TnFatim

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

♠ Original name ♣ Fatimid Caliphate ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Fatimid Dynasty; Alawids ♥ The Fatimids claimed "biological and spiritual descent from the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah and her husband, the first Shia imam and fourth Sunni caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib" and "the Fatimids (who also called themselves 'Alawids') challenged the rival caliphate of the Abbasids of Iraq, and asserted that they were the sole legitimate rulers of the Islamic world."[1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 996 CE; 1058 CE ♥

"At the peak of their power, their empire spanned Egypt, north Africa (present day Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya), Syria, Palestine, Yemen, the Arabian Peninsula, parts of Iraq, Sicily, and north-western India with additional covert cells in Byzantine and central Asian lands."[2]

"Under al-Mu'zz's son and successor, al-'Aziz (d. 386/996), court life flourished and the Fatimid dynasty (dawla) reached its political, territorial and economic zenith."[3]

Fatimid power at peak during early years of the reign of al-Mustansir (1036-1094 CE), although "first signs of the empire's fragile character" 1021-1036 CE under Caliph al-Zahir. [4]

The Mustansir Crisis. Devastating famine from 1065 CE which peaked 1070 CE with cannibalism and emigration of Jewish minority between 1060-1090 CE. However, a "spectacular recovery" followed Badr al-Jamali's appointment as minister 1073 CE. [5]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 909-1171 CE ♥ 909-969 CE is the Tunisian period. There was no vizarate in Tunisian phase. The Fatimid movement began in Syria and the intention from the outset was global dominance. Tunisia was the starting point.

"The Fatimids' history really starts in Syria, in the town of Salamiya, where the future caliph Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi became the leader of the Ismaili movement. Missionary efforts were successful in Ifriqiyya in North Africa, and area centred around modern-day Tunisia, where Fatimid propaganda was taken up by the Kutama Berbers."[6] Began as revolutionary movement against Abbasids in Syria. "Naturally, Islmaili religious claims and Fatimid political ones were both bitterly opposed by the Abbasids, forcing the Fatimid/Ismaili leadership to flee their first base in Syria in 909. They seized Ifriqiya - modern Tunisia and Eastern Algeria - took over the trans-Saharan gold-and-slave trade, built two great capitals - first Kairouan, then nearby Mahdiyya - and set up an autonomous state far from the reach of Baghdad."[7] Ismaili Shias rebelled against Aghlabid rule in Tunisia, 909 CE, then expanded former Aghlabid domain to Morocco. After a number of attempts, with assistance of Berber tribes, annexed Egypt in 969 CE. [8] "Isma'ili Shi'i Fatimids ... came to power with the assistance of local Kutama Berber tribesmen from the Little Kabylie Mountains in eastern Algeria."[9] "Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi proclaimed himself the first Fatimid Imam in 910."[10]

893 CE: da'wa activity in North Africa begins under da'i Abu Abd Allah al-Shi'i. 899 CE: Abd Allah al-Mahdi becomes Ismaili imam in Salamiyya, Syria. 902 CE: al-Mahdi migrates to North Africa. 910 CE: Fatimid state established with al-Mahdi first imam-caliph. 913-915 CE: First expedition to Egypt. 919-921 CE: Second expedition to Egypt. 935 CE: Third expedition to Egypt. 943 CE: Khariji revolt of Abu Yazid, who was defeated by al-Mansur in 947 CE. 958 CE: Fourth expedition to Egypt. 973-974 CE: Qaramita forces defeated in Egypt and Syria.[11] "At the end of ninth century, an Isma'ili missionary converted Kutama Berber villagers in the mountains of Kabylia in eastern Algeria to the Fatimid cause. The leader of the movement, Ubaydallah, proclaimed himself caliph in 910. The Fatimids conquered Sijilmassa, Tahert, Qayrawan, and much of the rest of North Africa. They destroyed the Khariji principalities. Warfare also destroyed the trade routes and led to the rise of nomadism. The Fatimids conquered Egypt in 969. Moving their capital to Cairo, they abandoned North Africa to local Zirid (972-1148) and Hammadid (1015-1152) vassals." [12]

In Salamiyya, Syria, around 900 CE an Abd Allah gained leadership of the da'wa and claimed the Imamate (does this mean he claimed to be Hidden-Iman or al-Mahdi?) but not all the da'is accepted this; in 903 CE he was forced to flee to North Africa where a friendly da'is had an established propaganda network.[13] In 903 CE the da'is for North Africa began the conquest of Ifriqiya. In 904 CE Abd Allah went to Egypt where a propaganda network existed but returned to Sijilmasa in 905 CE.[14] "909 Abu 'Abd Allah and the Kutama took Sijilmasa. Initially, Abd Allah was acclaimed as caliph and towards the end of the year, upon arriving in Raqqada, 'Abd Allah's mahdi-ship was publicly announced and he was welcomed as ruler. 'Abd Allah al-Mahdi (henceforth al-Mahdi) became the first of a dynasty of imam-caliphs."[15]

"The Fatimids conquered Egypt in 969. Moving their capital to Cairo, they abandoned North Africa to local Zirid (972-1148) and Hammadid (1015-1152) vassals." [16]

Fatimid state had long decline period mostly with incompetent viziers except Bahram (1135-1137 CE) and Tala'i ibn Ruzzik (1154-1161 CE).[17]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

"The coming of Badr al-Jamali in 466/1074 altered permanently the structure of the Fatimid state."[18]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Abbasid Caliphate I ♥ Began as revolutionary movement against Abbasids in Syria. "Naturally, Islmaili religious claims and Fatimid political ones were both bitterly opposed by the Abbasids, forcing the Fatimid/Ismaili leadership to flee their first base in Syria in 909. They seized Ifriqiya - modern Tunisia and Eastern Algeria - took over the trans-Saharan gold-and-slave trade, built two great capitals - first Kairouan, then nearby Mahdiyya - and set up an autonomous state far from the reach of Baghdad."[19] Initially the core region was the region of modern Tunisia but it quickly became Egypt after the capital was moved there.
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ elite migration ♥ Began as revolutionary movement against Abbasids in Syria. "Naturally, Islmaili religious claims and Fatimid political ones were both bitterly opposed by the Abbasids, forcing the Fatimid/Ismaili leadership to flee their first base in Syria in 909. They seized Ifriqiya - modern Tunisia and Eastern Algeria - took over the trans-Saharan gold-and-slave trade, built two great capitals - first Kairouan, then nearby Mahdiyya - and set up an autonomous state far from the reach of Baghdad."[20]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Ayyubid Sultanate ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Islam ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 11,000,000 ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Mahdia; Al-Mansuriya; Cairo ♥

Mahdia: 921-948 CE; Al-Mansuriya: 948-975 CE; Cairo: 975-1171 CE

Capital city, al-Qahira (Cairo) founded in 969 CE [21]
Caliph al-Muizz moved from Tunisia to Cairo in 973 CE. Cairo built to replace the former Egyptian capital al-Fustat with the intention for it to be more glorious than Baghdad. [22]
Jawhar nor al-Mu'izz "had any great interest in creating an imperial capital in Egypt. The credit for that move should be given to al-Mu'izz's son and successor, under whose rule the Egyptian capital would rapidly emerge as a brilliant centre of the arts and learning. Prince Nazir, who took the name al-Aziz B'illah, 'Mighty by God', upon his ascension in 975, publically announced his succession by riding out to offer the prayer for the Feast of the Sacrifice under the mizalla, a parasol shaped like a bejewelled shield hung from the point of a lance held by a courtier. No Fatimid caliph is know to have previously used one, and it seems likely that the Fatimid mizalla was synonymous with and ultimately derived from the shamsa or shamsiyya used earlier by the Abbasid caliphs as a symbol of authority."[23]

Fustat remained Egypt's economic and administrative centre.

♠ Language ♣ Arabic ♥ Arabic was the main language. Persian, Turkic, Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin also "spoken and studied". [24] At start of Fatimid period rural people were majority Coptic-spreaking Christians, at end of period many of these Christians were conversing in Arabic.[25] Jews started to write Arabic in Hebrew characters.[26]

General Description

The Fatimid Caliphate lasted from 909 to 1171 CE. After a failed uprising against the Sunni Abbasids in Syria, the head of the Ismaili Shi'a religious movement - who claimed descent from Muhammad's daughter Fatimah by way of her descendent Ismail - fled to Tunisia. There, with the help of local Berber warriors, he 'seized Ifriqiya - modern Tunisia and Eastern Algeria - took over the trans-Saharan gold-and-slave trade, built two great capitals - first Kairouan, then nearby Mahdiyya - and set up an autonomous state far from the reach of Baghdad'.[27] From there, the Fatimids conquered much of North Africa, extending their rule into Egypt. The effective end of the Fatimid Caliphate occurred at the end of the 11th century (though the Caliphate remained nominally intact for nearly another century). At this time, a series of Fatimid viziers increased their control of the military and, ruling from their own palaces, turned the imam-caliph into a nominal figurehead.[28] Over many years in the final century, the Fatimid state experienced a long decline marked by incompetent viziers.[29]

Population and political organization

Although relatively little is known about the Fatimid bureaucracy during the early period (909-969 CE), we can say that it did not have a vizier.[30] In Tunisia, the Fatimids used slave eunuchs to command army and naval forces, and, following the precedent of previous Islamic governments, founded cities as administrative and military centres and seats for their courts.[31] Suggesting the presence of a highly capable full-time bureaucracy, one of their purpose-built cities, the second capital Mansuriyya (948-975 CE), was supplied with fresh water from a distant spring via an aqueduct 'modelled on the Roman system at Carthage'.[32]
In 969 CE, the Fatimids conquered Egypt under a military general called Jawhar. This brought the total land area under Fatimid control to 2.4 million square kilometres,[33] and the new capital city, al-Qahira (Cairo), was founded in 975 and remained the capital under the fall of the dynasty in 1171.[34] In Egypt the vizier, a staple of Islamic Egyptian government, was introduced to Fatimid professional administration, which may suggest that the Fatimids retained much of the lower administration present during the Ikshidid Period as well. Heads of administration are known for the military, treasury, religion, missionary activities, and the judiciary.[35] Before 1073 CE, the vizier was a slave who did not have military powers. Between 1073 and 1121, he became the military chief and effectively replaced the iman-caliph as head of government.[36] The imam-caliph retreated into a palace that contained a harem run by a 'hierarchical corps of eunuchs'.[37]
Provinces were ruled through vassals. After the foundation of Cairo, North Africa was 'abandoned' to the Zirid (972-1148 CE) and Hammadid (1015-1152 CE) Dynasties.[38] Within Egypt, two cities enjoyed a measure of self-rule: Fustat was governed by a wali (governor)[39] and Alexandria also had its own budget and chief judge.[40] The rest of Egypt was divided into seven districts,[41] which may have been commanded by amirs (military governors). Towns with markets would have a muhtasib, who oversaw shopkeepers' and artisans' activities and ensured that religious law was correctly observed.[42]
The Fatimids repaired and improved dams and canals[43] and Egypt grew exceptionally prosperous under their rule, especially before the mid-10th century. Al-Qahira had eight public baths,[44] a caravanserai (funduq) for foreign merchants,[45] and possibly the most famous market in the Islamic world at the time, called the Market of the Lamps (Suq al-Qanadil).[46] The 10th-century geographer al-Muqaddasi described Suq al-Qanadil as 'the marketplace for all mankind ... It is the storehouse of the Occident, the entrepot of the Orient.'[47] Another contemporary traveller, Nasir-i Khusraw, reported that in Cairo the shops were 'all the sultan's property' and leased to the shop owners,[48] underscoring the power of the caliphs and their dedication to public works.
The population of the Fatimid Caliphate peaked at about 12-13 million in 1000 CE, but subsequently declined as territory was lost to about 4 million in 1100 CE.[49] By the end of the 10th century, the population of the caliphate was roughly equivalent to that of Egypt. The city of Fustat, close to Cairo, had approximately 120,000 residents, even after the fire of 1168, and multiple sources report multi-storey residential homes with up to seven levels.[50]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 1,400,000: 1000 CE; 631,000: 1100 CE ♥ KM2. 2,400,000: 969 CE; 1,400,000: 1000 CE; 1,000,000: 1050 CE; 631,000: 1100 CE; 850,000: 1150 CE

"At the peak of their power, their empire spanned Egypt, north Africa (present day Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya), Syria, Palestine, Yemen, the Arabian Peninsula, parts of Iraq, Sicily, and north-western India with additional covert cells in Byzantine and central Asian lands."[51]

Abu Yaqub Sejestani (d c.971 CE), da'i of Khorasan, "now endorsed the imamate of the Fatimids and propagated their cause in Knorasan, Sistan, and Makran, where numerous Ismailis rallied to the side of the Fatimid da'wa. The Fatimid da'is also succeeded around 347/958 in establishing a Fatimid vassal state centered in Moltan, in northern India, where the kotba was now read in the name of the Fatimid caliphs, instead of their Abbasid rivals.".[52] This Isma'ili state in Multan overthrown by Gaznavids 1005-1006 CE.[53]

1051 CE Zirids declare independence in Tunisia.[54]

2,400,000: 969 CE. Egypt conquered 969 CE under General Jawhar. [55]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [13,000,000-14,000,000]: 1000 CE; [3,500,000-4,500,000]: 1100 CE ♥ People.

1000 CE

Algeria 2m, Tunisia 1m, Libya 0.5m, Egypt 5m, Palestine and Jordan 0.5m, Hijaz 4m (est. from 4.5m for The Interior).[56]

1100 CE

Egypt 4m and eastern Libya 0.2m (est. from 0.4m)[57]

1056 CE low Nile flood severe famine which took "a heavy toll in human life and disrupted collection of state revenues."[58]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 120,000 ♥ People. Fustat [59] even afer the Mustansir Crisis 1065-1073 CE and the fire of 1168. [60]

"The city of Fustat must have had a surface area of approximately 300 hectares and a population of about 120,000." [61]

"In Fustat, writes Ibn Hawqal in 950, "the houses have five, six, or even seven stories, and as many as 200 people may live in a building." This description is confirmed by Muqaddasi: "The houses, which have four or five floors, are like lighthouses, with light entering through the center, and each holding about 200 souls." Nasiri-i Khusraw reported "there are houses fourteen stories high, while others are limited to seven." [62]

al-Qahira (Cairo) covered 160 hectares between 1087-1798 CE.[63]
Alexandria 100,000 in 900 CE.[64]
Cairo 135,000 in 1000 CE, 150,000 in 1100 CE, 175,000 in 1200 CE.[65]
Fustat/Cairo 150,000 in 900 CE, 200,000 in 1000 CE.[66]
Mecca 100,000 in 1000 CE.[67]
Kairouan 100,000 in 900 CE [68] 80,000 in 1000 CE.[69]
Tinnis (Egypt) 100,000 in 1000 CE.[70], 83,000 in 1000 CE, 110,000 in 1100 CE, 125,000 in 1150 CE. [71]

"The rab', a type of collective tenement block let for rent, seems to have existed only in Cairo, close to the centre. Estimates allow us to suppose that up to 10 per cent of the city's artisans and traders lived in such buildings, which allowed a large, more modest, population to reside close to the centre of Cairo, thus mitigating the otherwise exclusively bourgeois character of this zone."[72]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 6 ♥

1. Capital (i.e. Cairo).

2. Provincial capital (e.g. Fustat).
3. Dependent cities (Mecca and Medina).
4. Other large cities.
5. Towns.
6. Villages.

"Housing in the medieval Islamic world included tents, mud huts, reed huts, single-story residences, multistoried tenements, and elaborate palaces."[73]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 5: 909-969 CE; 6: 970-1171 CE ♥ [74][75][76]

1. Vizier/Military chief (1073-1171 CE)

after 1073 CE (although transition may have begun under regency of al-Mustansir) position of vizier became de facto ruler, effectively a dictator with nominal caliph. in this period vizier lived in own palace. essentially after 1073 CE Badr al-Jamali the vizier is the chief executive.

1. Caliph

1073 to 1121: the military chiefs replaced the caliphs as the effective heads of government. [77]
Highly stratified court [78]
court employed 30,000 people according to traveller Nasir-i Khusraw (c1048 CE?) [79]
2. Harem
"A hierarchical corps of eunuchs controlled the harem and the personal life of the caliph."[80]

_Central government line_

2. Slave viziers (c970 - 1073 CE)
Vizier did not exist for Tunisian period 909-969 CE
al-Badr who assumed the powers of a "military dictator": "Henceforth, with minor exceptions, real power in the Fatimid state remained in the hands of viziers who possessed military bases of power and acted independently, while the caliphs remained the nominal heads of state and as Ismaili imams also functioned as supreme leaders of the ismalil da'wa or religious organization. A distinguishing feature of the Fatimid vizierate during its final century is that several viziers were Christians, notably Armenians."[81]
of 11 Fatimid rulers 7 came to throne as minors; Egypt frequently ruled by the Vizier.[82] Late 11th century viziers became more powerful, called themselves malik (prince).[83]
3. Heads of administration (e.g. military, treasury, religious, missionary, and judiciary) [84]
"The post of auditor (zimam) and the office of the audit (diwan al-zimdm) are well known features of the 'Abbasid administration. In the case of the Fatimid administration, the earliest reference to diwan al-zimam is from 402/1011-1012, and the holder of the post (ndzir diwan al-zimdm) was a person of Iraqi origin with previous experience in 'Abbasid administration."[85]
Chancery (diwan al-inshda)[86]
4. (inferred) head of state armory (khizdna al-bunud)
"Al-Zahir is credited with establishing the state's armory (khizdna al-bunud), which was an arsenal and a workshop employing 3,000 craftsmen for producing arms."[87]
5. (inferred) manager of section in state armory
6. Craftsman in state armory
4. Lesser bureaucrats??
5. Scribes??


_Provincial line _

2. Subject cites/territories
E.g. in Hejaz
For a brief period Egypt was run by Jawhar, a proconsul [88]
2. Provincial governors
E.g. Zirids in Tunisia)
3. ... ? ...
Fustat was governed by a wali (governor) who was effectively chief of police. [89]
4fustat. In Fustat the muhtasib "supervised the activities of shopkeepers and artisans and saw to the observance of religious law." [90]
5fustat. In Fustat some public services were provided e.g. rubbish collection, sewage system. [91] "al-attalun (police force?)"[92]
4. Village headmen

Abu Yaqub Sejestani (d c.971 CE), da'i of Khorasan, "now endorsed the imamate of the Fatimids and propagated their cause in Knorasan, Sistan, and Makran, where numerous Ismailis rallied to the side of the Fatimid da'wa. The Fatimid da'is also succeeded around 347/958 in establishing a Fatimid vassal state centered in Moltan, in northern India, where the kotba was now read in the name of the Fatimid caliphs, instead of their Abbasid rivals.".[93] This Isma'ili state in Multan overthrown by Gaznavids 1005-1006 CE.[94]


♠ Religious levels ♣ [5-6] ♥

Isma'ilism was the state religion. [95] Majority of Egyptians were Sunni Muslims.[96] The Ismaili branch of Shi'ite Islam is "a sect within a sect."[97] "Under this dynasty these were two of the highest positions: the chief justice, termed the judge of judges (qadi al-qudat), was outranked only by the imam and the wazir. The head da'i, the da'i al-du'at, followed immediately below."[98]

The Fatimids claimed "biological and spiritual descent from the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah and her husband, the first Shia imam and fourth Sunni caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib" and "the Fatimids (who also called themselves 'Alawids') challenged the rival caliphate of the Abbasids of Iraq, and asserted that they were the sole legitimate rulers of the Islamic world."[99] The da'wa was a "unique institution of religiopolitical proselytizing and education"[100]

1. First Imam / Caliph

da'wa: international missionary movement, in principle directed by the Fatimid imam in Egypt, but the provincial leaders had virtually complete autonomy. [101]
"The Imam "stood, for the Ismailis, in the very centre of their religious system; it was of overriding importance; on it depended the continuity of institutional religion as well as the personal salvation of the believer. 'Whosoever dies without recognising the Imam of his time, dies a pagan's death' is one of the most often quoted maxims of Ismailism."[102]
Commander of the Believers [103]
2. Chief da'i [104]
closely supervised by the Imam
administrative head, appointed provincial da'i and influenced choice of da'i in non-Fatimid territories
3. Provincial da'i [105]
in Damascas, Tyre, Acre, Ascalon, Ramla and some rural areas.
4. hujja (or naqib, lahiq or yad) in a jazira (region, or "island") [106]
"assisted by a number of subordinate da'is of different ranks operating in the localities under his jurisdiction." e.g. China, Byzantium.
5. Subordinate da'is [107]
6. al ma'dhun, the licentate [108]
assistant of the subordinate da'i ??

There were scholars (e.g. 11th CE al-Baghdadi in Farq bayna 'l-firaq) who alleged the Fatimids, Ismailis and Carmathians "were all Manichaean dualists, followers of the ancient religion of the Persians to the detriment of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam itself."[109] However, Brett suggests "we should probably think in terms of a number of different movements which eventually came together under the leadership of the Fatimids and the rubric of Isma'ilism. ... a world of many doctrines coalescing in the future rather than dividing in the past".[110]

Provincial da'i in charge of actual provinces within the Caliphate, hujja in charge of regions outside the Caliphate, such as China and Byzantium. EC


♠ Military levels ♣ [7-9] ♥ [111]

Note that in 1073 CE Badr al-Jamali "transformed the army" and thereafter the Fatimid Caliphate was dominated by "military wazirs".[112]

1. Caliph

2. Wazir
3. Commander of commanders ("amir al-umara")
4. Commander
5. Assistant commander
6. Khassa (grade I)
7. Khassa (grade II)
8. Khassa (grade III)*
"three grades of Khassa"
9. Qaid
Lowest unit = groups of 10 men.[113]

"the Kutama were organized in cohorts ('irdfa) under their respective commanders (Curafta). The question whether the cohorts were organized along tribal lines or in terms of military needs remains unanswered."[114]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ "The Faitimid military was a standing professional army."[115]

"The Fatimid army included a professional officer corps and many permanent regular and elite regiments stationed in Cairo or in garrisons throughout Egypt. The army was administered by the Army Ministry (diwan al-jaysh), which oversaw salaries and land grants (iqta')."[116]

Complex military administration maintained by Christian scribes. [117]

"The Fatimid army was paid in cash, apparently in several installments over the year. My information is derived from a single account describing the arrangement reached between the Kutama and Ibn 'Ammar at the time of al-Hakim's coronation ceremony."[118]

al-Mustansir civil war as turning point to Iqta system for military

"In the period prior to al-Mustansir, qadis, administrative personnel, and members of the royal family received grants of iqta in lieu of their salaries or as a part of their remuneration.' In a previous study, I presented a few examples showing that during al-Hakim's reign the circle of those receiving iqta was enlarged to include soldiers (junud) and 'abid al-shira'. Since then, I have gathered these further examples ..." Examples includes generals and soldiers. [119]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ "The Faitimid military was a standing professional army."[120]

"The Fatimid army included a professional officer corps and many permanent regular and elite regiments stationed in Cairo or in garrisons throughout Egypt. The army was administered by the Army Ministry (diwan al-jaysh), which oversaw salaries and land grants (iqta')."[121]

Kutama and ghilman paid salaries.[122] Imam al-Aziz (975-996) and his vizier Ya'qub ibn Killis introduced the system of patronage (istina) to recruit Turkish slaves and freemen, who were specialist cavalry and archers.[123]

"The Fatimid army was paid in cash, apparently in several installments over the year. My information is derived from a single account describing the arrangement reached between the Kutama and Ibn 'Ammar at the time of al-Hakim's coronation ceremony."[124] al-Mustansir civil war as turning point to Iqta system for military

"In the period prior to al-Mustansir, qadis, administrative personnel, and members of the royal family received grants of iqta in lieu of their salaries or as a part of their remuneration.' In a previous study, I presented a few examples showing that during al-Hakim's reign the circle of those receiving iqta was enlarged to include soldiers (junud) and 'abid al-shira'. Since then, I have gathered these further examples ..." Examples includes generals and soldiers. [125]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ At this time majority of the population of Egypt were Christian.[126] inferred from presence of professional Christian priests elswhere during this period

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Efficient civil service. [127] Saqaliba - their origin "enigmatic" and land "unidentified". Eunuchs used as courtiers and administrators. E.g. Jawdhar. Some Saqaiba were also used by preceding Ikhshids and owned privately. [128]

In Tunisia the caliph directly ruled without a vizier. The court administration was run by a vizier after the move to Egypt. "The Fatimids in North Africa had appointed no wazirs and the notion of delegating that level of authority to a subordinate seemed not to have existed."[129] The court was highly stratified[130] and according to traveller Nasir-i Khusraw (c1048 CE) employed 30,000 people[131], an exaggerated figure which reflects the fact it was involved in more than managing the imam-caliph's harem and personal life, which was controlled by a "hierarchical corps of eunuchs".[132] The court-based government had heads for military, treasury, chancery (domestic and foreign communications), religious and missionary activities, judiciary and an auditor (from 1011 CE).[133] From the early 11th century a state armoury employed 3,000 craftsmen.[134] "Poets were employed by the state to fill the role of modern-day public relations agents"[135] who were "paid to present truth and lies in a palatable manner."[136] ... At least from 1073 CE the executive became de facto held by the vizier who soon would operate from his own palace. The transition probably began in the regency of the imam-caliph al-Mustansir. Badr al-Jamaili was "a virtual dictator" although "his rank remained that of a wazir, and he was always theoretically subservient to the imam-caliph."[137] The son and successor to the famous vizier Badr al-Jamali after 1094 CE built the Palace of the Vizerate (Dar al-Wizara) which became "the official residence of the vizirs until the end of the Fatimid caliphate".[138] "The Armenian wazir, Badr al-Jamali, is certainly one of the most famous of these and was the de facto ruler of the Fatimid state (1074-94) as wazir to the Fatimid caliph, al-Mustansir (r. 1036-94)." [139] From vizier Badr al-Jamali "Henceforth, with minor exceptions, real power in the Fatimid state remained in the hands of viziers who possessed military bases of power and acted independently, while the caliphs remained the nominal heads of state and as Ismaili imams also functioned as supreme leaders of the ismalil da'wa or religious organization. A distinguishing feature of the Fatimid vizierate during its final century is that several viziers were Christians, notably Armenians."[140] Badr al-Jamaili was "a virtual dictator" although "his rank remained that of a wazir, and he was always theoretically subservient to the imam-caliph."[141] Badr's son al-Afdal was murdered in 1121 CE but he had "exercised the same iron-fisted control over the government as had the father."[142] In all periods the executive, whether or not it was effectively in the hands of the caliph or the vizier, also held legislative power. The executive exerted power through the court-government. After the Palace of the Vizerate was built the new complex presumably simply replaced the imam-caliph's palace complex as the seat of the government (or created a command centre for organizing it) but the equivalence of the executive and legislative always remained with the court-government. The Palace of the Vizerate may have been the closest the Fatimids came to a bureaucracy independent of a royal/caliphal court.

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ present ♥

There was an "extensive enrollment of minorities in government." Christians and Jews dominated the central administration. [143]

Jews rose in the administration to the position of Vizier, whilst Coptic Christians frequently held the important posts within the financial administration.[144]

However rulers were Shia muslim whilst the majority of the population of Egypt were Sunni Muslim. Discrimination against Sunnis likely.

This is suggested when the Caliph Al-Hakim (996-1021 CE) defied precedent and appointed a Sunni chief qadi "on the ground that he was both the justest and shrewdest man available (on points of law the qadi was guided by Ismaili muftis)."[145]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Buildings of the civil service, mints, customs offices etc.

Palace enclosure in Cairo contained administrative offices.[146]

Different departments of Fatimid central administration included "military, treasury, religious, missionary, and judiciary." There was also a harem. [147]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥

Al-Mu'izz "was responsible for the promulgation and implementation of a distinctive Isma'ili law, mainly formulated by al-Qadi al-Nu'man, which aimed at imprinting with an Isma'ili character every aspect of life."[148]

"The establishment of the Fatimid rule in North Africa, and the subsequent extension of its power to Egypt, made imperative the development of an Ismaili legal system. This became necessary in order to regulate the religious and juridical affairs of both the Ismaili and non-Ismaili communities living under Fatimid rule, as well as the distribution of responsibilities between the da'wa (mission) and dawla (state)." [149] This required elaboration and codification of the official Fatimid doctrines and legal system."[150]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Chief qadis and qadis.[151] The chief qadis did not appear until the Egyptian period."[152]

"Judges hold authority over Muslims, all Muslims, the broader and more inclusive category, while da'is administer to the needs of the true believers, a much smaller but more select group within the larger body of Islam. Strictly from the viewpoint of a believer, the chief da'i is more important than the chief qadi; quite possibly in this respect he holds higher authority, even with regard to questions involving the application of law. But, for the common citizen of the Fatimid empire, non-Muslims and especially non-Ismaili Muslims, the qadi remained, in part because of the greater numbers of those who required what he provided, more important. Most inhabitants of the realm never accepted da'wa and they had no dealings with the da'i."[153]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ [154] There was a court of grievances called mazalim "a kind of appeals court".[155] Genizah documents refer to "court records".[156]

A dispute concerning an a contested accusation that a Jewish merchant had abandoned a slave in the Red Sea port of Aydhab was held before the governor. The plaintiff was a slave-agent.[157] Were disputes between two Muslims also held before a governor.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred present ♥ specialist judges and courts might suggest a role for professional lawyers. a literate class of religious scholars already existed who could have fulfilled this role as specialist lawyer.

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Large-scale plantations [158] (would have required irrigation).
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ Water wheel. [159] "992 water carriers were ordered to cover their containers to avoid splashing passersby" [160] Better residential houses had amenities such as water distribution and waste-water removal. [161] General reference medieval Islamic cities: "Only the wealthy could afford indoor plumbing or ovens as part of their residences."[162] Mansuriyya in Tunisia "had water brought from the distant spring of 'Ayn Ayyub through an aqueduct modeled on the Roman system at Carthage."[163]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Market of the Lamps (Suq al-Qanadil) was the greatest market. [164] In the caliphal city, al-Qahira Nasir-i Khusraw reported that the shops were "all the sultan's property" and leased to the shop owners.[165] al-Muqaddasi referred to Fustat (10th CE) as "the marketplace for all mankind ... It is the storehouse of the Occident, the entrepot of the Orient".[166] In Fustat the muhtasib "supervised the activities of shopkeepers and artisans and saw to the observance of religious law." [167]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ [168] abid troops "attacked area of the grain port (al-sawahil) of the capital looting wheat (qamh), barley (sha'r), and other available grains (hubub)"[169]


Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Streets in al-Qahira. [170] Fustat. Maintenance paid for by residents. [171]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Great Bridge. [172]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ Festival of the Opening of the Canal in 1050 CE. [173] Used [174] (and therefore maintained). (Silted-up canal between Red Sea and Nile reopened by mid-10th Century - military purpose? Did Fatimids reopen it? [175]).
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Port of Asqalan. Qulzum. The acquisition of a rare tree for al-Mu'izz's coffin via Mecca, Aden and Qulzum "is proof that there existed an efficient trade network between the Indian Ocean and Egypt."[176] "Fustat was the main center of a nexus of trade extending the length and breadth of the Mediterranean and beyond - Fustat and not Alexandria, which was entirely dependent on the former in economic matters. When a load of cargo was shipped overseas, the customs duties had first to be paid in Fustat. To buy Mediterranean products imported through Alexandria, one had to go to Fustat." [177] Mahdiyya, in Tunisia had "a sophisticated harbor" for the Fatimid navy and Mediterranean merchants.[178]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ Gold for currency mined in Upper Egypt.[179] Access to gold mines in Upper Egypt and Nubia.[180]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ present ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Arabic was the main language. Persian, Turkic, Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin also "spoken and studied". [181]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Arabic was the main language. Persian, Turkic, Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin also "spoken and studied". [182]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ The Qur'an.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Works on the laws of every religion. Works relating to the supernatural. [183] [184] "In the ninth century Ismailism appeared in the form of a secret revolutionary organization, proselytizing intensely and sending its da'i (propagandists) into every part of the Muslim world."[185]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Grammar and lexicography. [186]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ History books. Tabari's "History." Royal biographies. [187] Chroniclers rather than historians: Ibn Zulak (d. 996 CE); al-Musabbili (d. 1029 CE); Ibn al-Sayrafi (d. 1147 CE); al-Qudai (d. 1062 CE).[188] History of Christian monasteries by Al-Shabushti (d. 1008). History of the patriarchs by the Coptic bishop Severus b. al-Muqaffa (d. c.1000 CE).[189] Court historians e.g. Musabbihi.[190]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ [191] Under the Fatimids scholars made Cairo "the global centre of Arabic letters and learning. Cairo was likewise the seat ot the religious establishment, of sophisticated, learned, juridical and philosophical Islam. Its al-Azhar mosque was the premier university of the Islamic world."[192]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Essays on astronomy. Alchemical research. [193] Astronomical tables called Hakimi Zij[194] of Ali b. Yunus (d. 1009 CE). Optical studies of mathematician and physicist Ibn al-Haytham (d. 1039 CE). Medcine flourished, co-written "medical-philosophical polemic" of Ibn Ridwan (d. 1061 CE) and Ibn Butlan (d. 1066 CE). [195]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Traditional lore. [196] Caliphs supported poets, writers and scholars but output lower compared to works from Syria, Iraq and Spain during this period. [197] "Poets were employed by the state to fill the role of modern-day public relations agents."[198]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Example of products traded at the Market of the Lamps included tortoise shell caskets, crystals and ivory.[199] State workshops called tiraz and private factories produced high-quality linen. Frantz-Murphy (1981) argued linen was used as a store of value and asset and that elites grew their own flax.[200]
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ Example of products traded at the Market of the Lamps included crystals and ivory[201] and since these were wealthy markets we can imagine trade items probably also included gold and silver.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ [present; absent] ♥ coded present for previous period.
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ dinars. 220,000 dinars was about 1 ton of refined gold. [202] The value of their gold coinage "remained constant for almost two centuries." [203] Gold dinar from al-Mu'izz who replaced the Ikhshidid currency.[204] In medieval Islamic world dinars generally made of gold, dirhams of silver and fals of bronze or other base metal.[205]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ a 'ḥamā'mi' referred to those who trained "despatcher of carrier pigeons and letters from one town to another" in Iraq, Egypt and Syria: 9th, 10th 11th CE. [206]. “In the tenth century a commercial network came to exist alongside this state-run system, or at least its emergence is documented for the tenth century and especially for the Fatimid period, when merchants came to play an organized role in transmitting messages…Subsumed under this discussion is an examination of the postal systems in the parallel dynasties such as the tenth- and eleventh-century Fatimids in Egypt—who raised the use of pigeons to a whole new level” [207].
♠ Postal stations ♣ [present; absent] ♥ coded present for previous period because of inheritance from Abbasid Caliphate. “In the tenth century a commercial network came to exist alongside this state-run system, or at least its emergence is documented for the tenth century and especially for the Fatimid period, when merchants came to play an organized role in transmitting messages…Subsumed under this discussion is an examination of the postal systems in the parallel dynasties such as the tenth- and eleventh-century Fatimids in Egypt—who raised the use of pigeons to a whole new level” [208].
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred present ♥ a 'hamami' was a "despatcher of carrier pigeons and letters from one town to another" in Iraq, Egypt and Syria: 9th, 10th 11th CE. [209]. “In the tenth century a commercial network came to exist alongside this state-run system, or at least its emergence is documented for the tenth century and especially for the Fatimid period, when merchants came to play an organized role in transmitting messages…Subsumed under this discussion is an examination of the postal systems in the parallel dynasties such as the tenth- and eleventh-century Fatimids in Egypt—who raised the use of pigeons to a whole new level” [210].

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ however, iron and steel primarily used in military matters
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ however, iron and steel primarily used in military matters
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ Fatimid cavalry abandoned the javelin in the late 11th century.[211] Daylam infantry carried the javelin.[212]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ new world weapon
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ "10th-century Berber forces, though they did not abandon the massed use of infantry slingers against enemy horses, had adopted spear-armed Arab cavalry styles, while of foot many of them used Arab bows."[213] The Fatimid arsenals contained slings.[214]
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Kurdish archers. [215]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Kurdish archers. [216]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ At late 11th Century, an elite unit of c500 marines used light hand-held crossbows. [217]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ Fatimid warships used Greek Fire and were "equipped with war machines such as the dabbabas and manganiqs (catapults).[218]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ First known use of the counter-weight trebuchet was in 1165 CE by the Byzantines at the siege of Zevgminon.[219]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ "The mace would seem to have been characteristically Arab, for it was not recorded among those Berbers who bore the brunt of Fatimid expansionist wars in the 10th century."[220] The Fatimid arsenals contained two-handed maces.[221] "While the styles of weapons varied according to region and time period, the warriors of the Crusader era generally employed many of the same types of weapons used during the first Islamic centuries - coasts of mail, helmets, shields, swords, spears, lances, knives, iron maces, lassos, bows, arrows, and naft (or Greek fire)."[222]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Knives existed as weapons.[223] "While the styles of weapons varied according to region and time period, the warriors of the Crusader era generally employed many of the same types of weapons used during the first Islamic centuries - coasts of mail, helmets, shields, swords, spears, lances, knives, iron maces, lassos, bows, arrows, and naft (or Greek fire)."[224]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Swords.[225] "While the styles of weapons varied according to region and time period, the warriors of the Crusader era generally employed many of the same types of weapons used during the first Islamic centuries - coasts of mail, helmets, shields, swords, spears, lances, knives, iron maces, lassos, bows, arrows, and naft (or Greek fire)."[226]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Lances and swords used by Masamida Berbers.[227] The Fatimid arsenals contained lances and spears.[228] "While the styles of weapons varied according to region and time period, the warriors of the Crusader era generally employed many of the same types of weapons used during the first Islamic centuries - coasts of mail, helmets, shields, swords, spears, lances, knives, iron maces, lassos, bows, arrows, and naft (or Greek fire)."[229]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ The Fatimid arsenals contained pikes.[230]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ Mules and she mules were riding animals.[231]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Cavalry was equipped similar to the Byzantines of this era.[232]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ [233]
♠ Elephants ♣ unknown ♥ Soldiers on Elephants took part in military parades.[234]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ jubbah quilted armor. [235]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Huge leather lamt, a Berber shield that originated in southern Morocco/Western Sahara. [236] The Fatimid arsenals contained shields.[237] "While the styles of weapons varied according to region and time period, the warriors of the Crusader era generally employed many of the same types of weapons used during the first Islamic centuries - coasts of mail, helmets, shields, swords, spears, lances, knives, iron maces, lassos, bows, arrows, and naft (or Greek fire)."[238]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Khudh (heavy). Baydah (light).[239] At a ceremonial occasion the Caliph al-Mu'izz was "surrounded by his four armored and helmeted sons".[240] "While the styles of weapons varied according to region and time period, the warriors of the Crusader era generally employed many of the same types of weapons used during the first Islamic centuries - coasts of mail, helmets, shields, swords, spears, lances, knives, iron maces, lassos, bows, arrows, and naft (or Greek fire)."[241]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred absent♥ The Fatimid arsenals contained "the full range of medieval military technology such as mail, scale armor, horse armor, helmets, shields, pikes, lances, spears, javelins, swords, two-handed maces, slings, bows, and crossbows.[242]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Not common. Specialist troops (e.g flag bearer) wore leather gauntlets.[243]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Mail hauberk.[244] "in 991 AD Egypt's heavy cavalry was described as wearing hauberks and helmets and riding armoured horses. Half a century later all the elite cavalry appearing on parade were so protected although, of course, one may assume that the remainder were not so well equipped."[245] "While the styles of weapons varied according to region and time period, the warriors of the Crusader era generally employed many of the same types of weapons used during the first Islamic centuries - coasts of mail, helmets, shields, swords, spears, lances, knives, iron maces, lassos, bows, arrows, and naft (or Greek fire)."[246]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ The Fatimid arsenals contained "the full range of medieval military technology such as mail, scale armor, horse armor, helmets, shields, pikes, lances, spears, javelins, swords, two-handed maces, slings, bows, and crossbows.[247]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ The Fatimid arsenals contained "the full range of medieval military technology such as mail, scale armor, horse armor, helmets, shields, pikes, lances, spears, javelins, swords, two-handed maces, slings, bows, and crossbows.[248]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ The Fatimid arsenals contained "the full range of medieval military technology such as mail, scale armor, horse armor, helmets, shields, pikes, lances, spears, javelins, swords, two-handed maces, slings, bows, and crossbows.[249]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ Fleet of warships on the Nile burned in 996 CE. [250] Fatimids were "naval-minded" and had a strong navy which controlled the sea routes of the Red Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean, and the island of Sicily. [251] Chinese stern-rudders added during 11th Century. [252] Sailors from Sicily and Libya. Naval troops were Arab and Bedouin. Elite "black" marines who were either African or Zawila Saharan.[253]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Soon after its founding in 969 CE the ramparts were constructed around al-Qahira city out of sun-dried bricks (labin). However this wall had gone by 1050 CE. [254]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ A trench was dug in front of the north wall of Cairo "to protect the city from Qarmat attacks." [255] Dry moat called Khandaq. [256]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Second wall built around al-Qahira between 1087-1092 CE. This one had stone gates. [257]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ Cairo settlement began as an "encampment" built by a general. The walls were built before the mosque and the palace "which seems to have been something of an afterthought." "Cairo was founded to be a temporary way-station for the Fatimids' conquest of the Muslim lands in their entirety."[258] Mahdiyya in Tunisia had an 8.3 meters thick wall and 110 towers on its ramparts.[259]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Fortified towers. [260]
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward Turner; Jill Levine ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ absent: 909-969 CE; present: 970-1072 CE; absent: 1073-1121 CE; present: 1122-1171 CE ♥ The court based government was the legislature so there was no legislature to constrain the executive. The imam-caliph had de jure unconstrained judicial power too but from the Egyptian period onwards the non-Ismaili judiciary effectively constrained the executive from imposing an ismaili state, increasingly so towards the end of the 11th CE, most likely by withholding cooperation. "While the Fatimids maintained their large propaganda mission (da'wa) in other parts of the Islamic world, they do not seem to have emphasized their da'wa in Egypt."[261] "Judges (called qadis) from the Fatimid as well as Sunni denominations were appointed to uphold sharia law."[262] By the end of the 11th CE the chief judge did not have to follow Ismaili law. At that time the judicial constraint that already existed was most obvious as it became manifest in the religion of the highest judicial office holder. "After the middle of the eleventh century, even the chief judge of the Fatimid state did not have to be an Ismaili. For a time, these non-Ismaili judges were constrained to follow Ismaili law, but by the end of the eleventh century there is evidence to suggest that this was no longer the case."[263] By the end of the 11th CE, however, the executive was now de facto property of the vizierate and became a secular institution (the viziers could be Christian or Jewish) when under Badr al-Jamaili the vizier took the top judicial post and the title "Guarantor of the Judges of Muslims and Guide of the Missionaries of the Believers". For this reason the period of dictatorial rule of the vizierate under Badr al-Jamaili and his son al-Afdal should be considered one when the judiciary - which was at this time also the powerful executive - was not constrained by the judiciary. Badr al-Jamaili was "a virtual dictator" although "his rank remained that of a wazir, and he was always theoretically subservient to the imam-caliph."[264] Badr's son al-Afdal was murdered in 1121 CE but he had "exercised the same iron-fisted control over the government as had the father."[265] "Alexandria along with Fustat ... the only cities in Egypt with their own budget and chief judge."[266]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ present ♥ Cooperation could be withheld by a powerful harem which had to deal with viziers. Foreign merchants had their own docks at Alexandria. "Concubines of Fatimid caliphs are known to have exercised power and influence on behalf of their sons, such as the mother of al-Mustansir (1036-94)."[267] Foreign merchants: "Still others were ships that plied the waters of the Mediterranean Sea and had sailed down the Nile to offload their goods and passengers - pilgrims, traders, artisans, Muslims, Christians, and Jews - from throughout the Mediterranean world. Some of these Mediterranean ships flew Muslim flags; others flew Byzantine, Genoese, Venetian, and Frankish flags. Clearly, political sensibilities were not to interfere with business in Fatimid Egypt."[268] Family: "The quarrel over the succession of al-Mustansir ... may have been for some of the participants primarily a matter of political intrigue and of contending interests, a struggle for power between a dictatorial minister and a prince ousted by him; but for many the question who was the rightful Imam, al-Musta'li or Nizar, must have been one of paramount religious concern."[269]
♠ Impeachment ♣ absent ♥ "A striking feature of the Fatimid dynasty is an uninterrupted father-to-son succession (also a requirement of their religious doctrine), from Mahdi to Amir - 10 imam-caliphs - for over 200 years."[270] It also is unlikely that there existed any mechanism to impeach a powerful vizier.

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ The Fatimid vizier al-Afdal was "the son and successor to the vizir Badr al-Jamali." [271] For the position of the Imam it was "not so much the person of the claimant that weighed with his followers; they were not moved by any superior merits of Nizar as a ruler (this is, of course, obvious in the case of the infant al-Tayyib) - it was the divine right personified in the legitimate heir that counted."[272] "Evidence from the Maghrib and from much later in Egypt suggest that various members of the same family frequently held posts in the judiciary either from one generation to the next or simultaneously."[273]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [274]

For the position of the Imam it was "not so much the person of the claimant that weighed with his followers; they were not moved by any superior merits of Nizar as a ruler (this is, of course, obvious in the case of the infant al-Tayyib) - it was the divine right personified in the legitimate heir that counted."[275]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent: 909-1016 CE; [absent; present]: 1017-1020 CE; absent: 1021-1171 CE ♥ The al-Darazi movement which from 1017 CE proclaimed caliph al-Hakim's divinity - and may or may not have been encouraged by al-Hakim - shows such ideas were seriously considered and had to be refuted. A chief da'i under al-Hakim refuted the doctrine, in 1014-1015 had said al-Hakim "was the sole legitimate imam of the time who, like his predecessors, was divinely appointed though not divine himself" p.197[1] and in 1017 "repudiated the ideas that the resurrection (qiyama) had occurred with the appearance of al-Hakim and that the era of Islam had ended."

Some authors describe al-Hakim as making an announcement himself: "In 1016, al-Hakim announced himself as the incarnation of God."[276]

The al-Darazi movement which from 1017 CE proclaimed caliph al-Hakim's divinity - may or may not have been encouraged by al-Hakim - shows such ideas were seriously considered and had to be refuted. A chief da'i under al-Hakim refuted the doctrine, in 1014-1015 had said al-Hakim "was the sole legitimate imam of the time who, like his predecessors, was divinely appointed though not divine himself" p.197[2] and in 1017 "repudiated the ideas that the resurrection (qiyama) had occurred with the appearance of al-Hakim and that the era of Islam had ended."

Islam is monotheistic [277] However "Al-Hakim's seemingly irrational behaviour came to be seen by many as a sign of questionable sanity and yet it would appear to others as a sign of his supernatural powers. In 408/1017, activists preached belief in al-Hakim's divinity, a move that mobilised the da'wa leadership to counteract the spreading of such doctrines. Known as the Druzes, after their founder, al-Darzi, the movement experienced persecution at the hands of al-Hakim's son and successor, al-Zahir (d. 427/1036) and, once banished from Egypt, its members resettled in Syria and Lebanon, where small communities exist to this day."[278]

In Fatimid shi'a islam the caliph claimed to be the Mahdi who has the ability to rid the world of oppression and injustice. The Ismaili Qarmatian Ibn al-Fadl "claimed the mahdi-ship for himself" as also did Abu Sa'id al-Jannabi in Bahrayn. "But while Ibn al-Fadl's venture ended with his death ... the Qarmatians of Bahrayn ... 930 ... snatched the Black Stone from the Ka'ba in Makka and, second, the following year they announced the appearance of the 'god incarnate' in the figure of a certain Abu al-Fadl."[279]

"In time, one faction succeeded in polarising ideas and energies towards the belief that Isma'il's son and successor, Muhammad, had not actually died but, rather, had gone into physical and spiritual occultation (ghayba) as a safety measure to escape from his opponents. Muhammad's followers awaited his return as a messianic figure (al-mahdi) who, one day, would usher an era of freedom and justice. While waiting, they developed the belief in the existence of a line of hidden imams who, though concealed, would exercise on his behalf both spiritual and secular authority. "[280] End ninth century cells in west Persia, south Iraq. da'is (missionaries, propagandists) under an 'Abd Allah the Elder, by tradition a hidden imam, based in Salamiyya, Syria. da'i Hamdan Qarmat and 'Abdan very successful and founded the Qarmatians who were based in Kufa 890 CE. They sent missionaries to Bahrayn and Yemen. Yemen missionary sent operative to preach among Kutama Berbers in North Africa. [281] Another 'Abd Allah gained leadership of the da'wa and claimed the imanate but not all the da'is accepted this. In 903 CE 'Abd Allah forced to flee Syria for North Africa where a loyal da'is had established a propaganda network.[282] In 903 CE the da'is for North Africa began conquest of Ifriqiya. In 904 CE 'Abd Allah went to Egypt where a propaganda network existed but fled to Sijilmasa in 905 CE.[283] "909 Abu 'Abd Allah and the Kutama took Sijilmasa. Initially, 'Abd Allah was acclaimed as caliph and towards the end of the year, upon arriving in Raqqada, 'Abd Allah's mahdi-ship was publicly announced and he was welcomed as ruler. 'Abd Allah al-Mahdi (henceforth al-Mahdi) became the first of a dynasty of imam-caliphs."[284]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[285]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[286]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[287]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [288] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [289]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [290]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [291] [292] [293]

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