TrBrzL2

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Katarzyna Mich ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Konya Plain - Late Bronze Age II ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Kingdom of Hatti; Hittite Intermediate Period; Hittite Kingdom; Hethiter; Hittites; Hetyci; Hititler veya Etiler ♥ Hethiter; Hittites; Hetyci; חתים; Hititler veya Etiler

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1450 BCE ♥ Hantili II noted for building achievements: "responsible for the first extensive fortification of the capital" [1]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1500-1400 BCE ♥

1650-1175 BCE [2] c. 1650 BC: (Old Kingdom) The founding of the Hittite Kingdom. (Labarna I or Hattusili I) - c. 1175 BC: The fall of the Hittite state caused by the invasions of the Sea Peoples, and attacks the people of Kaskians and Assyrians. End date: the destruction of Hattusa.

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Hatti - Old Kingdom ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Hatti - New Kingdom ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Hattusa ♥ [3] [4] [5]

Hattusa was the capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age. It was found to be located near modern Boğazkale, Turkey, within the great loop of the Kızılırmak River. Hattusa exerted dominating influence upon the civilizations of the 2nd and 1st millennia BC in Anatolia and Northern Syria. The palaces, temples, trading quarters and necropolis of this political and religious metropolis provide a comprehensive picture of a capital and bear a unique testimony to the disappeared Hittite civilization. The city's fortifications, along with the Lion Gate, the Royal Gate and the Yazılıkaya rupestral ensemble with its sculptured friezes, represent unique artistic achievements as monuments.

Hattusa was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1986[6].

♠ Language ♣ Nesite; Luwian ♥ And many others.[7] "The official language of the kingdom was an Indo-European language called Nesite, which we commonly refer to today as the 'Hittite' language." [8]

General Description

The period of 1500-1400 BCE was an 'intermediate period' for the Hittite people that is sometimes referred to as the Middle Kingdom, which existed before the Empire period of the New Kingdom.[9]

According to McEvedy and Jones (1978) the population of the whole of Turkey was about 1.5 million by the Chalcolithic era (2500 BC) and reached 3 million "during the course of the full Bronze age".[10] However, the area corresponding to Hittite control at this time was just a fraction of the 750,000 km2 of Anatolia, so it is unlikely there were more than a million Hittites, possibly much less.

As a time of troubles, not much is known about the Middle Kingdom of the Hittites, but by around 1450 CE Hantili II is noted for building achievements being "responsible for the first extensive fortification of the capital" Hattusa.[11]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Katarzyna Mich ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [50,000-75,000] ♥

♠ Polity Population ♣ [300,000-400,000] ♥ People.

Turkey contained 1.5 million by the chalcolithic (2500 BC) and 3 million "during the course of the full Bronze age".[12]

The polity territory isn't anywhere near 750,000 km2 of Anatolia. If we assume at this time the polity controlled 10% of the region that would be 300,000 people. This would be a lower limit if we further suppose that the Hittite region, being the most developed, would be the most densely populated.


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [12,000-17,000] ♥ Inhabitants. Hattusa.

Hattusa (Bogazköy)

Reconstruction of the population is very difficult. Researchers suggest very different populations. 15,000-20,000 inhabitants[13] or 9000-11,000[14] or 9000 - 15,000 [15]

Sarissa

5000 inhabitants [16] based on the capacity of the granary.

Lisipra

2400-3000 inhabitants [17]

Even for sites which have been excavated more extensively, such as Bogazköy or Kusaklı, a realistic estimate of the number of inhabitants cannot be given yet[18]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥

1. Capital Bogazköy-Hattusa.

2. Large settlements (e.g. Masat Höyük-Tapikka, Ortaköy-Sapinuwa, Alaca Höyük, Inandıktepe).
3. Small villages and farmsteads 0,1-5 ha (very poorly investigated, data about their existence comes from field walking surveys, not regular excavation).

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

The Old Kingdom was a feudal and agrarian society.

1. The King

judge and a military leader.
2. The assembly (panku/tuliya)
had a greater role in the Old Kingdom. It comprised of non-nobility, formed the bureaucracy and was subservient to the king[19].
To the panku (assembly) Telipinu (c.1460 BCE) "assigned extensive executive and disciplinary powers, even over members of the royal familiy."[20]
2. Governors[21] Provincial administrators[22]
appointed directly by the king?
3. "Council of Elders"
Locally administered justice.[23] . Local council lowest identifiable judicial authority. [24]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

King

"The king himself was not only his kingdom's war leader, but also its supreme judicial authority and chief priest."[25]

Priests SANGA (het. sankunni-). The distinction of priests of the great (SANGA GAL) and priests minor (SANGA TUR) was made.[26]

Eg. priest GUDU, priestess "lady of daity" (EREŚ.DINGER), priestess "mother of God" (AMA DINGIR).[27]

Different priests (eg. priest tazzeli, priest hamina-).[28]


♠ Military levels ♣ 7 ♥

1. King

king could "delegate military command to a subordinate, probably a member of his own family."[29]
2. High Military Command / Chief of the Bodyguards
"The king’s brothers often seem to have been appointed to high military commands immediately below the king and the crown prince, particularly if they held the highly prestigious post of GAL MESHEDI (chief of the Bodyguards).[30]
2. 'Chief of the Wine (Stewards)' Commander-in-chief
"an unpretentious-sounding but in fact highly prestigious title. Its holder was assigned important military commands either under the general command of the king or as commander-in-chief in his own right. The use of such a term, which goes back to the early days of the Old Kingdom, no doubt reflects a time in early Hittite history when the king's most trusted confidants and advisers were those who attended him in a range of capacities, some quite humble, on a daily basis." [31]
3. Chief of the Chariot-Warriors of the Right / Chief of the Chariot-Warriors of the Left
"usually of princely status" [32]
"Each of these officers apparently commanded a brigade of 1000 men." [33]
3. Chief of the Standing Army-Troops of the Right / Chief of the Standing Army-Troops of the Left
"Each of these officers apparently commanded a brigade of 1000 men." [34]
3. Chief of the 'Shepherds' of the Right / Chief of the 'Shepherds' of the Left.
"Each of these officers apparently commanded a brigade of 1000 men." [35]
4.
"The lower-ranking officers included, in descending order of importance, 'overseers of military heralds', 'dignitaries', and 'gentlemen'. There was a gradation of rank within the dignitaries category, raging (in modern equivalents) from captain to sergeant. The gentlemen were the lowest-ranking officers. Each officer's importance was determined by the number of men he led. At the lower levels, some were in charge of 100 men, some of just 10."[36]
5. Officer of 100 men
"The lower-ranking officers included, in descending order of importance, 'overseers of military heralds', 'dignitaries', and 'gentlemen'. There was a gradation of rank within the dignitaries category, raging (in modern equivalents) from captain to sergeant. The gentlemen were the lowest-ranking officers. Each officer's importance was determined by the number of men he led. At the lower levels, some were in charge of 100 men, some of just 10."[37]
6. Officer of 10 ("Gentlemen"?)
"The lower-ranking officers included, in descending order of importance, 'overseers of military heralds', 'dignitaries', and 'gentlemen'. There was a gradation of rank within the dignitaries category, raging (in modern equivalents) from captain to sergeant. The gentlemen were the lowest-ranking officers. Each officer's importance was determined by the number of men he led. At the lower levels, some were in charge of 100 men, some of just 10."[38]
7. Individual soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not known for Old Kingdom, present in the New Kingdom.[39]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not known for Old Kingdom, present in the New Kingdom. [40]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Present in both Old Kingdom and New Kingdom.[41]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥

Old Kingdom

Scribes[42] [43]. The assembly panku/tuliya.
"Chief of the Scribes", a powerful figure[44] - a professional official.

New Kingdom: The Hittite Empire was probably more developed than the Old Kingdom.

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred present ♥

There is evidence of upward mobility in the scribal profession [45].

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred absent ♥ Palaces. The most important elements in the larger cities were palaces, which in textual sources are characterized with the Sumerogram É.GAL = great house. The palaces were a crucial element for the administration and organisation of the Hittite state. However, they were not necessarily specialized buildings--expert confirmation required.

Hittite palaces:

(1) Büyükkale/Bogazköy-Hattusa[46]

(2) Masat Höyük-Tapikka[47]

(3) Ortaköy-Sapinuwa, Building A [48]

(4) Alaca Höyük [49]

(5) Inandıktepe[50]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ "... the collection we have called The Laws ... consists of some 200 clauses, the earliest surviving version of which dates to the Old Kingdom, around 1650 BC. From references it makes to revisions to previous laws we know there must have been an even earlier version, probably going back to the reign of the original Labarna, the earliest known Hittite monarch... only one New Kingdom version, the so-called 'Late Parallel Version', contains any substantive revisions."[51]

Archaeological research in the twentieth century has produced interesting findings, demonstrating the existing legal culture of the Hittites. The result of this research is to find two pieces of code of the Hittite from the end of the XV or the beginning of the XIV century BC, and therefore subsequent to the Code of Hammurabi, early and from a set of assarynian law, including customary law. Also found Hittite texts of several laws and contracts concluded with Egypt. One of the pieces of that code was given to us in two editorial and this is the year 1390 BC and later contains only 22 articles. Recognition of specific issues in the code allows you to present as part of the most general laws of the Hittite.[52]

Public Law

In terms of political system, the law regulates the powers and duties of Hittite warriors from the tribe of Manda presumably later Medes or would be the position of slaves who knows the different types (public and private). More specifically, however, deals with the Hittite code of criminal law. A feature of his in this area is greater than humanity criminal legislation of other peoples of the Ancient East . Penalties for offenses are too harsh and often meets next penalty fines for damages in nature. Qualification of murder and murder of passion or would be unintentional homicide near complete removal of private vengeance, argues with already developed legal concepts , but on the other hand, determination of penalties in a casuistic points to the primitive nature of the legislation.[53]

Private Law

Family law is based on the exogamous patriarchal family organization, since endogamous marriage within the family is forbidden under death penalty. In the field of trade and commerce law, there are set prices for individual goods, thereby controlling the development of economic relations in the country. The uniformity of legislation throughout the Hittite is intended to more closely anastomosis various neighboring provinces of the country of Hatti.[54]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ [55]

The king functioned as the prime judiciary in the Hittite state. But judgements seemed the officials of the king and the Council of Eders in local matters.

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥[56]

Level 2: Royal Courts[57]

Level 1: the Council of Elders

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥ unknown


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Irrigation canals [58]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ e. g. Hattusa[59]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥[60][61] Public squares such as the Agora in Athens or the Forum Romanum are so far unknown in the Hittite period. Nevertheless, smaller squares, for instance for market places, surely must have existed[62].
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ e. g. Kusaklı-Sarissa[63]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ [64]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ The Citadel Büyükkale at Hattusa was connected to a system of stone viaducts and bridge with the Büyükkaya[65]
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Irrigation canals, but these are not transport infrastructure.
♠ Ports ♣ absent ♥ The Hittites did not have its own ports, nor a fleet. They used the services of vassal states, such as Ugarit.

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ (1) The relief carvings: the Hittites also expressed some messages through relief carvings that were characteristic during the New Kingdom. Usually represent a single character (king or deity) or cult scene involving a ruler. Among some of the reliefs, especially those located at the communication routes, symbols of royal power were represented - e. g. Yazılıkaya, Sirkeli, Firaktin[66]. (2) Hittite royal seals - seals of punching are a distinctive type for Hittites. After period of medium bronze, cylinder seals were used sporadically. Royal seals can be clearly distinguished, showing the image of the monarch. In the Suppiluliumma, a distinctive cartouche appears, which also has the name of the ruler and his titulary. Sometimes the ruler is shown in the arms of one of the most important deities in the country or its tutelary deity. There are also royal seals with representations of the king dressed as a priest or a warrior, or together with the queen [67]. (3) Sculpture and bas-relief - Stone sculptures date primarily from the New Kingdom, and are represented by statues of lions and sphinxes made ​​in sculpture semi-double, and partly in relief. They were part of the city gates (Gates of Lions at Hattusa, Gates of Sphinxes at Alaca Höyük) and temples' entrances. Submit lions served as apotropaic and sphinxes emphasized a symbolic move from a profane zone to a sacred zone. [68] Eflatun Pınar Orthostates, quadrilateral stone slabs set vertically along the wall monumental buildings, usually decorated with reliefs. Orthostates are characteristic of Hittite art and decorated with temples, palaces, gates(Hattusa and Alaca Höyük).(4) Vessels relief - Vase from the vicinity of Inandik depicting a festival celebration.
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Remains of the Hittite language were found in excavations of Hattusa. Hittite cuneiform archives have been discovered at Ortaköy (ancient Sapinuwa), Kuşakli (ancient Sarissa) and Maşat (ancient Tapikka).
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Cuneiform system. [69]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Hittite king's list sacrificial. [70]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ The cultic calendar. [71]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ For the most part, “Hittite” mythological narratives belong to either the Hattian or Hurrian traditions, but some compositions of Hittite origin are also identifiable.[72] There were also prayers. [73]
♠ Practical literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Hittite historiographic texts include primarily royal annals and edicts. [74]
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ Silver in bars or in rings, metered by weight. The units of weight were the shekel and mina[75]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ Money was not used as means of exchange in the Hittite period yet. Silver and iron were alike used as a medium of exchange. Articles used in local trade.
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ Hittite rulers had correspondence with rulers of the neighbouring countries. They needed an efficient system of couriers.[76] letters "dispatched by the king to his local officials" [77]
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Katarzyna Mich ; Thomas Cressy ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ copper is required for bronze
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ [78]
♠ Iron ♣ inferred absent ♥ At the earliest times bronze was preferred and iron had mainly ornamental uses.[79] In Eastern Anatolia "the shift from bronze to iron was more gradual than abrupt" and in some areas bronze was used into the 750-400 BCE period.[80] Iron was used for weapons and tools, and by non-elites, from the Urartian period after about 850 BCE.[81] In nearby Georgia, a regional center for iron smelting, massive finds of iron tools and weapons appear from about 700 BCE.[82]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Not known to have been in use here yet

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Gaebel (referring to New Kingdom) thinks it is "probable that the Hittite chariots carried javelin throwers and archers."[83]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ weapon of the Americas
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The written sources do not allow us to draw any conclusions concerning the use of the sling in the Hittite army, whereas it seems likely that the enemies of the Hittites made use of this weapon[84].
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ [85]. The bow is regularly depicted as the weapon of the king. "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[86]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ The principal weapon of the Hittite chariot contingent was the bow and arrow. The bow was made of a composite of wood and horn glued together, which gave it a lot of strength and flexibility.[87] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[88] "The composite bows spread into Palestine around 1800 BCE and were introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos in 1700 BCE."[89]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet.
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Siege warfare is attested in Old Hittite written records. [90]. In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records.[91] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone".[92] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE.[93] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did.[94] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE.[95] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons.[96] There is no direct evidence for catapults for this time/location. The aforementioned evidence we currently have covering the wider ancient world suggests they were probably not used at this time, perhaps because effective machines had not been invented yet.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet.

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Examples from Kiiltepe, Sivas and Bogazkoy
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ [97]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Examples of swords used by the Hittites: Tell Atchana, Ugarit, Tell es-Sa'idiye, Sarkoy, Warrior God from the King's Gate in Bogazkoy (with a helmet, sword and axe)[98]. According to a military historian (requires check by polity expert): "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier's primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken."[99]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ [100] According to a military historian (requires check by polity expert): Spear-using phalanx first used in Sumer 2500 BCE. The phalanx was in use until the 1st century BCE.[101]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥ no record of such weapons

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ used as Pack Animals appears by around 7000 BC onward [102]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ [103]. "The horse and light chariot were introduced into the Hittite world, as elsewhere in the Near East, probably around 1600..."[104]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Helmets made of leather, textiles and bronze[105]. Armour-scales.
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ The shields are either rectangular or of the figure-of-eight type[106].
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Present.[107]
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Greaves: present.[108] According to a military historian (requires check by polity expert): Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply."[109]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ According to a military historian (requires check by polity expert): Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples.[110]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥[111]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ "There was no Hittite fleet, and we do not know what ships were used for intercourse with the island of Cyprus, which the Hittites appear to have controlled. They used the services of the countries covered, especially Ugarit. However, the last king of Hatti, Suppiluliuma II actually boasts of victory in two sea battles (but does not describe them)." [112]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "There was no Hittite fleet, and we do not know what ships were used for intercourse with the island of Cyprus, which the Hittites appear to have controlled. They used the services of the countries covered, especially Ugarit. However, the last king of Hatti, Suppiluliuma II actually boasts of victory in two sea battles (but does not describe them)." [113]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ There was no Hittite fleet, and we do not know what ships were used for intercourse with the island of Cyprus, which the Hittites appear to have controlled. They used the services of the countries covered, especially Ugarit. However, the last king of Hatti, Suppiluliuma II actually boasts of victory in two sea battles (but does not describe them). [114]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ ‘judging from the fact that in the Late Bronze I (Period V B, 1750-1600 b.c.e.), a town gate was built in the Arslantepe earthen wall defense system, flanked by two bipartite quadrangular towers, which was highly reminiscent of similar central Anatolian gates, such as those at AliŞar or Boğazköy (Palmieri 1978). ... this fortification system arrangement remained unchanged throughout the imperial Hittite and Neo-Hittite periods’[115]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ (e.g. Hattusa) The fortification walls were built in a casemate system with a width of up to 8 m. Two parallel walls were connected by diagonal walls, and the compartments thus constructed were filled with rubble. Towers protruded at regular intervals from the outer face of the walls. The walls are always situated on earthen ramparts, which provided protection against battering rams. As usual in Hittite architecture, the foundations and the lower parts of the walls were made of stone, whereas the upper parts consisted of a timber-framed structure of mud-brick. The superstructure of the walls can be reconstructed with a high degree of certainty thanks to the discovery of vessels showing fortification walls with battlements and towers. The gates were always flanked by towers. The Lion's Gate in Hattusa was approached via a ramp, which ran parallel to the wall to the right, thus exposing the unshielded side of potential attackers to fire from the wall. Every gate could be closed on the outer and inner side by heavy wooden doors, which could be bolted with copper bars. A peculiarity of Hittite fortifications is the so-called postern, a narrow tunnel of up to 50 m in length and 3-4 m in width and height that led through the earthen ramparts on which the fortification stood. According to one theory, these posterns may have served as sally ports, enabling the defenders to make quick sorties. The length and the narrowness of the posterns made them easily defendable against intruders who, on the other hand, were exposed to fire from the fortification walls during their approach. [116]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ (e.g. Hattusa) The fortification walls were built in a casemate system with a width of up to 8 m. Two parallel walls were connected by diagonal walls, and the compartments thus constructed were filled with rubble. Towers protruded at regular intervals from the outer face of the walls. The walls are always situated on earthen ramparts, which provided protection against battering rams. As usual in Hittite architecture, the foundations and the lower parts of the walls were made of stone, whereas the upper parts consisted of a timber-framed structure of mud-brick. The superstructure of the walls can be reconstructed with a high degree of certainty thanks to the discovery of vessels showing fortification walls with battlements and towers. The gates were always flanked by towers. The Lion's Gate in Hattusa was approached via a ramp, which ran parallel to the wall to the right, thus exposing the unshielded side of potential attackers to fire from the wall. Every gate could be closed on the outer and inner side by heavy wooden doors, which could be bolted with copper bars. A peculiarity of Hittite fortifications is the so-called postern, a narrow tunnel of up to 50 m in length and 3-4 m in width and height that led through the earthen ramparts on which the fortification stood. According to one theory, these posterns may have served as sally ports, enabling the defenders to make quick sorties. The length and the narrowness of the posterns made them easily defendable against intruders who, on the other hand, were exposed to fire from the fortification walls during their approach. [117]
♠ Ditch ♣ absent ♥ same as the previous polity: 'this fortification system arrangement remained unchanged throughout the imperial Hittite and Neo-Hittite periods’[118]
♠ Moat ♣ absent ♥ same as the previous polity: 'this fortification system arrangement remained unchanged throughout the imperial Hittite and Neo-Hittite periods’[119]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ same as the previous polity: 'this fortification system arrangement remained unchanged throughout the imperial Hittite and Neo-Hittite periods’[120]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ stone only being used as a wall foundation (e.g. Hattusa) The fortification walls were built in a casemate system with a width of up to 8 m. Two parallel walls were connected by diagonal walls, and the compartments thus constructed were filled with rubble. Towers protruded at regular intervals from the outer face of the walls. The walls are always situated on earthen ramparts, which provided protection against battering rams. As usual in Hittite architecture, the foundations and the lower parts of the walls were made of stone, whereas the upper parts consisted of a timber-framed structure of mud-brick. The superstructure of the walls can be reconstructed with a high degree of certainty thanks to the discovery of vessels showing fortification walls with battlements and towers. The gates were always flanked by towers. The Lion's Gate in Hattusa was approached via a ramp, which ran parallel to the wall to the right, thus exposing the unshielded side of potential attackers to fire from the wall. Every gate could be closed on the outer and inner side by heavy wooden doors, which could be bolted with copper bars. A peculiarity of Hittite fortifications is the so-called postern, a narrow tunnel of up to 50 m in length and 3-4 m in width and height that led through the earthen ramparts on which the fortification stood. According to one theory, these posterns may have served as sally ports, enabling the defenders to make quick sorties. The length and the narrowness of the posterns made them easily defendable against intruders who, on the other hand, were exposed to fire from the fortification walls during their approach. [121]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ same as the previous polity: 'this fortification system arrangement remained unchanged throughout the imperial Hittite and Neo-Hittite periods’[122]
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km. not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Katarzyna Mich ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ King could "delegate military command to a subordinate, probably a member of his own family.[123]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “As the protege of the national deity, the Storm-God or, later, the Sun-Goddess of Arinna, the king acted as his or her chief priest. The Sun-Goddess was said to run before the king in battle, thus ensuring his victory. From the earliest records, the throne-deity Halmasuitt was a divine patron of the office she symbolized. In a ritual for the foundation of the king’s palace, she delivered the insignias of power to the king. The kings of the empire period also enjoyed the protection of a personal deity. In monumental reliefs as well as on seals, the personal deity is sometimes shown protectively embracing the king, as Sharruma embraces Tudhaliya IV at Yazilikaya.” [124]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ “The most common way of saying in Hittite that the king or queen had died was ‘the king became a god.’ And logically, if the king ‘’became’’ a god at death, he was not such during his lifetime.” [125]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ “In contrast to the intimacy that the Hittite king enjoyed with the divine sphere, his connection to his subjects was guarded. This relationship is expressed officially in the imagery of the shepherd protecting his flock: 'May the land of Hatti graze abundantly (?) in the hand of the labarna (i.e., the king) and tawananna (i.e., the queen), and may it expand!' In reality, however, outside of his family and principal advisors, the king probably had almost no contact with the people he ruled, living instead an isolated existence designed in part to preserve his life and in part to protect him from pollution. As priest of the gods, the king’s purity was a matter of considerable concern, and the lives of those whose carelessness jeopardized his higher state were forfeit. One cannot help but wonder what the average farmer or coppersmith privately thought of this remote figure.” [126]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “In contrast to the intimacy that the Hittite king enjoyed with the divine sphere, his connection to his subjects was guarded. This relationship is expressed officially in the imagery of the shepherd protecting his flock: 'May the land of Hatti graze abundantly (?) in the hand of the labarna (i.e., the king) and tawananna (i.e., the queen), and may it expand!' In reality, however, outside of his family and principal advisors, the king probably had almost no contact with the people he ruled, living instead an isolated existence designed in part to preserve his life and in part to protect him from pollution. As priest of the gods, the king’s purity was a matter of considerable concern, and the lives of those whose carelessness jeopardized his higher state were forfeit. One cannot help but wonder what the average farmer or coppersmith privately thought of this remote figure.” [127]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [128] [129] [130]

Population

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