, but might have also been used on the battlefield. MBA Anatolian axes had many various shapes.[122][123] The bronze was produced locally, by Anatolian metalworkers, to make tools, weapons, and household objects, many of which have been found in the houses and graves of the kārum: spearheads, axes, daggers, forks, needles, nails, and chains [124]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ The best known precious object from Assyrian Colony Period karum, is closely tied to Anitta's, the king of Kussara, who conquered a kingdom of Kanesh. We can assume that this precious object may resemble daggers used in battles[125], which are also found, in burial and workshop contexts.[126] The bronze was produced locally, by Anatolian metalworkers, to make tools, weapons, and household objects, many of which have been found in the houses and graves of the kārum: spearheads, axes, daggers, forks, needles, nails, and chains [127] 4000 BCE in the Middle East and southeastern Europe: "sling, dagger, mace, and bow are common weapons".[128]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Swords, along with axes (of various shapes) and daggers are the most popular weapons in Anatolia during MBA period, but only two swords have been so far unearthed.[129] The traditional view is that sword use - as a secondary weapon - dates from about the seventeenth century BCE.[130] although earlier swords are also known in Susiana.
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Quite big, bronze forks were used as weapons, according to statements of great Near Eastern archaeologists, T. Ǒzgüç and K. Bittel. Forks were mostly found as grave offerings during the karum II period.[131] Spears [132] The bronze was produced locally, by Anatolian metalworkers, to make tools, weapons, and household objects, many of which have been found in the houses and graves of the kārum: spearheads, axes, daggers, forks, needles, nails, and chains [133]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ inferred from previous polity [134]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ no evidence of use in warfare appears for this period
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ use as Pack Animals appears by around 7000 BC onward [135]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ [136]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time and code has yet to receive an expert check
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time and code has yet to receive an expert check
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time and code has yet to receive an expert check
♠ Helmets ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Earliest reference for present we currently have is for the Hittites.[137] In Egypt helmets were probably first worn by charioteers in the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE.[138] It's technically possible they could have been used earlier than the mid-2nd millennium BCE in both Egypt and in Antolia as the earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer. Gabriel (2002) claims after this time use of helmets became standard issue[139], but possibly he was only referring to the Mesopotamian region.
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ This time is earlier than the earliest reference in Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply."[140] It is also earlier than the earliest reference in Anatolia, the Hittite period.[141]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples.[142]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ naval trade occurred in previous polity, close continuity would suggest this technology was not lost [143]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time and code has yet to receive an expert check
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time and code has yet to receive an expert check

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ ‘judging from the fact that in the Late Bronze I (Period V B, 1750-1600 b.c.e.), a town gate was built in the Arslantepe earthen wall defense system, flanked by two bipartite quadrangular towers, which was highly reminiscent of similar central Anatolian gates, such as those at AliŞar or Boğazköy (Palmieri 1978). ... this fortification system arrangement remained unchanged throughout the imperial Hittite and Neo-Hittite periods’
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ Settlements have continuity with previous polity. Karataş-Semayük [144]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ absent ♥ not found in settlements
♠ Ditch ♣ absent ♥ not found in settlements
♠ Moat ♣ absent ♥ not found in settlements
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ not found in settlements
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ <e.g. Kaneš[145]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Settlements have continuity with previous polity. Alişar Hüyük [146]. A fortification wall was constructed, and only 10 meters of fortification found on the terrace were excavated. One of these walls was set behind the other and rectangular-shaped bastions were constructed onto it. [147]
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km. not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Monarchy.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [148] [149] [150]

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