TrBrzER

From Seshat Data Browser
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Artur Butkiewicz ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Konya Plain - Early Bronze Age ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Fruhe Bronzezeit in Zentralanatolien; Debut de l age du bronze en Anatolie centrale; Orta Anadolu da Erken Tunc Cagi ♥ Frühe Bronzezeit in Zentralanatolien; Début de I'âge du bronze en Anatolie centrale; Orta Anadolu'da Erken Tunç Çağı ... this is not machine readable.

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥ unknown


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 3000-2000 BCE ♥

Early Bronze I (EB I) 3000 - 2700/2600 B.C.E.

Early Bronze II (EB II) 2700/2600 - 2300 B.C.E.

Early Bronze III (EB III) 2300 - 2000 B.C.E.

The beginning date of this period is very controversial, because the transition from the end of Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age I period is far from clear. Early Bronze Age III period sees extensive changes which were great foundations for Anatolia's first empire [1].

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥ unknown

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Konya Plain - Late Chalcolithic ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity; population migration ♥ Determining the geographic frontiers of Central Anatolia is also problematic. The frontiers are not only linked to climate and topography, but also to the location of sites. Pontic Mountains can be considered the South border, and similarly, the Taurus Mountains were in the South frontier. The Eastern boundary is the easiest to define: it is a straight line between modern Malatya and Trabzon. Western border is formed by crucial sites like Beycesultan, Demircihöyük, Karataş-Semayük. During Early Bronze Age, some Indo-European nations arrived on this land - this happened around 2300 BCE. Most of the Early Bronze Age II sites in Anatolia saw massive and violent destruction and these disasters brought an end to the EB II period.
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Konya Plain - Middle Bronze Age ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥ unknown

♠ Language ♣ Proto-Indo-European language ♥ Some scholars suggest that populations speaking the proto-languages of what would later be Luwian/Hittite/Palaic entered and settled in Anatolia during the Neolithic period. Others suggest that Indo-European languages arrived in Anatolia some time during the Chalcolitic to Early Bronze Age periods. The final argument implies that Anatolia was actually part of the original Proto-Indo-European-speaking homeland. Both indigenous and Indo-European languages existed side by side on that plateau from earliest times. [2]

General Description

The Early Bronze Age period in Anatolia is complicated and complex topic. This period begins with controversy, because the transition from Late Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age is not clear. Some scholars argue that beginning of Early Bronze age should be dated to around 3000 BCE.


This is clearly visible at the monumental graves, known as Royal Tombs at Alaca Höyük site. These tombs yielded over 700 items that we can grouped into 12 typological categories. A multiplicity of materials were used in those grave goods - from metals (copper, bronze, silver, gold, electrum, iron, lead, haematite), stones (carnelian, rock crystal, chalcedony, flint, lapis lazuli), frit, faience, pottery, to bone and textiles. The most spectacular findings were anthropomorphic figurines, which were made by the combination more than one metal in a single object. In these Royal Tombs we can find also remains of ceremonial funerary feasts. Some animals were slaughtered, the oxen being the most common.

Many sites of this period were well fortified. Proof of wooden palisades and stone walls was found in Karataş-Semayük, and just stone walls in for example Taurus and Demircihöyük. At Alişar Hüyük, complex fortifications were excavated - a well constructed stronghold wall, and 10 meters of fortification on the terrace. One of these walls was set behind the other, and onto it rectangular-shaped bastions were constructed. A lot of handheld weapons were also found in Central Anatolia Plateau, for example: swords, daggers, pikes, halberds, spears, battle axes and warclubs. At the Demircihöyük and Karataş-Semayük sites, there were extramural Early Bronze Age cemeteries - altogether there were about 900 pithoi burials, and the majority of bodies was facing Southeast.

The pottery of Anatolian Early Bronze Age was distinctive by red monochrome wares. In terms of animal remains, it can be concluded that Sheep and goats were most dominant (at Acemhöyük), representing 63-68 percent of the faunal remains, followed by cattle and pigs.


Wood or rather wooden planks were used in Royal Tombs at Alaca Höyük. "The burials consisted of a rectangular pit roofed with wooden planks." [3]

Flint/Obsidian present [4] [5]

Building stone present Building stone was used e.g. in Royal Tombs at Alaca Höyük. "The lower parts of these shafts consisted of rectangular stone-lined pits in wchich a single person was normally buried" [6] "The most numerous examples of the megaron plan are found in the Early Bronze Age village at Karataş (Troy I-II period), where stone foundations of over thirty such structures have been uncovered in recent excavations." [7]

Copper present E.g. grave goods [8]

Tin/Arsenic present Kestel [9] "The Kestel-Göltepe complex is vast. The mine itself comprises a network of eight galleries, extending in various directions. Some 4500 cubic meters of ore were extracted, often through precariously narrow tunnels, using fire and large ground stone hammers to shatter the ore. Even if the ore mined in antiquity were low grade, containing only 1 % of tin like some the nodules found in the excavations, the size of the galleries point to the produciotn of some 115 tons of tin." [10]

Iron present E.g. grave goods [11]. Iron Dagger [12]

Material to make ornaments gold, silver, carnelian, jade, rock crystal "In terms of jewellery, we should note the ability of the craftsmen to combine gold and silver with precious stones (carnelian, jade, and rock crystal), a technique especially favored for pins, and at the same time the conspicious absence of filigree and granulation." [13]

Lead present Most of all as grave goods[14]

Agropastoral with pastoral dominating Sheep and goats were the dominant component of the animal economy at Acemhöyük III and II, representing 63-68 percent of the faunal remains, followed by cattle and pigs. This is similar to the situation observed at contemporary sites on the central plateau including Kaman Kalehhöyük, Küultepe, and Çadır Höyük. [15]

Iron present Pieces of iron object found in Tomb L in Alacahöyük [16].

Metals present [17]

Raw materials present Melian Obsidian in Beycesultan [18]

Pottery present Trojan depas vessel, two-handled tankards, wheelmade plain plates and bowls [19]

Coppersmith present[20]

Pottery present [21]

Butcher present[22]


Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Artur Butkiewicz ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ average size of polity within zone needed

Determining the geographic frontiers of Central Anatolia is also problematic. The frontiers are not only linked to climate and topography, but also to the location of sites. Pontic Mountains can be considered the South border, and similarly, the Taurus Mountains were in the South frontier. The Eastern boundary is the easiest to define: it is a straight line between modern Malatya and Trabzon. Western border is formed by crucial sites like Beycesultan, Demircihöyük, Karataş-Semayük . During Early Bronze Age, some Indo-European nations arrived on this land - this happened around 2300 BCE. Most of the Early Bronze Age II sites in Anatolia saw massive and violent destruction and these disasters brought an end to the EB II period.


♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ average of polity within zone needed

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 2 ♥

During the Early Bronze Age in Anatolia, many societies developed into more sophisticated urban communities. This is a time when proto-city-states emerged, and the density of population was growing.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [2-3] ♥

During the Early Bronze Age in Anatolia, many societies developed into more sophisticated urban communities. This is a time when proto-city-states emerged, and the density of population was growing.

1. Ruler of proto-city state

The development of metallurgy and the long distance trade networks generated a new elites culture.
2.
3.

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥

♠ Military levels ♣ [2-3] ♥

1. Ruler

2.
3. Individual soldier

Many sites of this period were well fortified. Proof of wooden palisades and stone walls was found in Karataş-Semayük, and just stone walls in for example Taurus and Demircihöyük. At Alişar Hüyük, complex fortifications were excavated - a well constructed stronghold wall, and 10 meters of fortification on the terrace. One of these walls was set behind the other, and onto it rectangular-shaped bastions were constructed. A lot of handheld weapons were also found in Central Anatolia Plateau, for example: swords, daggers, pikes, halberds, spears, battle axes and warclubs.


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥ unknown

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥ unknown

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ ♥ unknown

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ ♥ unknown

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Megaron in Karataş - Semayük [23] A large, independent megaron structure was constructed on the highest point of the mound, overlooking the settlement. The court along three sides of the megaron was on an earthen embankment. [24]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥ Large-scale trade appeared, and there were trade routes from Syro-Palestine to Aegan across the whole Konya Plain.
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥ Large-scale trade appeared, and there were trade routes from Syro-Palestine to Aegan across the whole Konya Plain.
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Canals ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Ports ♣ ♥ unknown

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ At the Kestel-Göltepe site, there was a tin mine. It was a vast complex, where 4500 cubic meters of ore were extracted, often through precariously narrow tunnels, using only fire and stone hammers to shatter the ore. The size of these galleries allude to a production of some 115 tons of tin.

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ A clay stamp-seal was found in a sealed deposit of late Early Brone Age in Beycesultan [25], and button seals in Royal Tombs at Alaca Höyük site [26].
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥
♠ History ♣ absent ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ gold, silver, tin, copper, bronze, electrum, iron, lead, hematite, carnelian, rock crystal, chalcedony, lapis lazuli, faience, textiles[27] [28]
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ unknown Large-scale trade appeared, and there were trade routes from Syro-Palestine to Aegan across the whole Konya Plain. gold, silver, tin, copper, bronze, electrum, iron, lead, hematite, carnelian, rock crystal, chalcedony, lapis lazuli, faience, textiles[29] [30]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Artur Butkiewicz; Thomas Cressy; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Arslantepe had particularly good metallurgy, copper swords and spearheads [31]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ "The 312 tombs excavated to date contained a large number of “bronze” weapons and spearheads, similar to those from Arslantepe" short swords around 3000 BC. Bronze items had become widespread by around 2500 BCE[32]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ Javelin found at the EBA III site of Ikiztepe in northern Anatolia.[33]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ weapon of the Americas
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ 4000 BCE in the Middle East and southeastern Europe: "sling, dagger, mace, and bow are common weapons".[34]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Triangular arrowheads with wings made of flint stone were found [35] 4000 BCE in the Middle East and southeastern Europe: "sling, dagger, mace, and bow are common weapons".[36]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Although composite bows were present in nearby Mesopotamia, Eastern Anatolia had become separated from this culture by around 2500 BCE: ‘From that moment onward the history of the site and of the region was completely separated from the history of the Syro-Mesopotamian areas and that of the southernmost region of the Middle/Upper Euphrates Valley; it now began to gravitate toward the eastern Anatolian world.’[37] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE."[38] "The composite bows spread into Palestine around 1800 BCE and were introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos in 1700 BCE."[39]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ Two copper mace heads in Tomb H in Alacahöyük.[40] "The mace was among man's oldest weapons (at least 6000 B.C.E. at Catal Huyuk)".[41] 4000 BCE in the Middle East and southeastern Europe: "sling, dagger, mace, and bow are common weapons".[42]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Two axes in Tomb A1 in Alacahöyük [43].
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Broken daggers found.[44] 4000 BCE in the Middle East and southeastern Europe: "sling, dagger, mace, and bow are common weapons".[45]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Broken sword in Tomb A1 in Alacahöyük. [46] The traditional view is that sword use - as a secondary weapon - dates from about the seventeenth century BCE.[47] although earlier swords are also known in Susiana.
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Copper/bronze spearheads [48].
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ Pikehead from near Tarsus[49]. Halberd was recovered from Mahmatlar [50].

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ no evidence of use in warfare appears for this period
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ In the Near East pack animals appears by around 7000 BC onward.[51]
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ first used for warfare for chariots much later
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time and code has yet to receive an expert check
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time and code has yet to receive an expert check
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time and code has yet to receive an expert check
♠ Helmets ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Earliest reference for present we currently have is for the Hittites.[52] In Egypt helmets were probably first worn by charioteers in the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE.[53] It's technically possible they could have been used earlier than the mid-2nd millennium BCE in both Egypt and in Antolia as the earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer. Gabriel (2002) claims after this time use of helmets became standard issue[54], but possibly he was only referring to the Mesopotamian region.
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ This time is earlier than the earliest reference in Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply."[55] It is also earlier than the earliest reference in Anatolia, the Hittite period.[56]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Naval technology

♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time and code has yet to receive an expert check
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information in the archaeological evidence for this time and code has yet to receive an expert check

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ "At some point between Early Bronze II and Early Bronze III, or at ca. 2300-2200, dramatic changes took place again. Most Early Bronze Age II sites in Anatolia were overcome by massive and violent destructions and these disasters brought an end to the EB II period. Intrusion into the area by Indo-Europeans has been theorized as the cause, but there may have been other foreign or even indigenous elements on the move that are as yet unknown.[57]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ Karataş-Semayük [58]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ absent ♥ not found in settlements
♠ Ditch ♣ absent ♥ not found in settlements
♠ Moat ♣ absent ♥ not found in settlements
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ defensive stone walls dated from 2670-2300 BCE being found and had been present at the end of the previous polity. [59]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Tarsus [60] Demircihöyük [61]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Alişar Hüyük [62]. A fortification wall was constructed, and only 10 meters of fortification found on the terrace were excavated. One of these walls was set behind the other and rectangular-shaped bastions were constructed onto it. [63]
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km. not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ In 4th-millennium BCE Anatolia) archaeologists have linked the presence of prestige goods in juvenile burials to hereditary inequality.[64]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [65] [66] [67]

References

  1. Ancient Anatolia, 10,000-323 B.C.E, S.R. Steadman, G.McMahon, Oxford University Press, 2011. Chapter 10
  2. Ancient Anatolia, 10,000-323 B.C.E, S.R. Steadman, G.McMahon, Oxford University Press, 2011. Chapter 10
  3. Sagona A. and P. Zimanksy, "Ancient Turkey", USA 2009, p. 214.
  4. Knitter D. "Concepts of Centrality and Models of Exchange in Prehistoric Western Anatolia" In: "Landscape Archaeology. Proceedings of the International Conference Held in Berlin, 6th - 8th June 2012", p. 363.
  5. Sagona A. and P. Zimanksy, "Ancient Turkey", USA 2009, p. 214.
  6. Düring B. S., "The Prehistory of Asia Minor. From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies.", Cambridge 2011, p. 291.
  7. Warner J., "The Megaron and Apsidal House in Early Bronze Age Western Anatolia: New Evidence from Karataş", In: "American Journal of Archaeology", Vol. 83, No. 2 (Apr., 1979), p. 138.
  8. Düring B. S., "The Prehistory of Asia Minor. From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies.", Cambridge 2011, p. 291.
  9. Yener K. A., "An Early Bronze Age Tin Production Site at Göltepe, Turkey.", In: "The Oriental Institute News and Notes", Vol. 140 (1994)
  10. Sagona A. and P. Zimansky, "Ancient Turkey", USA 2009, pp. 200-2001.
  11. Düring B. S., "The Prehistory of Asia Minor. From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies.", Cambridge 2011, p. 291.
  12. Düring B. S., "The Prehistory of Asia Minor. From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies.", Cambridge 2011, p. 292.
  13. Sagona A. and P. Zimansky, "Ancient Turkey", USA 2009, pp. 208-209.
  14. Sagona A. and P. Zimansky, "Ancient Turkey", USA 2009, pp. 214-217
  15. Arbuckle B., "Pastoralism, Provisioning, and Power at Bronze Age Acemhöyük, Turkey", In: "American Anthropologist", Vol. 114 (2012), Issue 3, p. 466.
  16. Yalçin Ü. and H. G., "Reassessing Antropomorphic Metal Figurines of Alacahöyük, Anatolia", In: "Near Eastern Archeology" Vol. 76:1 (2013), p. 41.
  17. Efe T., "The Theories of the 'Great Caravan Route' between Cilicia and Troy: The Early Bronze Age III Period in Inland Western Anatolia" In: "Anatolian Studies", Vol. 57, Transanatolia: Bridging the Gap between East and West inthe Archaeology of Ancient Anatolia (2007), p. 49
  18. Knitter D. "Concepts of Centrality and Models of Exchange in Prehistoric Western Anatolia" In: "Landscape Archaeology. Proceedings of the International Conference Held in Berlin, 6th - 8th June 2012", p. 363.
  19. Ancient Anatolia, 10,000-323 B.C.E, S.R. Steadman, G.McMahon, Oxford University Press, 2011. Chapter 10
  20. Yakar T., "Regional and Local Schools of Metalwork in Early Bronze Age Anatolia: Part I", In: "Anatolian Studies", Vol. 34 (1984), p. 75.
  21. Sagona A. and P. Zimansky, "Ancient Turkey", USA 2009, p. 197.
  22. Arbuckle B., "Pastoralism, Provisioning, and Power at Bronze Age Acemhöyük, Turkey", In: "American Anthropologist", Vol. 114 (2012), Issue 3, p. 468.
  23. Warner J., " The Megaron and Apsidal House in Early Bronze Age Western Anatolia: New Evidence from Karataş", In: "American Journal of Archaeology", Vol. 83, No. 2 (Apr., 1979).
  24. Sagona A. and P. Zimansky, "Ancient Turkey", USA 2009, p. 197.
  25. Mellart J., "The End of the Early Bronze Age in Anatolia and the Aegean", In: "American Journal of Archaeology", Vol. 62, No. 1 (Jan., 1958).
  26. Joukowsky M. S., "Early Turkey. And Introduction to the Archeology of Anatolia from Prehistory through the Lydian Period", USA 1996, p. 169.
  27. Joukowsky M. S., "Early Turkey. An Introduction to the Archeology of Anatolia from Prehistory through the Lydian Period", USA 1996, pp. 166 - 173.
  28. Sagona A. and P. Zimansky, "Ancient Turkey", USA 2009, p. 214
  29. Joukowsky M. S., "Early Turkey. An Introduction to the Archeology of Anatolia from Prehistory through the Lydian Period", USA 1996, pp. 166 - 173.
  30. Sagona A. and P. Zimansky, "Ancient Turkey", USA 2009, p. 214
  31. James D. Muhly, ‘Metals and Metallurgy’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, pp. 864-867
  32. James D. Muhly, ‘Metals and Metallurgy’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, pp. 864-867
  33. (Mellink 1987: 4) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JGB5S74T.
  34. (Gabriel 2007, xii) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers' Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.
  35. Yilmaz D., "Burial Customs of The Chamber Tombs in Southeast Anatolia during The Early Bronze Age", Anatolia 2006.
  36. (Gabriel 2007, xii) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers' Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.
  37. Marcella Frangipane, ‘Arslantepe-Malatya: A Prehistoric and Early Historic Center in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 984
  38. Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.
  39. (Roy 2015, 20) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.
  40. Yalçin Ü. and H. G., "Reassessing Antropomorphic Metal Figurines of Alacahöyük, Anatolia", In: "Near Eastern Archeology" Vol. 76:1 (2013), p. 41.
  41. (Gabriel 2002, 51) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  42. (Gabriel 2007, xii) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers' Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.
  43. Yalçin Ü. and H. G., "Reassessing Antropomorphic Metal Figurines of Alacahöyük, Anatolia", In: "Near Eastern Archeology" Vol. 76:1 (2013), p. 41.
  44. Yilmaz D., "Burial Customs of The Chamber Tombs in Southeast Anatolia during The Early Bronze Age", Anatolia 2006.
  45. (Gabriel 2007, xii) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers' Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.
  46. Yalçin Ü. and H. G., "Reassessing Antropomorphic Metal Figurines of Alacahöyük, Anatolia", In: "Near Eastern Archeology" Vol. 76:1 (2013), p. 41.
  47. (Gabriel 2002, 26-27) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  48. Yilmaz D., "Burial Customs of The Chamber Tombs in Southeast Anatolia during The Early Bronze Age", Anatolia 2006.
  49. Stronach D., "The Development and Diffusion of Metal Types in Early Bronze Age Anatolia", In: "Anatolian Studies", Vol. 7 (1957), p. 116.
  50. Stronach D., "The Development and Diffusion of Metal Types in Early Bronze Age Anatolia", In: "Anatolian Studies", Vol. 7 (1957), p. 121.
  51. (Leverani 2014, 41) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  52. Bryce T. (2007) Hittite Warrior, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, pp. 15-16
  53. (Hoffmeier 2001) J K Hoffmeier in D B Redford. ed. 2001. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  54. (Gabriel 2002, 22) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  55. (Gabriel and Metz 1991, 51) Richard A Gabriel. Karen S Metz. 1991. The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Greenwood Press. Westport.
  56. Bryce T. (2007) Hittite Warrior, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, pp. 15
  57. Joukowsky M. S., "Early Turkey. An Introduction to the Archeology of Anatolia from Prehistory through the Lydian Period", USA 1996, p. 145."
  58. Sagona A. and P. Zimansky, "Ancient Turkey", USA 2009, p. 197.
  59. Sharon Steadman, ‘The Early Bronze Age on the Plateau’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 245
  60. Çevik Ö., "The Emergence of Different Social Systems in Early Bronze Age Anatolia: Urbanisation versus Centralisation", In: "Anatolian Studies", Vol. 57, Transanatolia: Bridging the Gap between East and West inthe Archaeology of Ancient Anatolia (2007), p. 135.
  61. Düring B. S., "The Prehistory of Asia Minor. From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies", Cambridge 2011, p. 267.
  62. Çevik Ö., "The Emergence of Different Social Systems in Early Bronze Age Anatolia: Urbanisation versus Centralisation", In: "Anatolian Studies", Vol. 57, Transanatolia: Bridging the Gap between East and West in the Archaeology of Ancient Anatolia (2007), p. 136.
  63. Joukowsky M. S., "Early Turkey. An Introduction to the Archeology of Anatolia from Prehistory through the Lydian Period", USA 1996, p. 170.
  64. (Stein 2001, 274) Gil J. Stein. 2001. 'Indigenous Social Complexity at Hacinebi (Turkey) and the Organization of Uruk Colonial Contact', in Uruk Mesopotamia and Its Neighbours: Cross-Cultural Interactions in the Era of State Formation, edited by M. S. Rothman. Sante Fe, NM: SAR Press.
  65. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  66. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  67. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html